Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


41st Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2015

Program by Day for Tuesday, May 26, 2015

Manage My Personal Schedule


Paper Session #83
Advances in the Analysis of Everyday Behavior
Saturday, May 23, 2015
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
007C (CC)
Area: TPC
Keyword(s): Behavior
Chair: Michael C. Clayton (Missouri State University)
Distracted Driving: Naturalistically Reconsidered
Domain: Theory
MICHAEL C. CLAYTON (Missouri State University)
Abstract: Distracted driving is an acknowledged problem (3,092 Americans killed in 2010) that contributes to the deadliness of our highways and is comparably worse than drunk driving. Driving while intoxicated reduces reaction time by 35% while distracted driving results in a 91% decrease. Distracted driving includes talking on the cell phone, texting, and attending to electronic devices included with the automobile. Hands-free devices do not mitigate the problem and remain just as dangerous (4x more likely to have a crash causing injury), while talking to a passenger or listening to the radio does not increase the likelihood of an accident significantly. This phenomenon is interesting in its own right, but also presents a challenge for more behaviorally oriented viewpoints. What is it about talking to someone on the phone that distracts us so much? Drivers continue to have their eyes on the road, why does reaction time become impaired? Cognitive psychologists are well equipped to describe the phenomena and its theorized causes but a behavioral analysis of distracted driving has not yet been put forth. This is problematic because a robust philosophy of science like radical behaviorism must be able to stand toe-to-toe with other systems when it comes to complex human behavior. Skinner’s radical behaviorism provides the conceptual tools to describe distraction, as does Kantor’s interbehaviorism. The current paper attempts a thoroughgoing analysis of distraction using the conceptual tools of radical behaviorism and interbehaviorism and compares the two, while contrasting these behavioral analyses to that provided by cognitive psychology.
Behavioral Contingency Analysis of Motor-Skill Behavior
Domain: Theory
PARSLA VINTERE (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: Because movement is a function of a combination of processes and restrictions both in the organism and the environment it is diverse in its form and function across motor skill performers. The most noticeable difference is in the topography of motor-skill behavior, which has been studied the most by various disciplines. Movement by itself is rarely a central focus of the field of behavior analysis but behavioral contingencies that are influencing and sustaining movement are. Motor-skill behavior is a function of multiple contingencies, such as time, external events and ongoing behavioral processes and it needs to be examined by using a nonlinear approach to analysis of behavior. The purpose of this paper is to examine the motor-skill practice situations and contingencies associated with them. Two practice situations, skilled performance and therapeutic exercise practice, are examined. Similarities and differences of the two practice situation contingencies are discussed. The benefits of applying this kind of analysis in coaching and therapy are discussed.
Keyword(s): Behavior
Paper Session #319
A Comparison of the Effects of Sensory-Integration Therapy and Behavioral Intervention on Challenging Behaviour
Monday, May 25, 2015
10:00 AM–10:20 AM
Grand Ballroom C2 (CC)
Area: AUT
Chair: Helena Lydon (Behavior Analysis in Ireland)

A Comparison of the Effects of Sensory-Integration Therapy and Behavioural Intervention on Challenging Behaviour

Domain: Applied Research
HELENA LYDON (National University of Ireland, Galway), Olive Healy (Trinity College Dublin)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder and presents as a complex and often puzzling category of conditions. This research evaluates Sensory Integration Therapy (SIT), one of the most popular non-validated treatments for ASD, by comparing the effectiveness to Behavioural Intervention (BI) in altering challenging behaviour. Two studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of SIT and BI on challenging behaviour maintained by environmental variables and automatic reinforcement. Study 1 used an AB counterbalanced group design across 10 participants to compare SIT and BI on behaviours maintained by various functions. Study 2 used a multiple baseline across participants to compare the effects of SIT and Sensory Integration techniques delivered within a behavioural intervention package. The outcome of Study 1found that SIT was not effective at reducing behaviours maintained by environmental variables (e.g., escape from demand, access to tangibles and attention). In contrast, the findings for Study 2 suggest that SIT was somewhat effective in reducing behaviours maintained by automatic reinforcement, and the Sensory Integration techniques were more effective when delivered within the framework of a Behavioural Intervention package.

Business Meeting #436
Education and Treatment of Children Editorial Review Board
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
006A (CC)
Chair: Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University)
Presenting Authors:
We invite all those on the Education and Treatment of Children Editorial Review Board, as well as those interested in becoming involved to attend. We will be discussing policies and initiatives that strengthen and maintain the journal. Data on manuscript flow and subscriptions will be presented and discussed.
Keyword(s): Editoral Board, Education treatment
Business Meeting #437
Behavioral Gerontology Special Interest Group
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
006C (CC)
Chair: Jonathan C. Baker (Southern Illinois University)
Presenting Authors:
The SIG provides intellectual, clinical, and organizational support to other professionals interested in aging and fosters behavior analytic research in aging. The goal of this year's meeting is to discuss issues in the field as well as issues of professional development. In addition, members will provide student presentations on aging feedback, which will be used to award the student researcher award. Finally, new officers will be chosen for any vacated positions in the special interest group.
Keyword(s): aging, geriatric, gerontology, older adults
Business Meeting #438
ABAI Education Board
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
007D (CC)
Chair: Jennifer L. Austin (University of South Wales)
Presenting Authors:
This meeting is open to anyone interested in the work of the ABAI Education Board. The ABAI Executive Council has charged the Education Board with two primary tasks. The first is to encourage undergraduate and graduate programs in behavior analysis to pursue ABAI accreditation, and to provide assistance to these programs as needed to achieve this goal. The second charge to the Education Board has been to prepare an application for recognition of the ABAI accreditation system by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation. The meeting will address these issues as well as other matters of interest or concern to the membership.
Keyword(s): accreditation, education board, training programs
Panel #440
CE Offered: BACB
Treating Private Events as Behaviors: Does Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Have a Place in Traditional Behavior Analysis?
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Texas Ballroom Salon C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CBM/VRB; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: John O'Neill, Ph.D.
Chair: Sunni Primeaux (Southern Illinois University Carbondale)
STEVEN GORDON (Behavior Therapy Associates)
JUSTIN JAMES DAIGLE (Therapy Center of Acadiana)
JOHN O'NEILL (Southern Illinois University Carbondale)

Although Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) promotes itself as being a type of clinical behavior analysis and as having its origins in behavior analysis, many professionals are skeptical of this or are unsure how to incorporate ACT in their traditional behavior analysis practices. A common concern amongst Behavior Analysts is how to know when doing work from an ACT perspective if one is operating within the scope of their practice. What are the conceptual boundaries? Are there some aspects that can be merged but not others? This panel will serve as a “Part II” to a panel discussion that took place at the ABAI 2014 Annual Convention, and will consist of a range of professionals with varying opinions on this issue. The goal of this panel is to facilitate a discussion that will include the pros and cons of each position in hopes to gain insight and answers into these very common questions.

Keyword(s): ABA, ACT
Panel #441
PDS EVENT: Let's Get Fit With Behavior Analysis: An Introduction to Health Research in Behavior Analysis
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
204B (CC)
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Alexis Waldin (St. Cloud State University)
GREGORY J. MADDEN (Utah State University)
MATTHEW P. NORMAND (University of the Pacific)
ALLISON KURTI (University of Vermont-Vermont Center on Behavior and Health)

In recent years, many behavior analysts have been making concerted efforts to expand the variety of areas in which we practice and conduct research. This has led to an increase of research in a variety of socially-significant areas, including the health and wellness field. Some of the research in this area has included a.) increasing the amount of physical activity in which an individual engages, b.) increasing healthy food choices over non-healthy food choices, and c.) decreasing unhealthy behaviors such as smoking or other addictive habits. Behavior analysts have been extremely effective and valuable in their efforts in these areas; however, unless students are directly associated with the professors conducting research in this area, they are unlikely to be aware of the significant impact behavior analysts have made to the health and wellness field. To assist in the ongoing encouragement of behavior analysts to pursue a variety of socially-significant areas, this panel will highlight and discuss the research opportunities and possible clinical-career opportunities for behavior analysts in the health and wellness field.

Keyword(s): Eating Habits, Health, Physical Activity, Smoking Cessation
Panel #442
PDS EVENT: Creating a Culture of Caring and Sustainable Behavior at Your University
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
204A (CC)
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Stephanie Holder (University of North Texas)
RICHARD G. SMITH (University of North Texas)
E. SCOTT GELLER (Virginia Tech)
CRISS WILHITE (California State University, Fresno)

How can you use your behavior-analytic training to create a culture of caring and sustainable behavior at your university? By collaborating across disciplines, we can create an environment where people work together to solve the world's toughest problems. Two years ago, prominent figures from behavior analysis and an array of other fields came together at an ABAI-sponsored conference to work together to integrate behavioral and other approaches to creating a more sustainable and caring culture. As a field, behavior analysis can take a leading role in such efforts, and grass-roots programs within university training programs can serve as a springboard from which tomorrow's leaders can develop their skills and expertise. The panelists in this discussion will discuss their experiences developing programs to bring a behavior analytic approach to efforts to increase sustainability and promote active caring within their university communities. Each panelist will share barriers, solutions, and successes in starting and maintaining student-centered programs of this type at their universities.

Keyword(s): Actively Caring, Sustainability, University Engagement
Symposium #443
School-based interventions: Embedding and evaluating evidence-based approaches in UK schools
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
212AB (CC)
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Janet Elizabeth Whiley (TreeHouse School)

This symposium will comprise three talks on the topic of school-based interventions, with a common theme of integrating effective, evidence-based practices within UK educational contexts. The first talk in this symposium will discuss the implementation and evaluation of an ABA-based comprehensive model within an autism-specific school; the second talk will present data from a pilot study using an evidence-based reading program (Headsprout Early Reading) within an autism-specific school; and the third will present data on a number of studies exploring the use of Headsprout Early Reading with typically developing children in mainstream school settings, and with children with an intellectual disability in special school settings. This talk will discuss some of the implications for disseminating effective practices, and some of the challenges in scaling up delivery of the intervention whilst ensuring high quality, effective implementation.

Keyword(s): autism, education, reading

Translating evidence based practice into a comprehensive educational model within a UK-based autism specific school achieving and sustaining progress

JANET ELIZABETH WHILEY (TreeHouse School), Katy Lee (Ambitious about Autism), Richard P. Hastings (University of Warwick ), Emma F. Douglas-Cobane (n/a), Andrew Swartfigure (Ambitious About Autism), Esther Thomas (TreeHouse School), Gemma Griffith (Bangor University)

Research evaluations of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA)-based interventions for children with autism demonstrate positive outcomes. However, little research has focused on the translation of these evidence-based interventions into service delivery models within existing education systems. In the present paper, we provide a brief description of the comprehensive ABA-based educational model used within TreeHouse School, London, UK. In addition, we analyse progress data over 12 months for learners attending the school. Fifty-three students with autism were tested and then re-tested with the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS-R), and for 23 students a repeated Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) assessment was available. Repeated measures t tests revealed statistically significant improvements over time on all ABLLS domains and for all VABS scores. These data provide preliminary evidence that an ABA-based educational model can be integrated into the UK system and produce positive outcomes for children.

Using Headsprout Early Reading with children Autism
ANDREW SWARTFIGURE (Ambitious About Autism), J. Carl Hughes (Bangor University)
Abstract: HeadSprout® reading basics are an internet based approach of explicit instruction in phonetic awareness, phonics and a strategy for sounding out words. Five male Participants with autism spectrum disorder were identified as being ready to learn to read using HeadSprout®. A pre and post-test design was implemented using two standardised tests, DIBELS and WRaPS. An additional test using the flash cards provided by HeadSprout® was administered and National Curriculum level reading scores taken. Follow up tests were conducted four weeks after cessation of the HeadSprout® programme. Results are discussed in the context of using HeadSprout® with children with autism spectrum disorder and the challenges and benefits of using this medium for teaching reading. Further data a year on from cessation is discussed and an additional follow up test using the WRaPS age equivalence two years after cessation is also presented.
Evaluating and disseminating effective reading instruction in mainstream and special school contexts.
EMILY TYLER (Bangor University), J. Carl Hughes (Bangor University), Richard P. Hastings (University of Warwick ), Amy Hulson-Jones (Bangor Univeristy), Michael Beverley (Bangor University), Bethan Williams (Bangor University/Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board)
Abstract: Many children have difficulties learning to read. In Wales (UK), 40% of children in mainstream schools were recently reported to be more than 6 months below their chronological reading age by the age of 11. For children in special schools in the UK (many of whom have an intellectual disability), there is a dearth of information on reading outcomes. However, the data that are available demonstrate very minimal progress for most children with an intellectual disability in this important skill. Over the past few years, we have conducted a number of research projects in mainstream and special school contexts to evaluate an online, computer-based reading program (Headsprout Early Reading). The results across these studies indicate encouraging outcomes for many children. This talk will discuss these outcomes, the implications for dissemination of effective practices in the UK, the challenges of scaling up whilst ensuring high quality implementation, and the next steps for further evaluation in different populations.
Paper Session #445
Using OBM to Increase Student Retention in Higher Education
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
201 (CC)
Area: OBM
Keyword(s): Retention
Chair: Douglas Robertson (Florida International University)
Shaping Organizational Systems and Individual Behavior at a Large Metropolitan Research University
Domain: Service Delivery
DOUGLAS ROBERTSON (Florida International University), Martha Pelaez (Florida International University)
Abstract: Retention and on-time graduation have become key metrics for various university constituents and are now typically an important part of performance-based funding and institutional rating systems. Supporting undergraduate student success is not only the right thing to do, but it has become critical to universities' base budgets, particularly public universities. This paper presents a discussion of a national award winning, university-wide set of systemic interventions, called the Graduation Success Initiative (GSI). The GSI transforms the administration of the undergraduate curriculum and reorients the university toward undergraduate student success at a large, public metropolitan, research university in Miami, Florida (Florida International University; enrollment, 55,000, fifth largest in the United States). The GSIs systemic interventions are complex and extensive and have produced a 12 point increase in on-time graduation in its first 3 years, a spectacular turnaround from the institutions historical low to its historical high. The GSIs interventions and effects cannot be presented adequately in a single paper, and we are presenting a series of papers that focus on different organizational elements in the complex set of interventions. In previous papers, we have concentrated on systems of reinforcing contingencies that shape the behavior of individual students and of executive leadership (presidents, provosts, deans, assistant deans). In this paper, we concentrate on another key systemic element in the interventions--the advisors. In addition, we summarize GSIs Phase II that focuses on point four of GSIs simple, scalable, and replicable four-point framework: (a) help students to identify an appropriate goal, early; (b) provide a clear path to that goal; (c) give immediate feedback whether on or off that path; and (d) remove barriers and add supports on that path. We will briefly address the next GSI challenge of shaping the teaching behavior of faculty in 17 high-enrollment, high-failure, high-impact gateway courses that produce over 41,000 enrollments and represent a significant barrier in the students path toward their goalon-time graduation in their appropriate major.
Complex Systems in Higher Education
Domain: Theory
LARS INGE HALVORSEN (Oslo and Akershus University College), Ingunn Sandaker (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sc)
Abstract: Abstract Higher education today faces several challenges, one of them is retention. 45-67 percent of bachelor students currently attending the average higher education institutions in Norway and the USA finish their education within a 5 year period (SSB, 2013; ACT, formerly American College Testing, 2014). Complex systems theory may help solve some of the challenges these institutions face today. Examining the different processes in higher education we can start to explore where the challenges lie, this seen in the light of the increasing complexity of society. One way to explore this is by demonstrating how selection of academic behavior may increase as a function of the interplay between basic leaning principles and increasing the possible number of interactions in the classroom. By doing this our findings indicate an increase in performance, interaction and quality in the educational setting and at the same time creating a social environment that strengthens the bonds between students.
Keyword(s): Retention
Panel #446
PDS EVENT: Behavioral Economics Research and Applications
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
207A (CC)
Domain: Applied Research
Chair: James Allen Chastain (Florida Institute of Technology)
LEONARD GREEN (Washington University)
OLIVER WIRTH (The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
WARREN K. BICKEL (Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute and Department of Psychology, Virginia Tech)

Three presentations about behavioral economics will be given in this panel discussion. These presentations will include discussions about behavioral economic research and its implications to the applied domain of behavior analysis.

Symposium #448
CE Offered: BACB
Food Selectivity: Four Unique Applications for Increasing Food Repertoire in Children With Autism
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
9:00 AM–10:50 AM
217B (CC)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Sara M. Weinkauf (Easter Seals North Texas)
Discussant: Sara M. Weinkauf (Easter Seals North Texas)
CE Instructor: Tyla M. Frewing, M.A.

Food selectivity is comprised of food refusal, limited food repertoire, and high frequency single food intake (Bandini et al., 2010). Food selectivity has an estimated prevalence as high as 85% in children with autism, often leading to nutritional deficiencies (Ahearn et al., 2001). Many behavior analytic approaches to treating food selectivity in children with ASD use escape extinction techniques. (Bachmeyer et al., 2009, Paul et al., 2007, Piazza et al., 2003). The present symposium will include a study in which the effectiveness of escape extinction and application of the Premack principle in treating food selectivity in two males with ASD was evaluated. Two additional projects evaluated the effectiveness of hierarchal exposure to foods and systematic desensitization using a 12-step food hierarchy in three additional participants. The final presentation involves a constructional approach to addressing food selectivity. Over fifteen children increased sampling of diverse foods through combinations of increased access, social consequences, and directly shaping approach to foods. Expanded food repertoires were observed in each of the four studies in the symposium. Considerations when selecting treatment procedures and implications for future research will be discussed.

Keyword(s): autism, desensitization, escape extinction, food selectivity
Food Selectivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: a Non-Aversive Treatment Package
AMY E. TANNER (Monarch House Autism Centre), Bianca E Andreone (Monarch House Autism Centre)
Abstract: Food selectivity or picky eating is often seen in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and can lead to severe nutritional deficiencies along with various food refusal behaviours. Food selectivity can be specific to food texture, colour, shape, presentation, type, brand, or container. Often food selectivity is treated using escape extinction, which is considered an aversive procedure. A preference assessment and parent interview determined the child’s food repertoire consisted of 4 different foods in total (beefaroni, fish crackers, dry cereal, and yogurt) and the child was selective by brand and texture. A treatment package involving non-aversive procedures included shaping, systematic desensitization, paired choice, and a 12-step food hierarchy was then implemented. After 9 months of treatment, the child’s food repertoire increased from 4 items to more than 50 items, and the child is readily accepting more than 10 different dinnertime meals. Additionally, food refusal behaviour decreased to rates of 0 during intervention and significantly decreased during meal times at home. The importance of a non-aversive, interdisciplinary approach for treating food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorder will be highlighted.
Yummy Starts: A guide for clinicians and supporting data for a constructional approach to food selectivity
JOSEPH H. CIHON (University of North Texas), Sara M. Weinkauf (Easter Seals North Texas), Blanca Mendoza (University of North Texas), Nicole Zeug (Positive Behavioral Connections, Inc.), Julia Ferguson (University of North Texas), Shahla Susan Ala'i-Rosales (UNT), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract: When confronted with a child exhibiting mealtime difficulties in the form of food selectivity, the clinician has two broad options to her/his approach to treatment: pathological or constructional. The pathological approach leads the clinician’s focus toward the elimination of the problem (i.e., diminishing repertoires) through a variety of means, which typically include escape extinction techniques (Goldiamond, 1974). Alternatively, the constructional approach leads the clinician’s focus toward the direct development of desirable alternatives (i.e., developing repertoires) rather than an indirect side effect of an eliminative procedure (Goldiamond, 1974). Shaping offers a promising alternative to the use of eliminative procedures. Utilizing shaping allows the clinician to directly extend social repertoires within the desired context without developing unwanted distress and discomfort for the child. The present paper presents the clinician with a guide and supporting data in utilizing a constructional approach through the use of shaping when addressing food selectivity in children with autism.
Increasing Food Acceptance using Hierarchal Exposure
CLAIRE E. EGAN (Semiahmoo Behaviour Analysts Inc. ), Leanne Schiedel (St. Cloud University)
Abstract: The current experiment evaluated the effects of ‘hierarchical exposure’ on the food acceptance of two participants diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. During baseline, the target food was placed on a spoon and presented to the participant. If the food was refused, the spoon was removed and 1:1 instruction in individualized programming commenced. In the treatment phase, a brief preference assessment was conducted prior to the presentation of a target food. Once a reinforcer was identified, the experimenter presented a verbal contingency for food acceptance (e.g., ‘First banana, then bubbles’). An instruction to respond to a target food was then presented according to a systematic hierarchical sequence. The hierarchy identified 12 food acceptance behaviours, starting with placement of an empty spoon to closed lips, and ending with consumption of a spoonful of the target food. The experimenter moved up one level in the hierarchy following 3 consecutive correct food acceptance behaviours at the target level. A reinforcer was delivered on a Fixed Ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement for food acceptance. Results showed that both participants consumed bites of the target foods following hierarchical exposure. A multiple probe design across foods will be used to further evaluate the effectiveness of this procedure.
The effects of the Premack principle and non-removal of the spoon on consumption of previously refused foods
TYLA M. FREWING (University of British Columbia), Leanne Schiedel (St. Cloud University), Claire E. Egan (Semiahmoo Behaviour Analysts Inc. )
Abstract: The effects of the Premack principle and non-removal of the spoon on consumption of previously refused foods was evaluated in two male participants diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. During treatment, a brief preference assessment was conducted immediately prior to each session to identify a highly preferred food. A small piece or spoonful of the target food was presented immediately in front of the participant’s mouth. Consumption of at least one small bite of the target food resulted in presentation of the highly preferred food. For participant 1, the target food was not removed until it was consumed, or 30s passed. If 30s passed, the high preference food item was removed and the procedure was implemented again after 15-20 minutes. For participant 2, the target food was not removed until it was consumed, or the 2-hour session elapsed. Preliminary data for participant 1 indicate an increasing trend to mastery (100% consumption) in percentage of bites consumed for two target foods. Participant 2 achieved mastery of the target food within experimental sessions. Further, target foods were successfully consumed during generalization probes with parents. The effectiveness of the procedure will be further evaluated for both participants using a multiple-probe design across additional foods.
Symposium #449
CE Offered: BACB
Inside Stories: Building a Flexible Sense of Self in the Face of Trauma and Discrimination
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
9:00 AM–10:50 AM
Texas Ballroom Salon B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Danielle Moyer (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Thomas G. Szabo (Florida Institute of Technology)
CE Instructor: Thomas G. Szabo, Ph.D.
Abstract: One area of interest to clinical behavior analysts is fusion to a conceptualized sense of self, particularly when it leads to ineffective behavior. A conceptualized sense of self develops from a history of verbal interactions with ourselves (Roche, Barnes-Holmes, Stewart, & O’Hora, 2002). Through this history of interactions, people learn to relate to themselves in a variety of ways. This can lead to ineffective behavior when the content of these interactions begins to dominate people’s experiences (Twohig, 2012). Rigidity, or fusion, to the conceptualized self can be particularly detrimental when the content of a person’s identity surrounds very traumatic experiences (Bernsten & Rubin, 2007). Stigma and discrimination can also lead to especially rigid conceptualizations due to the ongoing verbal interactions that occur as a result of being a member of a particular group (Roche et al., 2002). This symposium includes four papers that will focus on experiences of the self in relation to trauma and discrimination. Specific areas of interest include betrayal, obesity, gender and sexual orientation, and ethnicity. Developing a sense of self and perspective taking through derived relational responding and interventions for building a more flexible sense of self will also be discussed.
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Self-as-context, Self-stigma, Trauma
The Ultimate Selfie: Flexible perspectives of the self following betrayal trauma exposure
MELISSA L. CONNALLY (University of North Texas), Teresa Hulsey (University of North Texas), Daniel Steinberg (University of North Texas), Danielle Moyer (University of North Texas), Aditi Sinha (NYU School of Medicine World Trade Center Health P), Amy Murrell (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Although high betrayal trauma is more closely associated with dissociation than is low betrayal trauma, more research is needed to identify the psychological mechanisms that influence identity disturbances (Freyd, Klest & Allard, 2005; Goldsmith, Freyd, & DePrince, 2012; Tang & Freyd, 2012). Dissociation may result in disruptions of conceptualizing the self (Freyd, 1996). Self-complexity, the ability to understand the self as various and distinct roles, buffers the negative impact of life stressors (Linville, 1985; 1987). From an RFT perspective, high self-complexity may be thought of as a form of psychological flexibility with respect to the conceptualized self. However, the relationships among the three forms of self (self-as-content, self-as-process, self-as-context; Hayes, 1995) and self-complexity have not been explored in relation to betrayal trauma. A sample of 548 undergraduate students completed online self-report measures on betrayal trauma, self-complexity, self-as-context and self-as-process. Results suggest that self-as-context more strongly predicts self-complexity than self-as-process, [f2 = .06 (R2 change = .06, β = .24, p < .001)] accounting for 8.9% of the variance in self-complexity scores. Implications regarding conceptualizing the self after betrayal trauma exposure, and contributions to self-complexity as a form of psychological flexibility in relation to betrayal trauma, will be discussed.
An Exploration of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity-Related Self-Stigma Through the Lens of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
MAUREEN FLYNN (University of Texas - Pan American)
Abstract: Although acceptance of sexual and gender identity minorities is increasing in the United States, individuals in the LGBTQI community continue to experience negative attitudes from society. For example, only 60% of people in the United States believe society should accept homosexuality and 58% of LGBT individuals reported that they have been subject to slurs or jokes because of their sexual orientation or gender identity (Pew Research Center, 2013). LGBTQI individuals are exposed to such negative attitudes throughout their lives and some end up applying these attitudes towards themselves, which is often referred to as self-stigma or internalized homophobia. LGBTQI-related self-stigma has been shown to correlate negatively with social support, stability, and intimacy and positively with depression, suicidality, substance use, and risky sexual behaviors (e.g., Szymanski, Kashubeck-West, & Meyer, 2008; Meyer & Dean, 1998). This paper will examine LGBTQI-related self-stigma from the perspective of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), also known as the Psychological Flexibility Model. Additionally, the paper will discuss ACT’s approach to treating self-stigmatizing thoughts, which involves the acceptance and defusion of such thoughts and a focus on increasing values-based behaviors.
Obesity Stigma, Disordered Eating and Psychological Flexibility Amongst the Obese
EMILY SQUYRES (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)
Abstract: Psychological struggle seems to be an inherent part of the human experience. Unfortunately, the public attitude towards the obese focuses more on negative stereotypes (e.g., undisciplined, ugly, stupid, and lazy) than on the underlying psychological components that lie at the heart of the struggle. These negative stereotypes have an effect upon how the obese think about themselves and may lead to self-stigmatization, which in turn may interfere with a person’s attempt to gain control of their health and emotional well being. Many people who struggle with their weight are found to be very rigid in their thought processes regarding food. Perhaps it is not the content of food and body-related cognitions that is important, but the inflexibility with which they are held. The current study investigated the relationships among disordered eating behavior, perceived stigmatization, self-stigmatization and psychological flexibility among the obese using one- time questionnaires and ecological momentary assessment. Results suggest that psychological flexibility predicted self-stigma. Specifically, avoidance of weight-related distress predicted self-blame (p = .04) and using eating as an escape predicted a lack of self-acceptance (p = .04). Limitations to the study and implications for further research and application will also be discussed.
Discussing Discrimination: Cognitive fusion and perceived discrimination in the U.S. Hispanic population
STEPHANIE CALDAS (Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health), Matthieu Villatte (Practice Ground Evidence-Based Practice Institute)
Abstract: Hispanics living in United States are the target of discrimination and prejudice in the media, political legislation, and everyday life (Kohut et al., 2006). Considerable evidence shows that experiencing discrimination is significantly associated with poorer physical and psychological health (D'Anna et al., 2010). Hispanics born in the U.S. are more likely to perceive and internalize discrimination, and more prone to psychological problems compared to immigrant Hispanics (Cook et al., 2008). Internalization of discrimination can occur when the literal meaning of psychological content, or thoughts, becomes attached or fused with the self-concept. In other words, perceived discrimination and internalized discrimination are the result of verbal processes (Masuda et al., 2007). This study investigates relationships among cognitive fusion, perceived discrimination, and mental health. Based on survey responses of Hispanics living in the U.S. (n = 177), perceived discrimination and cognitive fusion were found to be independently associated with mental health (p<.001) supporting that generation Hispanics may be more prone to cognitive fusion with experiences of discrimination because of continued challenges in the development of their identity. In addition to the relationships between perceived discrimination, strength of ethnic identity, and its implications for understanding self-stigma and mental health are discussed.
Symposium #450
Conditioned Reinforcement: Gambling, Information, and Token Economics
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
9:00 AM–10:50 AM
006D (CC)
Area: EAB/TPC; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Travis Ray Smith (Southern Illinois University Carbondale)
Discussant: Travis Ray Smith (Southern Illinois University Carbondale)

The present symposium includes laboratory experiments that are tied together by a common theme: conditioned reinforcement. Smith & Jacobs will present data where rats preferences, in a rapidly-changing concurrent chains procedure, were influenced by stimuli correlated with probabilistic food delivery under conditions that ensured that both chained schedules delivered equal overall rates of food. Rice and Kyonka will present data from a concurrent chains procedure where preference for a probabilistic component was systematically affected by the probability that a food-correlated stimulus would intervene between the initial link and terminal link phases. These data will be related to the near win effect reported in the gambling literature. Cunningham, Craig, Filho, and Shahan will present data showing that response rates to produce an observing (food-correlated) stimulus were functionally related to the degree of informativeness (i.e., the ratio of the inter-reinforcer interval to the stimulus-reinforcer interval) of that observing stimulus. These data will be framed in terms of the Information Theory reported in the Pavlovian literature. Franceschini will report on the effects of increasing the cost of earning tokens on the demand for sucrose or water that are earned through token exchange. These data suggest that reinforcer demand mediated through token exchange may differ from procedures that do not use tokens to assess reinforcer demand in nonhuman subjects. Fantino will discuss the research from a conditioned reinforcement perspective.

Keyword(s): Conditioned Reinforcement, Gambling, Information Theory, Token Economics
Evidence for Conditional Reinforcement in Rats using Dynamic Concurrent Chained Schedules
TRAVIS RAY SMITH (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Eric A. Jacobs (Southern Illinois University Carbondale)
Abstract: Rats’ lever pressing was maintained by a concurrent chains procedure in order to assess the influence of conditional reinforcement on preference. This occurred under conditions where preferences for conditional and unconditional reinforcement were not confounded. Initial links arranged different rates of terminal link entry, and terminal links provided different probabilities of food delivery. High (or low) rates of initial link transition corresponded with low (or high) probabilities of terminal link food delivery, such that both options delivered equal overall rates of food. In the signaled condition, different tone frequencies presented during the terminal link were correlated with the different probabilities of food delivery – putatively functioning as conditional reinforcement. In the unsignaled condition, the same terminal link tone frequency was presented regardless of the probability of food delivery. This experiment used a dynamic environment, where the relative rates of initial link entry (and corresponding probabilities of food delivery) were varied within-session. Overall, the generalized matching law provided an excellent description of the data, and the rats frequently favored the option providing higher rates of transition to the terminal link. However, this tendency was reduced in the signaled condition, suggesting modest influence by conditional reinforcement.
Conditioned Reinforcement Effects of Discriminative Stimuli in Concurrent-Chains Procedures
NATHAN RICE (West Virginia University), Elizabeth Kyonka (West Virginia University)
Abstract: In concurrent chains with probabilistic terminal links, sensitivity to relative probability of reinforcement was lower when terminal links ending with and without food were differentially signaled, a result known as the signaling effect (Mattson, Hucks, Grace & McLean, 2010). Our aim was to determine whether different arrangements of stimuli signaling the same outcome systematically affected response allocation. Pigeons pecked in concurrent chains with certain and probabilistic components. In both components, terminal links ending with food were preceded by a sample phase in which the active key was red. Terminal links in the probabilistic component that did not end with food were either preceded by a green active key in the sample phase, or a sample phase in which the key switched from red to green. Initial-link choice for the probabilistic component increased as a function of the proportion of non-food terminal links where the sample phase involved some presentation of the red key. This functional relation demonstrates that stimuli preceding food acquire conditioned reinforcing value at a temporal distance. We argue these results imply that the signaling effect may contribute to the development of problem gambling.
The Role of Temporal Informativeness in Observing: Conditioned Reinforcement and Information-Theory Revisited
PAUL CUNNINGHAM (Utah State University), Andrew R. Craig (Utah State University), Paulo Sérgio Dillon Soares Filho (Universidade de São Paulo), Timothy A. Shahan (Utah State University)
Abstract: Conditioned reinforcement is generally believed to result from Pavlovian conditioning. Recent applications of Information Theory to Pavlovian conditioning suggest that the temporal informativeness of a stimulus governs stimulus associability and can account for a variety of Pavlovian phenomena. Temporal informativeness is calculated as log2 (Cycle time/ Trial time), where cycle time refers to the average interval between reinforcer deliveries and trial time refers to the average interval between stimulus onset and reinforcer delivery. The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the role of the temporal informativeness of a stimulus in conditioned reinforcement by examining how observing response rates vary as a function of temporal informativeness. Response independent food was delivered according to a random-time schedule while pigeon’s key pecks produced a stimulus signaling those food deliveries. Temporal informativeness was varied across conditions by manipulating the C/T associated with the response-contingent trial stimulus. C/T values included: 32, 8, 4, 2, and 1.14. Results showed that observing rate was a hyperbolically increasing function of the temporal informativeness of the stimulus. These results are discussed in terms of the information-theoretic developments within the Pavlovian literature and are contrasted with previous applications of Information Theory to conditioned reinforcement and Delay-Reduction Theory.
Token Economies and Demand Elasticity Analysis: A Challenge for Behavioral Economic Explanations?
Abstract: Elasticity is a behavioral economic measure of the relation between consumption (in the laboratory setting: total reinforcers released per session) and price (response requirement per reinforcer). Consumption-price relations tend to form a downward sloping curve, showing that the number of reinforcers released decreases as the reinforcement schedule increases. Inelastic – or essential - goods are reinforcers whose consumption curves show only small decreases as the schedule increases. Elastic – or superfluous – goods show significant decreases in such situations. Elastic and inelastic relations have been repeatedly observed with laboratory rats and water (inelastic good) or sweetened water (elastic good). We built a token economy in which three rats had to spin a wheel (initial link) to produce tokens that were exchangeable for water or sweetened water (intermediate link) under a choice condition (terminal link). Increases in the token reinforcement schedule produced an immediate consumption decrease in both reinforcers, but the consumption of sweetened water returned to previous average levels in subsequent sessions. In economic terms, sweetened water became an inelastic good under this setting. The insertion of conditioned reinforcers (tokens) changed the relation between effort and consumption that is typically observed under non-chained procedures. This poses an interesting challenge for behavioral economic analysis.
Symposium #451
Response-Reinforcer Relations, Stimulus-Reinforcer Relations and Resistance to Change
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
9:00 AM–10:50 AM
006C (CC)
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Carlos Cancado (Universidade de Brasilia, Brazil)
Discussant: John A. Nevin (University of New Hampshire)

Experiments will be presented in which the effects of manipulating the response-reinforcer relation and the stimulus-reinforcer relation on resistance to change were assessed. Canado, Abreu-Rodrigues, Al and Doughty studied the resistance to change of rats lever pressing under a multiple schedule arranging equal rates, but different percentages of response-dependent events between components. Resistance to change was inversely related to the degree of response-reinforcer dependency. Galuska and Havens assessed, with rats, how constant and variable-sized reinforcers under random-ratio schedules affected response patterns, resistance to extinction and preference. Resistance to extinction was greater under variable-sized reinforcers, but preference for the constant-sized reinforcer occurred for all rats. Hall and Lattal studied the resistance of pigeons key pecking when timeouts from variable-interval schedules of food were response dependent and independent. Resistance to extinction was not systematically differential when timeouts were response-dependent, but was greater in the component uncorrelated with response-independent timeouts. Kuroda, Cook and Lattal studied the relation between response rates and resistance to extinction. With pigeons, resistance to extinction in a yoked-interval schedule was either greater or equal to that in a variable-ratio schedule. With rats, an inverse relation between rates of lever pressing under variable-interval schedules and resistance to extinction was obtained.


Response-reinforcer dependency and resistance to change

Carlos Cancado (Universidade de Brasilia, Brazil), Josele Abreu-Rodrigues (Universidade de Brasilia), Raquel Alo (Universidade de Brasília, Brazil), Adam H. Doughty (College of Charleston)

The effects of different degrees of response-reinforcer dependency on resistance to change were studied with four rats. Lever pressing produced water after variable interreinforcer intervals on a two-component multiple schedule. The percentage of response-dependent water was manipulated, while rate of water was equated, between components. In the first (100-100%) condition, 100% of the water in each component was response dependent. In the second (100-10%) condition, the percentage of dependent water was 100%, in one component, and 10% in the other. Replications of the first and second conditions (reversing stimuli between schedule-components) were conducted. For three rats, a replication of the second condition was then conducted. Baseline response rates were similar between components in the 100-100% conditions, and lower in the component with 10%-dependent water in the remaining conditions. Resistance to extinction (and satiation, for one rat) was not systematically differential in the 100-100% conditions. In the other conditions, resistance to extinction was generally greater in the component with 10%-dependent water. Thus, resistance to change varied inversely with the degree of response-reinforcer dependency when the rate of water was equated between multiple-schedule components.

Analyzing Factors Related to Gambling in Rats: Response Persistence and Preference under Random-Ratio Schedules Differing in Reinforcer Magnitude Variability
CHAD M. GALUSKA (College of Charleston), Crane A Havens (College of Charleston)
Abstract: The current study determined the effects of either a constant-sized (e.g., 2 pellets) or a variable-sized mean equivalent (e.g., 0-12 pellets) reinforcer on random-ratio responding in rats. Dependent measures of interest included within-session patterns of responding, resistance to extinction, and preference under a concurrent schedule. Under a multiple schedule in which the two components alternated every 5 min, the component associated with the variable-sized reinforcer engendered greater responding later in the session. Responding in this component also was considerably more resistant to extinction. Despite this, under the concurrent schedule, the constant-reinforcer alternative was preferred in all rats. The results are discussed within the context of habituation, the partial reinforcement effect, behavioral momentum, and implications to gambling. Parametric manipulations of reinforcer magnitude variability, the random-ratio parameter, and the role of cues signaling losses are underway.

Resistance to Extinction of Timeout Punished Responding

EZRA HALL (West Virginia University), James E. Cook (West Virginia University CED), Kennon Andy Lattal (West Virginia University)

A series of experiments were conducted to study the resistance to extinction of pigeons key pecking when 20-s timeouts were delivered response dependently and response independently. A strictly-alternating two-component multiple schedule was used where each component was 10 min long and occurred twice per session. Key pecking was maintained by a variable-interval 45-s schedule of food. Baseline sessions were followed by one of two conjoint timeout conditions in the first and third components of a session: a variable-ratio (VR) 2 or a variable-time (VT) 5-s schedule. Each condition lasted for 20 sessions. A single extended extinction session was then conducted with components strictly alternating 16 times. In some extinction conditions, timeouts continued to be arranged according to the VR-2 and VT 5-s schedule, and in some extinction conditions, timeouts were not delivered. Relative resistance to extinction was not consistently greater in the unpunished components when compared to the punished components when response-dependent timeouts were and were not continued during extinction. Relative resistance to extinction was consistently greater in the no timeout components when compared to the VT 5-s timeout components that were continued through the extinction tests. The results add to an understanding of punished and unpunished behavior.

Response Rate and Resistance to Extinction
Toshikazu Kuroda (Aichi Bunkyo University), James E. Cook (West Virginia University CED), KENNON ANDY LATTAL (West Virginia University)
Abstract: In two experiments, the role of response rates in resistance to extinction was examined. Behavior in transition from a variable-ratio (VR) schedule and its yoked-interval (YI) counterpart to extinction was compared in Experiment 1. Following maintenance of key pecking of pigeons under a multiple VR YI schedule of reinforcement, responding was extinguished in both components during a single 160-min extinction session. Responding decreased systematically across the extinction session. In both components, the response patterns comprised periods of steady responding alternating with increasing long periods without responses. Extinction bursts occurred in five of the nine pigeons but was not systematically related to the schedule immediately preceding extinction. Resistance of responding to extinction in the formerly YI component was either greater or equal to that in the formerly VR component. Experiment 2 further investigated the problem stated in the title by training 20 rats to respond on VI schedules. After such training responding by each rat was extinguished. Resistance to extinction was significantly greater for the five rats with the lowest response rates during VI compared to such resistance for the five rats with the highest rates. These results together suggest that lower response rates are more resistant to extinction than are higher response rates, when reinforcement rate is equal. Response rate thus must be considered a source of control during resistance to change tests.
Symposium #452
Innovative methods in the study of conditional discrimination and the development of equivalence relations.
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
9:00 AM–10:50 AM
007A (CC)
Area: EAB/TPC; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
Discussant: Richard W. Serna (University of Massachusetts Lowell)

A casual perusal of the history of science shows that progressively sophisticated and subtle understanding of a subject matter depends on our ability to ask increasingly sophisticated and pointed questions about the subject matter. The presentations in the proposed symposium represent novel approaches to the study of conditional discrimination learning and equivalence class formation. Lantaya and colleagues report on the effectiveness of a go/no-go procedure in producing equivalence-consistent responding with undergraduate students. Silguero & Vaidya report on the conditions under which stimuli used as consequences will or will not become a part of the equivalence relation. Meyer and colleagues report on the effectiveness of training a common vocal response to multiple stimuli on the likelihood of equivalence relations among those stimuli. Finally, Marchini and Vaidya report on the use of an alternative to eye-tracking to study patterns of observing in conditional discrimination learning. The use of alternative methods can simultaneously confirm or challenge existing interpretive frames. The symposium will provide an opportunity to explore this issue.

Keyword(s): Conditional Discrimination, Human participants, Novel methods, Stimulus Equivalence
An Evaluation of Successive Matching in the Development of Emergent Stimulus Relations
CHARISSE ANN LANTAYA (California State University, Sacramento), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento), Timothy G. Howland (University of Nevada, Reno), Danielle LaFrance (H.O.P.E. Consulting, LLC), Adrienne Jennings (California State University Sacramento), Danielle Hernandez (HOPE Consulting, LLC), Scott Page (California State University, Sacramento)
Abstract: Traditionally, behavior analysts have studied stimulus equivalence using a matching-to-sample (MTS) preparation. While researchers have demonstrated the utility of MTS to produce conditional discriminations or equivalence classes, MTS requires several prerequisite skills for a learner to accurately respond to a MTS trial. Without these prerequisites, MTS may produce faulty stimulus control. Studies generated from basic research demonstrated that alternatives to MTS might produce equivalence (e.g., go/no-go, successive matching-to-sample). Thus, the purpose of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of successive matching-to-sample (S-MTS) adapted from Frank and Wasserman (2005) as an alternative method in establishing emergent stimulus relations with adults. S-MTS trials consist of the presentation of a single sample stimulus followed by one comparison stimulus on a fixed location on the screen. Dependent on the relation of the sample stimulus and comparison stimulus, the participant either responds (i.e., go) or does not respond (i.e., no-go) to the comparison stimulus. Results demonstrate the utility of S-MTS to produce equivalence classes with one out of three Psychology undergraduate participants. The remaining two participants required remedial training to respond to transitivity relations. Future studies should continue to investigate S-MTS as an alternative to the traditional MTS procedure.
Investigating the conditions under which consequences become a part of the equivalence class
RUSSELL SILGUERO (University of North Texas), Manish Vaidya (University of North Texas)
Abstract: The present study began as an attempt to replicate Minster et al. (2006) study which showed that reinforcers that were common across two sets of contingencies did not drop out of the equivalence relation. Initial failures to replicate this study led to an investigation of the conditions under which stimuli used as consequences in an MTS procedure do or do not become a part of the equivalence class comprising the other stimulus elements. Some of the variables manipulated include familiarity with the contingency elements, types of behavioral consequence, the use of rules or instructions, and the placement of probe trials relative to training trials. Students interacted with a computer program which presented a symbolic match-to-sample task. Depending upon trial type, correct responding earned entries into a drawing for money, movie tickets, and candy. These consequences were indicated with an image of the respective consequence. After baseline performance met criteria, probes trials assessed whether the images signaling behavioral consequences now served as effective sample or comparison stimuli. Data show that the likelihood that consequences will become a part of the equivalence relation is sensitive to particular aspects of the match-to-sample procedure.
The Effects of Common Vocal Responses on the Emergence of Equivalence-Equivalence Relations
CAREEN SUZANNE MEYER (California State University, Sacramento), Adrienne Jennings (California State University Sacramento), Timothy G. Howland (University of Nevada, Reno), Danielle LaFrance (California State University, Sacramento), Charisse Ann Lantaya (California State University, Sacramento), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
Abstract: Previous research suggests that equivalence-equivalence responding, can be produced in the laboratory via training of common vocal responses to stimulus compounds, as long as participants can also differentially respond to separate components. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of tact training of individual components on the emergence of equivalence-equivalence responding. Eight undergraduate students were presented with individual images belonging to one of two three-member classes, and trained to respond to stimuli from class one as “vek” and class two as “zog.” Participants were then presented with tests for emergence of novel vocal responses and equivalence-equivalence responding consistent with symmetry and transitivity. Six participants passed all tests without remedial training. Results suggest that for some participants, vocal response training was sufficient was sufficient for establishing discriminative control over components and led to stimulus class formation.
Can patterns of sample and comparison-stimulus observing predict performance on conditional discrimination probes?
KEVIN MARCHINI (University of North Texas), Manish Vaidya (University of North Texas)
Abstract: The use of eye-tracking technology has increased in recent years in a wide range of research; however, there are a number of drawbacks including cost and efficiency. Marchini and Vaidya (2013) developed an alternative to eye-tracking technology that produced results similar to traditional eye-tracking methods on facial recognition and was more economical and efficient. The current experiment studied acquisition and maintenance of a 4-ply conditional discrimination. Performance was either established via prompts or feedback. As reported by Vaidya & Hayashi (2010; 2012), prompt conditions facilitated acquisition relative to feedback but feedback conditions produced better results on probe trials presented without prompts or programmed consequences. The current study allowed us to identify the mechanism of this effect by measuring the patterns with which subjects viewed sample or comparison stimuli during the acquisition. Preliminary data support Vaidya & Hayashi’s interpretation that, during prompt conditions, participants turn the task into an identity matching task by differentially viewing the comparison longer than the sample. These data suggest that the drop in accuracy from training to testing for the prompted trials is the result of the relative neglect of sample stimuli.
Paper Session #453
Review of Token Economy, Contingency Contracts, and DRO
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
9:00 AM–10:50 AM
213AB (CC)
Area: PRA
Keyword(s): DRO, Economy
Chair: Jonathan W. Ivy (Mercyhurst University)
Token Economy: An Empirical Review of Applied Practice
Domain: Applied Research
JONATHAN W. IVY (Mercyhurst University), James Nicholson Meindl (The University of Memphis), Eric Overley (University of Memphis), Kristen Robson (Mercyhurst University)
Abstract: A token economy is a complex system of reinforcement in which some medium of exchange (i.e., a token) is used to purchase various goods or services. A token economy derives its complexity from three interconnected schedules of reinforcement that govern when tokens will be delivered, when tokens will be exchanged, and the cost in tokens of the various goods or services (Hackenberg, 2009). The effectiveness of the token economy is well-documented. The token economy has been identified as an evidenced based practice by Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, and Sugai (2008) and is considered a well-established psychological procedure by the American Psychological Association Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination (1993). Despite the success of this operant technology, there are a number of gaps in our understanding of the token economy (Hackenberg, 2009). This presentation will review the results of an empirical review of token economies and token reinforcement systems. Current practices, technological limitations, trends, and recommendations for future token economy research and application will be presented.
Contingency Contracts: An Empirical Review of Practice and Extensions
Domain: Applied Research
KRISTEN ROBSON (Mercyhurst University), Jonathan W. Ivy (Mercyhurst University), Sara Kitchen (Mercyhurst University)
Abstract: A contingency contract is a document that describes the relationship between a target behavior and some consequence arrangement (i.e., reinforcement or punishment). Most contingency contracts contain additional components; however, the arrangement of some consequence contingent on behavior appears to be minimally necessary. Contingency contracts were first described as an operant technology by Homme (1969), and later refined by Stuart (1971) and Weathers and Liberman (1975). Since the conception of this operant technology, the contingency contract has been shown to be effective across a wide range of target behaviors (Allen & Kramer, 1990; Aragona, Cassady, & Drabman, 1975; Polakow, & Doctor, 1973) and populations (Mruzek, Cohen, & Smith, 2007; Mann, 1972; Hayes, Efron, Richman, Harrison, & Aguilera, 2000). Although there is substantial evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of contingency contracts, there has been little research to evaluate the behavioral mechanism or the necessity of the contract. Furthermore, despite ample empirical evidence, there has been a dearth of research related to contingency contracts. The purpose of this presentation is to explore the literature on contingency contracts as it pertains to applied applications, technological trends and limitations, and a need for further research.
DRO: A Review of the Literature
Domain: Applied Research
CATALINA REY (Florida Institute of Technology), Alison M. Betz (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: The differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) schedule is a popular procedure commonly used to decrease problem behavior. This presentation will cover a review of the literature in an attempt to identify best practices and directions for future research. The studies that met inclusion criteria were those that were peer-reviewed, used single-subject designs, used human subjects, and were published after 1980. Studies that used DRO as part of a treatment package were not included unless a component analysis was conducted. Some areas that are covered include comparisons between whole-interval and momentary DRO variations, resetting versus non-resetting DRO variations, DRO procedures with and without the use of extinction, potential side effects of the DRO, methods for improving the overall efficacy, and a comparison of DRO with other decelerative procedures. A conceptual analysis on the underlying mechanisms that result in the decelerative effects of the target behavior will also be discussed in this presentation.
Keyword(s): DRO, Economy
Symposium #454
CE Offered: BACB
Integrating Funtional Units Into Naturally Occuring Behavior
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
9:00 AM–10:50 AM
007C (CC)
Area: TPC/VRB; Domain: Theory
Chair: M. Jackson Jackson Marr (Georgia Tech)
Discussant: Travis Thompson (University of Minnesota)
CE Instructor: Travis Thompson, Ph.D.

Since Aristotle whole-part relations have been of fundamental philosophical concern. Within the sciences some version of atomism is generally a given, though not without misgivings. The integration of smaller behavioral units to comprise more complex behavior has been of interest since the days of Thorndike and Watson's Behaviorism and Tolman's Purposive Behaviorism, and was a topic of concern to Skinner throughout his career. Skinner never proposed a consistent mechanism accounting for the way individual operants are combined to form complex, naturally occurring behavior outside of controlled laboratory situations. In 1986 Thompson and Lubinski in the volume "Integrating Units of Analysis," suggested a mechanism based on Premackian relative probability relations, greatly elaborated recently by Killeen to include an comprehensive array of operant and non-operant behavior. Marr has questioned the generality of the concept of behavioral units in the light of various definitions, our methods of digitizing what is, in fact, a continuum, and Hineline has argued the key process holding a naturalistic narrative together appears to involve a dynamic role of establishing stimuli,.

Keyword(s): integration, natural behavior, units

Narrative: A Challenge for Behavior Theory

PHILIP N. HINELINE (Temple University - Emeritus)

Narrative permeates not only mystery stories and other novels: it is salient in newspaper and magazine discussions of social problems; it is part of the standard formula for political speeches and for soliciting money for a worthy causes; and, of course, story-telling occupies much of ordinary conversation. Nevertheless, behavior analysts have had little to say about narrative, perhaps because its salient characteristics are mainly structural, whereas behavior analysis addresses mainly the functions of verbal behavior. In addition, the role of the individual listerners behavior is crucial, and behavior analysts have tended to homogenize the listeners role as that of audience or verbal community. Despite these limitations, behavior analysts have delineated a few phenomena that appear to be relevant: joint attention and the discriminations and functions involved in imitation, equivalence classes and relational frames are a few. But the key process that holds a narrative together appears to involve a dynamic role of establishing stimuli, similar to the role of discriminative stimuli in other integrated units of behavior.


E Pluribus Unum: or, A Tangled Tale of the Behavioral Unit


Early in his Behavior of Organisms, Skinner asserted, Thesystem is based on the assumption that both behavior and environment can be broken into parts which retain their identity throughout an experiment and undergo orderly changes. If this assumption were not in some sense justified, a science of behavior would be impossible (p. 33). He went on to describe the natural lines of fracture along which behavior and the environment actually break (p.33). Thus the analysis of behavior from its beginning has apparently depended on a concept of unit. More than three-quarters of a century has passed and we are still wrestling with this concept. I will survey at least a portion of that struggle with some exemplars of how the term unit has been applied as well as the vexing issue of how putative units might emerge from the behavioral stream. While certain examples may justifiably qualify as functional behavioral units in demonstrating a consistent integrity, one may question the generality of the concept in the light of various definitions, our methods of digitizing what is, in fact, a continuum, the focus on the steady-state as opposed to details of acquisition, and the non-linear, irreversible dynamics of behavioral change.


Units, Atoms, and Actions

PETER R. KILLEEN (Arizona State University)

Units are standardized measurements of physical magnitudes. They are concatenated physically by juxtaposition and mathematically by addition. Inches are no more natural than centimeters; both are conventions. They belong to the scientist not the subject. Atoms are natural elements, nominally indivisible; they are concatenated physically by juxtaposition and mathematically by atomic physics. If juxtaposed too forcibly they fuse into new elements. Elements of a given name need not be identical; Iron has four stable isotopes and two-dozen unstable ones. The behavior of organisms does not have units, although behaviorists assign them. It has elements, such as the licking movement of the rats tongue, one among many action patterns identified by ethologists. Do the actions have isotopes? What does it take to fuse them? Does fusion reduce them to a lower energy state? Attend for answers; bring dosimeters.


Integrated Functional Units of Behavioral Analysis

TRAVIS THOMPSON (University of Minnesota)

Complex concatenation of arrays of naturally appearing behavior, dispositions and dispositional states arranged according to relative probability hierarchies, are proposed to account for natural human and other organisms behavior in natural settings. Components include operants, and embedded unconditioned reflexive, adjunctive, classically conditioned responses, as well a dispositions. Inclusion of Rylian dispositions and endogenous dispositional states, similar in some respects to Tolman's expectancies, makes it possible to account for a causal role of private events within naturalistic response sequences. To the degree that those disposition or states are tactable, (e.g. autoclitically) we conventionally refer to the speaker as having insight or self-understanding. Examples of laboratory and familiar natural human behavior will be discussed.

Symposium #455
CE Offered: BACB
Verbal Behavior Developmental Theory and Implications for Social Language
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
9:00 AM–10:50 AM
216AB (CC)
Area: VRB/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Joanne Marie Hill (Columbia Univeristy Graduate Program and Teacher's)
Discussant: Joan Broto (Semiahmoo Behaviour Analysts, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Joan Broto, Ph.D.
Abstract: We present four studies on the effects of verbal behavior developmental protocols on the acquisition of social language. In the first paper the researchers examined the effects of the acquisition of the Naming capability on the joining of listener to untaught speaker responses in preschoolers with developmental delays. In the second paper the researchers tested the effects of contingent auditory feedback on the elimination of stereotypy and emission of socially appropriate verbal exchanges in elementary students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. In the third paper the researchers investigated the effects of Social Listener Reinforcement and video modeling protocols on the emergence social verbal operants emitted by preschoolers with autism and speech and language delays. In the fourth paper the researchers studied the effects of Social Listener Reinforcement Protocol in elementary students.
Keyword(s): Social Language, Verbal Behavior, Verbal Operants, Video Modeling
The Functional Relation Between the Onset of Naming and the Joining of Listener to Untaught Speaker Responses
LISA TULLO (Teacher's College, Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Abstract: The experimenter selected 13 developmentally delayed preschool students without Naming to conduct probes for speaker and listener vocabularies. This affirmed the independence of speaker and listener vocabularies as evidenced by a significantly larger listener vocabulary than speaker vocabulary. A time-lagged multiple probe design across participants was implemented to test the emergence of responses for stimuli the participants could only respond to as a listener prior to the acquisition of Naming. Within this design was a nested delayed multiple probe design to test the effect of multiple exemplar instruction on the induction of Naming. None of the participants had the Naming capability at the onset of the study. Six participants from the screening procedure were selected to receive multiple exemplar instruction to induce Naming. Following the acquisition of Naming the experimenter re-tested listener and speaker responses finding that the participants could respond as a speaker to the stimuli they previously could only respond to as a listener. Five of six participants acquired approximately 70% or greater untaught responses following the acquisition of Naming. The sixth participant acquired approximately 30% of untaught speaker responses following the acquisition of Naming.
Effects of the Elimination of Stereotypy on the Emission of Socially Appropriate Verbal Interactions for Students with Autism Who Have Audience Control
HELENA SONG-A HAN (Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Abstract: I tested the effects of contingent auditory feedback on the elimination of stereotypy in a delayed non-concurrent multiple probe design with multiple treatment reversals, counterbalanced across 2 male elementary school students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Experiment I. My findings supported evidence for the effectiveness of contingent addition or removal of auditory stimuli (Hugh-Pennie, 2006) in reducing the frequency levels of stereotypy and increasing self-awareness of one’s own stereotypic behaviors. In addition, generalization effects were demonstrated as a result of the shift of the discriminative stimulus (SD) from the presentation of the auditory feedback device to the presence of the experimenter. Thus, the stimulus control of a verbal audience in one setting (with a direct intervention) transferred to another setting (i.e., the instructional periods) without a direct auditory feedback intervention. However, during the 3-month follow-up probes, both participants’ frequency levels of stereotypy returned to the initial levels. As an extended test of auditory feedback, Experiment II used a within-subjects delayed non-concurrent multiple probe design with multiple treatments across 4 participants, who had audience control, to test the effects of contingent auditory feedback on the elimination of stereotypy and the emission of socially appropriate verbal exchanges (i.e., conversational units) during academic, lunch, and recess periods in the mainstream general education settings in the presence of typically developing peers. All participants were diagnosed with ASD and attended a combined 3rd to 5th grade self-contained special education classroom in a public elementary school. The results of Experiment II showed a functional relation between the implementation of auditory feedback procedure in mainstream general education settings and the increased emission and initiation of socially appropriate verbal exchanges by both the typically developing peers and the participants as the participants’ emission of stereotypy decreased. In addition, generalization effects were demonstrated in the self-contained special education settings in the absence of typically developing peers without a direct intervention (i.e., all participants’ emission of stereotypy decreased while their initiation of conversational units with peers increased).
The Effects of Social Listener Reinforcement and Video Modeling Protocols on the Emergence of Social Verbal Operants in Preschoolers Diagnosed with Autism and Language Delays
KATHERINE BAKER (Teachers College, Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Abstract: We investigated the effects of the Social Listener Reinforcement protocol and a video modeling protocol on the number of social verbal operants emitted by preschoolers with Autism and speech and language delays. A combined experimental-control group design with two “nested” non-concurrent multiple probes across participants was used to provide two within-group single case designs simultaneously with the experimental-control group design. Results showed that participants in both conditions increased the number of social verbal operants they emitted with peers in non-instructional settings. Participants in the Social Listener Reinforcement condition had greater gains in the total number of social verbal operants they emitted and the number of conversational exchanges and sequelics they initiated in non-instructional settings. Results are discussed in terms of differences in potential conditioned reinforcers that result from the two procedures.

Establishment of Social Listener Reinforcement in Elementary Age Students

JESSICA HORTON (Teachers College, Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences), Jo Ann Pereira (Teachers College, Columbia University), Jennifer Weber (Teachers College, Columbia University), Jennifer Lee (Teachers College, Columbia University), Kelly Mercorella (Teachers College, Columbia University)

In multiple experiments, we studied the effects of social listener reinforcement in two elementary inclusive settings for students with and without disabilities. Probes were conducted in three settings: 1) social discussions, 2) academic discussions, 3) lunch time across 5 days for each peer and participant. Additionally, we measured social performance behaviors that each participant emitted throughout the school day across 10 consecutive days. The participants of the experiments included students with autism and general education students from different backgrounds, using a delayed multiple probe design. The sequence of the SLR procedure included: 1) I Spy, 2) 20 Questions, 3) Guess Who, 4) Advanced 20 Questions, 5) Peer Tutoring, 7) Group Instruction, & 8) Empathy. Results demonstrated that an advanced social-listener reinforcement procedure with a peer-yoked contingency increased the number of vocal verbal operants and social-performance behaviors emitted by participants.

Symposium #456
CE Offered: BACB
Behavior Analysis Applied: Brain Injury Staff Edition
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Texas Ballroom Salon C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CBM/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Anneka Hofschneider (Centre for Neuro Skills)
Discussant: Megan R. Heinicke (California State University, Sacramento)
CE Instructor: Anneka Hofschneider, M.S.

Traumatic brain injury affects approximately 1.7 million Americans each year. Irritability, impulsivity, decreased attention, problems with perseveration and overstimulation, as well as lack of insight are common problems following brain injury. With difficult behaviors a common occurrence, staff employed to work with individuals with brain injury must be highly skilled and prepared to manage potential daily challenges. The presentations in this symposium will focus on the importance of well-trained staff. First, an evaluation of a commercially-available staff training program will be reviewed. Findings from the multi-site project will be presented including implications for application of the training curriculum and its use in further research. Next, results from a national survey of rehabilitation staff specifically regarding training and education received on how to manage difficult behavior will be presented along with an in depth discussion on how to incorporate ABA-specific training into the education of therapeutic staff to facilitate improved clinical practices and positively impact patient outcomes.

Keyword(s): Brain Injury, Rehabilitation, Staff Training
Staff Training Curriculum Evaluation: BehaviorTools® in Brain Injury
CHRIS PERSEL (Centre for Neuro Skills), Jessica A. Thompson Scibilia Scibilia (Consultant)
Abstract: Staff employed to engage in rehabilitative activities with individuals who have an acquired brain injury will arguably encounter challenging behaviors most work days, and as a result require specialized training with how to interact with and respond to the patients with whom they work. While training in the implementation of individual behavior intervention programs may be provided, generalization of behavioral concepts from one program by a therapist to use with another patient is often contraindicated. With staff seeking additional behavioral aptitude, a company-wide training addressing interactions between staff and patients was desired. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a staff training curriculum previously shown effective in other populations at increasing positive interactions and decreasing negative interactions between those using the skills taught and those with whom they are interacting. Statistically significant findings from a 4 site extended duration project will be presented including results of paired samples t-tests for pre-training and post-training group data. Non-concurrent multiple baseline data will also be reviewed for select participants from the larger group to lend additional support for study findings. In addition, sub-analyses of group statistics will be presented for various types of staff interactions. Limitations, application challenges, and directions for further research will be discussed.
Just Teach it: Are Rehabilitation Therapists prepared to handle difficult behavior?
CHRIS PERSEL (Centre for Neuro Skills), Jessica A. Thompson Scibilia Scibilia (Consultant)
Abstract: Physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, and staff working within brain injury rehabilitation facilities have the challenge of frequently encountering patients who do not want to participate in what are usually difficult activities. In some cases, patients cannot even identify the need for such therapies. While therapists may be highly skilled and well-trained within their individual discipline of study, they may be ill prepared to manage problem behaviors from their patients. If trained improperly while earning their credentials and/or license, or if not trained formally in how to engage individuals with difficult behavior, therapist reactions to problem behaviors and interactions during rehabilitation may in fact shape more severe problem behavior. The result may be a more difficult patient who is more resistant to behavior change strategies over time. In an effort to assess how therapists from varied disciplines working in the field of acquired brain injury are trained in behavior analysis, a 9-question survey was disseminated nationally to assess factors such as type of training received, required versus elective training opportunities, and formal training received during higher education versus training received in applied fieldwork. Summative and statistical findings from the 94 respondents will be presented. Topics related to application and dissemination of behavior analysis to these varied disciplines will be explored. Further implications for future research, and suggestions for improved training, practice and patient outcomes will be presented.
Symposium #457
CE Offered: BACB
Ethical Dissemination of Behavior Analysis: Exploring the Challenges and Opportunities of Social Media
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
204B (CC)
Area: CSE/TPC; Domain: Theory
Chair: Neal Miller (University of Memphis)
Discussant: Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: Neal Miller, Ph.D.
Abstract: Behavior analysts are passionate about communicating to the general public about the benefits of our science, but have often struggled to get this message across in an effective way. These presentations will examine unique issues related to dissemination of behavior analysis through new electronic media. Both the risks and benefits of these tools will be examined through the lens of our ethical responsibilities as a field of study and practice. Current trends in social media use will be discussed along with examples of how behavior analysis is currently represented online. Specific recommendations will be made regarding ways behavior analysts can harness the potential of social media and web-based technologies to bring the message of behaviorism to a broad audience. In addition, the presentations will examine ways that online behavior can be better studied using the tools of behavior analysis to identify reliable functional relations, thus moving the complex job of dissemination away from being an art towards being a science.
Keyword(s): Dissemination, Ethics, Social Media
Behavior Analysis and Social Media: Applying Scientific Tools to Assess the Impact of Online Dissemination
NEAL MILLER (University of Memphis), Jonathan W. Ivy (Mercyhurst University)
Abstract: The recent proliferation of social media sites has placed the field of behavior analysis in a potentially challenging position. Scientists and practitioners of ABA may not be trained in the effective use of electronic media, and as a result may not be prepared share the knowledge derived from our science to a global online audience. However, the same scientific methods we use to evaluate functional relations between behavior and environment can be applied to dissemination through social media. We will explore the ways behavior analysts can experimentally evaluate the effects their social media behaviors have on an audience, and discuss ways to navigate the ethical challenges posed by these new forms of dissemination.
Behavior Analysts and Social Media: Becoming Socially Savvy Scientists
AMANDA N. KELLY (Keiki Educational Consultants)
Abstract: What to do about social promiscuity? The fact is “everyone’s doing it”, but the question is “are we doing it right”. From a survey conducted, via online sample, 100% of respondents report using social media sites for personal use and 95% reported using online media for professional use. When asked, “do you ever make comments related to your work or profession via electronic means (including email, voice recording, online social media sites), 87% of respondents replied “yes”. Regarding professional electronic behavior, the following percentages of use were reported: 95% email; 38% Facebook; 18% Pinterest; 12% Twitter. As students and practitioners, we can use social media sites to exchange ideas or swap references to readings and appropriate literature of behavioral principles and interventions. When asked, “where do you go for expert advice”, respondents surveyed indicated that they were “somewhat likely” to use online forums for discussion and to search the topic on Twitter or Facebook. Appropriate use of social media sites for businesses, includes marketing and promoting services, or advertising upcoming promotions or events. Using such means to solicit testimonials from current clients however is not. As students, scientists, and practitioners of behavior analysis, we can use social media in our favor. Of course, with great responsibility, also comes great risk. The purpose of this presentation will be to review, discuss, and suggest ways behavior analysts can become socially savvy scientists.
Symposium #459
CE Offered: BACB
Applications of Meta-Analysis in Single Case Research
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
210AB (CC)
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Mandy J. Rispoli (Texas A & M University )
Discussant: Mack D. Burke (Texas A&M University)
CE Instructor: Mack D. Burke, Ph.D.
Abstract: The purpose of this symposium is to highlight meta-analysis applications in single case research. Single case research has historically focused on visual analysis and systematic replication in order to establish the evidence-based regarding a particular practice. In this symposium, two meta-analysis of single case research are provided that illustrate how meta-analytic techniques can be used to examine the evidence-base on behavior analytic practices. Meta-analytic approaches in single case research utilize effect sizes to aggregate multiple studies together to determine the overall effect of a particular intervention. Empirically summarizing interventions across studies allows for statements to be made regarding the external validity and generalizability of an intervention that are unable to be made when examining a single study. Moreover, recent advances in effect size development have occurred that have focused specifically on non-overlap indices as a method of determining magnitude of effect in single case research. Both meta-analysis studies provided in this symposium highlight these non-overlap techniques in the context of meta-analytic procedures. Discussion will focus on the application of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) criteria for determining an evidence-based practice and how meta-analytic procedures applied to single case data can contribute to determining whether a practice is evidence-based.
Keyword(s): meta-analysis, single subject
Quantitative Synthesis Examining the Effects of Teacher Training on Classwide Teacher Praise and Student Behavior
HEATHER HATTON (Texas A & M), Mack D. Burke (Texas A&M University)
Abstract: Teachers, who struggle to implement classwide need ongoing, differentiated support to implement with fidelity. Praise is a critical skill for teachers to develop because it is consistently identified as an effective universal behavior strategy that encourages the development of and engagement in appropriate behaviors. Quantitative analysis and synthesis of studies using single-case designs provides a rich and unique avenue for determining evidence-based practices for individuals who do not respond to traditional professional development models. The purpose of this study is to synthesize the single-subject evidence-base regarding the effects of teacher training on classwide teacher praise and student behavior. The 10 studies identified for inclusion in this synthesis were evaluated using the What Works Clearinghouse standards for design quality and evidence of effects. One hundred sixty-eight Tau-U effect sizes were calculated for the contrasts in the studies. Ongoing, differentiated training had a moderate effect (0.75) on teacher praise and a minimal effect (0.55) on student behavior. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
Self-Regulation Interventions for Students with ADHD: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research
SAMAR ZAINI (Texas A & M University), Mack D. Burke (Texas A&M University)
Abstract: Self-regulation strategies (SRS) show promise of helping to remediate academic and behavioral challenges of students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current meta-analysis of single-case research examined the effectiveness of self-regulation strategies for students with ADHD conducted in school settings. Twenty-seven studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. Four potential moderators were also examined: (a) use of rewards, (b) use of cueing to prompt the student to record his or her behavior, (c) target behavior (appropriate behavior versus problem behavior), and (d) type of outcomes (academic versus behavioral). An overall effect size of .86 with a confidence interval of CI95 = [0.82 to 0.92] was obtained. A total of 85 students, and 223 phase contrasts, indicating that moderate to large benefits can be attributed to SRS interventions. Implications and recommendations for future research are included.
Panel #460
CE Offered: BACB
Designing a High Performing Organization
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
202AB (CC)
Area: OBM/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Marc Weeden, Ph.D.
Chair: Donnie M. Staff (OPTIMAL)
MARC A. WEEDEN (Easter Seals Bay Area)
MICHELLE BEFI (Easter Seals Bay Area)
SUSAN ARMIGER (Easter Seals Bay Area)

High performing organizations (Daniel & Daniels, 2006) have a few things in common. One of those things is their ability to remain competitive while adapting to change. We see examples of adapting to change though the revision of key processes to meet new state & federal regulations, amending policies to meet funding source requirements, and/or training staff to implement improved protocol. An approach to organizational change that has shown to be effective is the adoption of a performance-based approach to the designing and managing of infrastructure, processes and the people. It is these internal structures that define a companys service delivery, and in turn shapes their culture, and therefor their public image. To do so, Performance Thinking must be learned and embraced by everyone in the organization. In August of 2013 Easter Seals Bay Area (ESBA) and Optimal partnered to undertake the adoption of Performance Thinking within ESBA; not only as a way to design and manage key pieces of their infrastructure, but also as part of their cultural identity. This panel will describe the main organizational change initiatives that ESBA has implemented throughout the transformation process including the creation of a mission statement & strategic plans, the design & implementation of key processes, the development of mangers & leaders and how teams of people were able to shift an organizations culture. We will also show data illustrating their impacts and discuss important lessons learned along the way to becoming a Performance Thinking organization.

Keyword(s): Change Management, Culture, Organization Management, Performance
Panel #461
CE Offered: BACB
Keeping the Peace and Experiencing Success When Working With Non-Behavior Analysts
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
214A (CC)
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Sadie L. Lovett, Ph.D.
Chair: Sadie L. Lovett (Central Washington University)
CLARISSA S. BARNES (Defiance College)
LAURA BARNES (Thompson Center)
ALYSSA N. WILSON (Saint Louis University)

Many seasoned behavior analysts have come to realize that the effectiveness of behavioral services as well as the dissemination of our science is dependent upon how others perceive our field. Positive collaboration with other professionals can create allies that will support behavior analytic services for clients and help improve the image of our field. Unfortunately, many behavior analysts finish their education with little or no direct training on how to work collaboratively with non-behavior analytic professionals. For those pioneering individuals who take on roles as one of the only behavior analysts in a particular organization or region, learning these skills at a new job can be challenging. This panel is designed to provide the perspective of both university faculty and service providers on some of the challenges faced working with professionals from other fields. The panelists will also offer advice on overcoming these challenges and forging alliances with professionals from other fields.

Keyword(s): collaboration, service providers
Symposium #462
CE Offered: BACB
Staff training methods for increasing performance, accuracy and treatment integrity
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
217C (CC)
Area: AUT/OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Thouraya Al-Nasser (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Christina M. Peters (University of Nevada, Reno)
CE Instructor: Christina M. Peters, M.S.

Methods and components of staff training will be examined, including teaching staff to run discrete trial training, as well as performance on more general work tasks. Attention will be paid to components that increase performance, persistence, integrity and accuracy. These components include goal setting, feedback, training materials, and error correction procedures.

Service Review: Measuring Performance for Human Services Provider Organizations
W. LARRY WILLIAMS (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: This presentation will describe a behavioral model for establishing and attaining service goals at the individual consumer and organizational levels. The model will be described and several applications of the model in 4 different service settings will be reviewed via data analysis of outcomes at different levels. A discussion of the essential features of the model as an organizational establishing operation will be offered.
Effects of unattainable goals on persistence on a work task
KATHRYN M. ROOSE (University of Nevada, Reno), W. Larry Williams (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: This study was designed to examine the effects of unattainable goals on performance on an analog work task. Students will be given a task and will be told, “do your best.” In a 2x2 factorial design, participants will then be given goals at 150% and 200% of their baseline performance, and will be given feedback in two forms. In one, participants will see what percent of their goal they have achieved. In the other, participants will see what percent of their goal they have achieved plus what percent of their goal they SHOULD have achieved in order to reach their goal by the end of the session. Participants will have the option to reset session time and progress if they are not satisfied with their progress towards the goal, and may do so repeatedly until a predetermined time limit has been reached. Results may indicate whether unattainable goals are effective at increasing performance or if they lead to a decrease in performance when feedback indicates that the goal will not be met. Results will be graphed on a cumulative recorder.
A Self-Instructional Package to Train New Staff to Conduct Discrete Trial Teaching
THOURAYA AL-NASSER (University of Nevada, Reno), W. Larry Williams (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: A Self-instructional package replicating Graff and Karsten (2012) to train undergraduate university students with no previous experience in conducting preference assessments (PA) and its extension to discrete trial training (DTT) is evaluated and assessed in this study. A simulated experimenter as a confederate played the role of a child with intellectual disability. The study had two phases, (1) a baseline in which the participant receives written instructions and written data sheets with no individualized feedback or training, (2) a second phase in which the participant receives enhanced written instructions and enhanced written data sheets. Twelve university students with no prior behavioral training knowledge or experience participated. Results replicate the outcomes reported by Graff and Karsten (2012) in that enhanced training materials appear sufficient for establishing initial accurate preference assessment training performance in typical naive adults. These same conclusions are extended to DTT training and a component analysis is provided regarding the effectiveness of the different teaching strategies.

The Effects of Job Aids and Performance Based Feedback on Staff Implementation of Discrete Trial Instruction

ASHLEY PARNELL (University of Arkansas), Alison Karnes (University of Arkansas), Elizabeth R. Lorah (University of Arkansas)

The current study evaluated the relative effectiveness of job aids and performance based feedback (PBF) on therapist implementation of DTI using a multiple baseline across participants within a changing criterion design. Performance based feedback included weekly vocal and graphic feedback detailing the DTI steps performed correctly and those performed incorrectly. Job aids were visual supports that served as brief, written reminders of the procedural steps required for high fidelity implementation of DTT. This study extends current research by incorporating a level system that segments DTI steps into levels that build upon one another, thereby facilitating the shaping of DTI steps within each level and the subsequent chaining of those steps to form a complete DTI sequence. Additionally, this study supplements the limited research found on training therapists to implement specific DTI error correction procedures.

Paper Session #463
Technology Applications in Interventions for ASD
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
217B (CC)
Area: AUT
Keyword(s): Technology
Chair: Fran Vitale (Michigan State University)
Best Evidence Synthesis of Mobile Technology for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Domain: Applied Research
FRAN VITALE (Michigan State University), Mari MacFarland (Michigan State University), Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University)
Abstract: Mobile communication devices (e.g., iPod, iPad, tablet PC’s) are increasingly used as part of instructional programming for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. However, mobile devices (1) can be expensive, (2) require training time, (3) necessitate identification, and selection of appropriate applications, and (4) may need to be combined with other behavioral practices to ensure optimal gains for learners. The proliferation of devices and applications exceeds the pace at which researchers can consolidate best practices for deployment of the technology in educational programs for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. This presentation discusses the results of two research studies, the first a literature review, and the second a best-evidence synthesis of the intervention research that employed mobile communication devices and related applications for individuals with autism. The synthesis will include outcomes for 66 peer-reviewed articles covering four domains: (a) academic, (b) communication, (c) social, and (d) adaptive skills. In addition, the range of devices, applications, and behavior intervention procedures used by intervention agents will be described. The outcomes of the research studies will be discussed within the context of implications for future research and for individuals who use mobile technology in the provision of services to individuals with autism.
The Use and Effectiveness of Technological Aids for Toilet Training
Domain: Service Delivery
JANINE SHAPIRO (The Applied Behavior Center), Olivia Ivanson (The Applied Behavior Center for Autism), Karen Brzezinski (The Applied Behavior Center for Autism)
Abstract: Age-appropriate toileting behavior is a significant deficit for children with developmental disabilities such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Positive reinforcement procedures are often used to shape independent toileting behavior and to motivate individuals to remain clean and dry. This presentation will discuss the specific behavior analytic protocol used by a center for children with autism to teach elimination in the toilet and data will be presented regarding effectiveness across five patients. Behaviorists frequently reinforce successful toileting behavior on fixed-interval schedules of reinforcement. When combined with scheduled toilet breaks, children may be able to wear underwear and eliminate on the toilet reliably, but this requires the guidance and intervention of an adult. The behavior of independently manding to use the toilet is not as easily shaped as scheduled elimination, and if the child does not request the toilet and the parents or guardians do not guide the child to the toilet frequently, accidents are likely to occur. This presentation examines the effectiveness of a procedure for pairing highly preferred reinforcers with an auditory signaling device (i.e., The Potty Timer Watch) to transfer stimulus control for going to the bathroom and eliminating from a parent or guardian to a technological aid worn by the child. The Potty Timer Watch is designed to reduce reliance on parents whose children require scheduled toileting guidance. Data concerning a 4-year-old girl's increase in independent toileting in the absence of independent manding for the toilet across the home and clinical environments will be discussed.
Keyword(s): Technology
Symposium #464
CE Offered: BACB
Examining the Influence of Public Policy and Legislation on Important Public Health Behavior
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
204B (CC)
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Claudia L. Dozier (The University of Kansas)
Discussant: Ron Van Houten (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: Claudia L. Dozier, Ph.D.
Abstract: This symposium includes two studies that evaluated the influence of various public policy initiatives and legislation to increase major public health and safety concerns. In the first study, the authors used Google Trends to determine consumer searches for spray tans prior to and after ultra-violet indoor tanning (IVIT) was banned for minors in the UK. In the second study, the authors used archival governmental data to determine the influence of various legislation (e.g., seat belt laws, texting laws) on motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) in the US. In addition, associations between technology advances (e.g., iPhone) and car safety features (e.g., air bags) and the occurrence of MVCs were determined. In both studies, a natural multiple-baseline design was used to determine the influence of policy and legislation as it was rolled out across countries (UK) or states (US). Findings are discussed with respect to the influence of public policy and legislation on changing important public health outcomes.
Keyword(s): legislation, public health, public policy
Examining the Effects of Indoor Tanning Bans via a Natural Multiple Baseline in the U.K.
BRYAN YANAGITA (University of Kansas), Derek D. Reed (The University of Kansas), Amel Becirevic (The University of Kansas), Brent Kaplan (The University of Kansas)
Abstract: Ultra-violet indoor tanning (UVIT) is clearly linked to skin cancer prevalence throughout the world. To help tamper rates of youth UVIT use, many public health advocates are pushing for a ban on UVIT for individuals under the age of 18. From a behavioral economic perspective, public health officials could evaluate the concomitant effects of UVIT bans on the consumption of safer tanning alternatives, such as spray tanning. Should a substitutable relation be discovered, this information could dramatically inform public policy efforts. In this study, we examined whether UVIT bans for minors in the United Kingdom – where such bans were implemented at a national level and staggered in terms of their rollouts – increased consumer foraging for spray tanning. Using data from Google Trends, we constructed a natural multiple baseline experiment to demonstrate that searches for spray tans increased as a function of the UVIT legislation. Findings suggest that spray tans may serve as a substitute for UVIT, offering implications for behavioral economic approaches to policies aimed at reducing UVIT in the United States. We conclude with a discussion on the utility and validity of “big data” with respect to consumer foraging and its implications for behavioral scientists.
An Evaluation of the Effects of State Seat Belt and Cell Phone Legislation on Motor Vehicle Collisions
JESSICA FOSTER (The University of Kansas), Claudia L. Dozier (The University of Kansas), Aubrie Bauer (Florida State University -- Panama City), Paige Ryan (Louisiana State University), Jacbo Schooler (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Motor vehicle collisions are the leading cause of death for people ages 3-34 and result in an economic cost of approximately $230 billion each year. Since 1980, states have passed seatbelt legislation to attempt to reduce the fatalities related to motor vehicle collisions (MJC). Recently, states have moved to amend these seatbelt laws as well as pass cell phone legislation that prohibits or limits the use of cell phones while driving (NCSL, 2013). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of seatbelt and cell phone legislation on MVCs across states from 1980-present using a natural multiple-baseline design as laws were implemented and enacted. Additionally, this study evaluated the effects of safety features of cars (e.g., airbags) on fatal MVCs and technology advances (e.g., iPhone) on the total number of MVCs. Results thus far have demonstrated that seatbelt legislation has been associated with decreases in the number of fatal MVCs, whereas cell phone legislation has not been associated with increases or decreases in the total number of MVCs or fatal MVCs across states when collapsing all age groups. Finally, results show that various safety features have been associated with decreases in fatal MVCs.
Paper Session #465
OBM and Human Service Delivery
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
202AB (CC)
Area: OBM
Chair: Bruce Linder (Pryor, Linder & Associates)

Improving Quality and Implementation of Activity Schedules by Staff for Adults With ABI and DD.

Domain: Service Delivery
BRUCE LINDER (Safe Management Group Inc.)

Despite studies demonstrating that predictable activity schedules improves challenging behavioural among developmentally disabled children under experimental conditions, very little is known about the level of consistency with which residential staff provide daily activity schedules (DAS) in naturalistic adult group home settings and how to improve such consistency. Four years of research will be summarized. Study 1 of 6 group home settings servicing 35 adults with acquired brain injuries found, using six 2-week probes over three years, that written DASs were implemented on average only 37% of the time. A second intervention study in two of the group homes over a 12 month period found that DAS implementation could be substantially improved to 80% or higher with a 47% reduction in group home negative behavioural incidents with a DAS training program that focused on supervisor training in on-the-floor DAS supervision. In addition, the positive preventative components of Behaviour Support Plans were implemented significantly more consistently than in 5 comparison group homes which had not received DAS training. Study 3 demonstrated that DAS training conducted for 4 different agencies servicing adults with developmental disabilities improved quality and implementation of DASs, and quality of life. Implications for quality of care will be discussed.


The Effect of a Multi-Component Staff Training Model on Staff Performance in Intensive Behavior Internvention

Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL LAM (St Cloud State University), Eric Rudrud (St. Cloud State University), Kimberly A. Schulze (St. Cloud State University), James CK Porter (Aspiration and Discoveries)

Intensive Behavior Intervention (IBI) is used in the treatment of individuals with Pervasive Developmental Disorder and other disabilities. Training individuals to implement specific IBI programs have often utilized multi-component models consisting of written and verbal training materials, modeling, and feedback. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a multi-component staff training model that incorporates a self-evaluation phase to increase and maintain staff performance in implementing an IBI program. Increase in performance was demonstrated across all three therapists. This study extrapolated several key focuses from previous studies (e.g., delivering proper instructions, reinforcement, prompting, pace of instructions, behaviors strategies, etc.); Therefore, multi-component staff training model was effective in increasing overall implementation of ABA teaching principles, as opposed to only one specific technique.

Symposium #466
Bringing the Dissemination of Behavior Analysis into the 21st Century
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
207B (CC)
Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Elizabeth Fontaine (The Chicago School)
Abstract: The use of online media has increased significantly in the last decade. Even our parents now have Facebook pages and just about everyone has a smart phone with the ability to access the internet in any location. Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube now are among the most frequently visited webpages in the world and for better or worse, it appears that online media is here to stay. As society changes the way it obtains and shares information, so too must professional and scientific disciplines update their means of communication and education. This is especially important for the field of behavior analysis which often misunderstood and largely underrepresented among the general public. At present, however, behavior analysis has barely begun to scratch the surface of this new, potentially powerful vehicle for dissemination. The following presentations seek to shed light on how online media can be used within the field, as well as describing some specific steps, considerations, and possible limitations of the use of online media as a dissemination tool.
Disseminating Behavior Analysis Through the Use of Facebook and Twitter
Abstract: Although many behavior analysts have developed effective behavioral technologies, dissemination of information about behavior analysis has not been largely successful. Dissemination of behavior analysis is important for the science to grow and reach larger audiences. Promoting behavior analysis in a positive and accurate point of view to help society realize the potential of the science is an important part of disseminating behavior analysis. The use of social media, specifically Facebook and Twitter may be a more effective means of promoting behavior analysis than other avenues, such as books, newspapers and radio. Social media has become ever present and important for content sharing. Currently, behavior analysts use Facebook and Twitter to target a small community that includes those who are already in the field of behavior analysis, are interested in the field, or are families looking for support. Despite the popularity and worldwide use of social media, it remains an untapped resource for publicizing behavior analysis. This presentation will explore ideas for using Facebook and Twitter to effectively disseminate behavior analysis.
Using YouTube to Disseminate Behavior Analysis
CAMERON MITTELMAN (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Dissemination of the science of behavior analysis is one of the most important responsibilities for a behavior analyst. Dissemination is even included in the BACB guidelines for responsible conduct. Despite this, behavior analysis has not reached the level of mainstream awareness many other scientific disciplines enjoy. Many of the methods commonly used for dissemination are often target specific audiences or are presented in ways that are not easily accessible to the general public. Online video, or more specifically YouTube, is a potentially powerful medium for dissemination that has yet to be tapped into by the field of behavior analysis. The following presentation will describe the many advantages of using YouTube to communicate behavior analysis that are not afforded by traditional means of dissemination. Several considerations and recommendations for the behavior analyst wishing to create and release videos through YouTube will also be presented. Finally, possible limitations of YouTube-based dissemination will be discussed, as well as potential ways to address them.
The Effect of Different Presentations on Participants’ Evaluations and Knowledge about Applied Behavior Analysis
EMILY SCHECHTER (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: The proposed study examined the effect of different multimedia presentations on the evaluative statements of psychology graduate students in the Chicago area as well as individuals from the general public across the United States. Participants completed an online pretest and posttest to assess their repertoire of factual knowledge about Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), as well as a pretest and posttest free-write of evaluative statements. Participants viewed three presentations related to ABA: an emotional narrative, a factual PowerPoint presentation, and a video of ABA provider perspectives. Participants responded to questions about their evaluations of each of the three presentation styles, and completed a final questionnaire on which they compared all three presentations. The results will show whether participants’ factual knowledge about ABA increases as a function of one or more presentations, if there is a change in their number of positive and negative statements about the field of ABA, as well as which presentation style participants view as the most effective for disseminating information about the field of ABA.
Panel #467
CE Offered: BACB
PDS EVENT: Strategies and Considerations for Effective Supervision via Remote Technologies
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
214A (CC)
Area: PRA/OBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Denise Ross, Ph.D.
Chair: Denice Rios (Western Michigan University)
WENDY A. MACHALICEK (University of Oregon)
BRYAN DROESCH (Haugland Learning Center)
DENISE ROSS (Western Michigan University)

Currently, the demand for applied behavior analytic services far exceeds the number of individuals that can provide them. As a result, service providers have multiplied the number of individuals they hire in order to meet this need. Despite this increase in individuals working with clients, the number of qualified behavior analysts that can provide effective supervision for these individuals is in short supply. Specifically, in rural areas, the lack of access to qualified behavior analysts often results in poor supervision experiences and long delays in receiving appropriate training. Furthermore, the lack of access to adequate support results in further delay for individuals pursuing credentials. In order to address this problem, researchers and practitioners have begun to provide supervision and training via remote technologies. In rural areas, where behavior analysts are in short supply, remote technologies can be one solution to the problem. Providing supervision via remote technologies allows for expert supervision and training for individuals in areas that might not otherwise get access to effective supervision. In this series, three expert panelists will review and discuss empirically based approaches to supervision and training via remote technologies. In addition, they will discuss implications and suggestions for future research in this area.

Keyword(s): supervision, teleconsultation, training
Symposium #468
CE Offered: BACB
How Behavior Analysis Can Shape our Understanding of Mindfulness
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
Texas Ballroom Salon C (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CBM/PRA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Eliina Novamo (The University of North Texas)
Discussant: Jonathan J. Tarbox (Autism Research Group, Center for Autism and Relat)
CE Instructor: Jonathan J. Tarbox, Ph.D.
Abstract: Recent interest among clinical behavior analysts has stimulated a growing body of research on meditation and mindfulness. Practices that enhance mindfulness show promise in decreasing distress and increasing overall well-being in a variety of contexts (e.g., Baer, Carmody, & Hunsinger, 2012). This symposium will explore those benefits as well as discuss how researchers, practitioners, and clients understand and approach mindfulness practices. The first paper will discuss pervasive myths and misconceptions about meditation, as well as explore how specific misconceptions can be used to shape mindfulness related behavior. The second paper examines undergraduates’ conceptions of self and others’ present moment awareness pre and post meditation practice. The third paper will present a longitudinal study examining quality of life for novice meditators using single-subject analyses. The fourth paper will examine two studies focusing on mindfulness training for personal productivity of teachers and teachers’ assistants. Implications of improving the definition, practice, and research of meditation and mindfulness practices will be discussed throughout.
Keyword(s): Interpersonal Perception, Mindfulness, Productivity, Single-subject
Full-lotus and an empty mind: Exploring the prevalence and impact of common misconceptions about meditation
ETHAN LESTER (University of North Texas), Danielle Moyer (University of North Texas), Amy Murrell (University of North Texas)
Abstract: The practice of mindfulness and meditation is gaining popular recognition in western society, and among clinical behavior analysts. The use of mindfulness and meditation in therapeutic contexts has led to improvement in a variety of presenting difficulties (e.g., stress; Baer, Carmody, & Hunsinger, 2012; anxiety; Kabat-Zinn, Massion, Kristeller, & Peterson, 1992). Unfortunately given these recognized benefits, attrition in mindfulness-based interventions is high. Low treatment completion rates, at least in part, can be accounted for by a pervasive misunderstanding of mindfulness and meditation practices (Williams, Van Ness, & McCorkle, 2011). It appears that specific misconceptions make up the popular understanding of mindfulness, and these myths can interfere with learning and applying useful skills. This conceptual paper intends to explore the prevalence of common myths and misconceptions about meditation, specifically. A discussion about how these topics could inform future research on identifying the specific behaviors that compose mindfulness more broadly will be included. Furthermore, this paper will start a conversation that addresses how myths and misconceptions can be utilized to guide shaping of public behavior and private events relevant to mindfulness.
Seeing and Being Present: Discriminating Present Moment Awareness in the Self and Other
REBECCA COPELL (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Grayson Butcher (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Stephanie Caldas (Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health), Ashlyne Mullen (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)
Abstract: Clinical behavior analysis is increasingly targeting “being present.” Present moment awareness is posited to be an important component of psychological health, and a mechanism of therapeutic change. In short, present moment awareness is proposed as necessary for much human learning. If this is true, then discriminating present moment awareness is important for all agents of behavior change. Practically speaking, such discrimination might begin with defining present moment awareness. For behavior analysts, however, defining present moment awareness presents a significant challenge. Common definitions seem to involve reference to not only a private event (e.g., anxiety), but layers of private events (e.g., awareness of anxiety). It may be, however, that the socioverbal community already possesses some consensus, although not well-articulated, about what present moment awareness looks like. In this study, undergraduate participants observed video recordings of individuals describing personal experiences before and after mindfulness meditation. They recorded when, during each video, the individual seemed to be particularly present, rated the individual’s overall level of present moment awareness, and rated their own level of present moment awareness. Observations were examined for agreement, convergence between self and other ratings, and differences between pre- and post meditation.
Mindfulness Meditation: Using Statistics to Ensure the Behaviors of Single Subjects Remain our Primary Analytic Units
SOLOMON KURZ (University of Mississippi), Kate Kellum (University of Mississippi), Kelly G. Wilson (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: Many group-based studies show mindfulness meditation can facilitate a life lived well. However, these findings are limited in that group-level analyses provide “average” results for “average” participants. The question largely remains: How do individual meditators fare over time? Group-level inference is no longer necessary to apply rigorous statistical models to longitudinal data. Modern techniques, such as the dynamic p-technique, allow for multivariate single-subject statistical analyses. The dynamic p-technique also allows behavioral researchers to inductively aggregate single-subject statistical models from multiple participants into functionally defined group models. However, the fundamental analytic units remain the behaviors of single subjects. In the present paper, we will present the statistical analyses of daily diary data from several novice meditators. Undergraduate participants tracked their data using smartphone apps over the course of a semester. Behaviors of interest are mindfulness meditation, sleep, worry, psychological inflexibility, and satisfaction with life. Using the dynamic p-technique, we will first present single-subject analyses and then augment those analyses with small group models. Future directions will include discussions of smart technology for data collection and methodological refinements for experimental control.

Immediate and Delayed Effects of Mindfulness on Productivity: Results from Laboratory and Applied Settings

JESSICA DWYER (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Alison Beauvais Carris (Elim Christian School), Scott Herbst (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Fawna Stockwell (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)

Few studies have examined the effects of mindfulness training on personal productivity. This paper will present two studies examining the effects of mindfulness on productivity. The first experiment used an alternating treatments design in which eight adult participants engaged in a brief mindfulness exercise or educational control before completing math problems while also engaging in a cold-pressor task. Results suggested that brief mindfulness training increased pain tolerance, but effects on productivity were not clear. The second experiment extends on this research by examining if repeated practice, both in a work environment as well as at home, results in gains in productivity. Participants were teachers and teacher’s assistants. Participants completed mindfulness sessions during a planning period, as well as at home, on a daily basis. The experimenters used a multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effects of mindfulness practice on the number of words written for lesson planning or on progress notes.

Symposium #469
CE Offered: BACB
Words, Bodies, Drinks, and Drugs: New Applications of Third Wave Behavior Therapies
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
Texas Ballroom Salon B (Grand Hyatt)
Area: CBM/VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Nolan Williams (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)
Discussant: Amy Murrell (University of North Texas)
CE Instructor: Amy Murrell, Ph.D.

Third wave behavior therapies have been described as focusing on elaborating behavioral repertoires instead of decreasing psychological symptoms. This often includes, to some degree, both training mindfulness skills and constructing valued patterns of behavior. Third wave approaches have been applied to a variety of areas of human suffering. This symposium will review four applications of various components of third wave behavior therapies across formats, settings, populations, and target behaviors. The first paper in this symposium explores the impact of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as an adjunctive treatment to improve the quality of life of an individual struggling with stuttering. The second paper will present data on the effectiveness of a self-help book focused on improving body-image flexibility. The third paper in the symposium will explore the impact of a specific eastern meditation practice on substance use. The fourth paper will examine the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy for marijuana abuse. Implications for future treatment development efforts will be discussed.

Keyword(s): Interventions, Mindfulness, Psychological Flexibility
ACT-ing Fluently: The Impacts of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on the Subjective Quality of Life of a Person Who Stutters
ALAINA KIEFNER (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Emmy LeBleu (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Emily Allen (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), John Tetnowski (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Thales De Nardo (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Michael Azios (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)
Abstract: Effective communication is a fundamental part of human life. Persons who stutter (PWS) can experience mild to severe levels of impairment in communication fluency. This inability to communicate fluently with others, in addition to being associated with negative social interactions such as bullying, can often lead to negative experiences of otherwise innocuous or pleasant social situations. Thus persons who stutter often experience reduced quality of life in various domains including: vitality, social functioning, mental health, and emotional functioning. Psychological flexibility, the ability to be in contact with one’s values and pursue or not pursue action when doing so aligns with those values, has been associated with increased quality of life in many different populations. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a third wave behavioral therapy that has as its main focus the pursuit of increased psychological flexibility. That being so, we hypothesized that ACT might be a beneficial addition to traditional speech therapy for the treatment of PWS. This presentation will address the preliminary results of one case study of ACT plus traditional speech therapy for an individual who stutters. Preliminary results suggest that the ACT/speech therapy intervention was successful in improving the individual’s reported quality of life.
Living with Your Body: An Examination of Flexibility-Based Bibiotherapy for Body Image
BENJAMIN RAMOS (University of Louisiana at Lafayetta), Grayson Butcher (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Lauren Burns (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Lauren Griffin (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)
Abstract: “Body image” is a term used to describe behaviors evoked by the body, including private behaviors like body-related thoughts and feelings, and public behaviors, such as body checking or grooming. For some individuals, body image has little impact on their lives as a whole. For others, however, the experience of the body is aversive – associated with a range of painful experience and resulting in a range of avoidance behaviors. Body image disturbance of this sort can come to interfere with daily functioning and overall quality of life. Emerging research suggests that building body image flexibility, or the capacity to experience the full range of body-related experiences without engaging in avoidance, can help to improve well-being amongst those with body image struggles. This population, however, tends not to present for treatment, requiring alternative means of intervention. This study examined the impact of an flexibility-based self-help book, Living with Your Body and Other Things You Hate on a body image disturbance and overall well being. Preliminary data are promising. Implications for further research and for intervention will be discussed.
Eastern Meditation in Drug Treatment Facilities
DEBESH MALLIK (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), David R. Perkins (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)
Abstract: Despite the availability of various substance abuse treatments, substance misuse and the negative consequences associated with it remain a serious problem in our society. Various types of meditation have been evaluated for treatment of substance use disorders, but the research has not drawn any specific conclusions. This may be due to a small sample size, lack of a control group, and lack of spiritual emphasis. Therefore, the current study included a larger than normal sample size (N=90), a spiritual emphasis (12-steps) and inner eye concentration, a sham relaxation control group (progressive relaxation), and a treatment-as-usual control (TAU) group. The meditation technique was a simple meditation technique where the attention of focus remains on the point between the eyebrows. The current study examines changes in substance use, depression, anxiety, stress, emotional regulation, and health-related quality of life among three groups (meditation, progressive relaxation, and TAU) over a 6 month period. Implications for integration of meditation with behavioral treatments will be discussed.
Using Protocolized Acceptance and Commitment Training to Decrease Drug Use
ALEXANDER MCLEAN (University of South Florida), Timothy M. Weil (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Behavior analysts have had much success in the world of intellectual disabilities and children. However, the realm of language-based psychopathology has just begun to be addressed within the field. Inclusion of an understanding of derived stimulus relations may provide an understanding of the effects of transformation of function on our behavior. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is based on derived stimulus relations and allows for a behavior analytic treatment of language-based psychopathology. The current study intended to test the efficacy of a brief protocol-delivered ACT intervention with individuals who smoke marijuana. Oral swab drug screens was the primary dependent variable, along with self-reported drug use and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II(AAQ-II). All six ACT components were taught briefly to each subject using a set list of metaphors and exercises and was assessed using a concurrent multiple baseline across participants design. Results show that large reductions in marijuana intake was observed by all participants (n=3) by the second session and these reductions maintained at one month follow up.
Symposium #470
CE Offered: BACB
Investigations of Video Modeling: Procedural Variations and Effects
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
204A (CC)
Area: CSE/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Steven Woolf (Beacon ABA Services)
Discussant: Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
CE Instructor: Robert K. Ross, Ed.D.
Abstract: The use of video modeling procedures is widely considered to be an evidence based practice. To date over 180 studies demonstrating positive outcomes of the use of video modeling procedures across a broad range of skills has been published in peer reviewed journals. However, despite all of the evidence of effectiveness of these procedures, little data have been published demonstrating differential outcomes of within treatment variations of basic video modeling procedures. This symposium presents three separate comparison studies that expand our knowledge of the effects of procedural variations of video modeling interventions. All three presentations clarify or identify previously unstudied phenomena and outcomes of variations of video modeling procedures.
Keyword(s): Video Modeling

Effects of Point of View and Scene Video Modeling on Imitation of Vocal and Motor Responses

KIMBERLY FLINT (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)

Video modeling (VM) has been used to teach individuals with developmental disabilities and autism to complete various tasks such as play (Hine & Wolery, 2006), self-help (Shipley-Benamou, Lutzker, Taubman, 2002) leisure (Stromer, Kimball, Kinney, & Taylor, 2006) and academics (Charlop & Milstein, 1989). However, there are many variations of video modeling and little data on differences in skill acquisition from one form of modeling versus another. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of the presentation of two common forms of video modeling (Point of View VM and Scene VM) on the imitation of vocal and motor responses depicted in the videos. In baseline, play items were presented to the participant and data were collected on vocal and motor responses for 60 seconds. In the treatment condition, participants viewed either the point of view VM or the scene VM of a play routine, then the play items were presented and again data were collected on the target responses. The results suggest that little difference in demonstration of motor responses were seen across video types, however imitation of vocal responses occurred more frequently in the point of view VM condition.

A Comparison of Video Modeling Procedures That Do and Do Not Depict Reinforcement Delivery
Marissa Murphy (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services), VICTORIA SADLER (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: Video modeling is considered an effective technique for teaching a wide range of skills to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Video modeling is an instructional procedure which involves the participant viewing a video of a model engaging in the target behavior and then imitating the actions as seen. However, no studies to date have addressed whether or not depicting the model receiving reinforcement contingent upon engaging in the targeted response as part of the video being presented affects the rate at which the skill is acquired. The current study was designed to compare video modeling procedures that do and do not depict reinforcement delivery. An alternating treatments design was used. In one condition the participant was shown videos that depicted the model correctly performing the target behavior and receiving reinforcement. In the other condition the participant was shown videos that end immediately after the model performs the target behavior. Data suggests that there is little difference in rates of acquisition between the two treatment conditions.
Comparing the Effects of Video Model Content on Vocal and Motor Imitation
VICTORIA SADLER (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: Video modeling has been shown to effectively teach pretend play to children with autism (Reagon, Higbee, & Endicott, 2006; MacDonald, Sacramone, Mansfield, Wiltz, & Ahearn, 2009). The purpose of the current study is to compare two types of video models to determine if one version more reliably produces vocal and motor responses across 10 children with autism. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the two video model conditions (Play scene video and Repetitive video). Participants assigned to the play condition viewed a video containing 6 motor actions and 6 vocal responses that all related to a train play theme (i.e., pushing the train on the track with the vocal “choo choo”). Participants assigned to the repetitive play condition viewed a video containing 2 motor actions repeated across 3 items (i.e., touching a train, a dog, then a tree) and a vocal response describing the motor action being preformed (i.e., “touch train”). Prior to and following video modeling experimenters measured participants’ motor and vocal responses during a 30-s session in which the participants engaged with the items depicted in the video model. The results indicate that acquisition of responses varied across participants

The Effects of Stimulus Presentation Mode on Rates of Acquisition of Receptive Identification by Function

Kristin Lamothe (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services), KIMBERLY FLINT (Beacon ABA Services)

The rapid pace of technological advances is resulting in an increasing availability of computer-based devices and software applications that can be used in teaching programs for individuals with developmental disabilities. Much research has focused on the use of the iPad and its benefits as a communication platform for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. To date, there are few empirical studies which focus on the iPad in the context of academic skills. There is also little research to suggest that learning in an iPad based format occurs at a faster rate than when using common instructional practices (i.e., flashcards). In the current study an alternating treatment design was used to compare the effects of the two different stimulus presentation modes (iPad vs. flashcards) to teach receptive identification by function. In one condition, the iPad was presented with an array of target stimuli in nine varying placements on the screen. In the second condition, flashcards were rotated in nine different placements on a black laminated sheet. The data indicate that the stimuli presented via the iPad were acquired more quickly than those presented via flashcards.

Symposium #471
Translational Research: Setting, Prompt and Reinforcement Schedule Effects on Response Persistence for Children with Autism
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
006C (CC)
Area: EAB/AUT; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Wendy K. Berg (The University of Iowa)
Discussant: Christopher A. Podlesnik (Florida Institure of Technology)

Basic research studies on treatment relapse have shown that the strength of a target response can be influenced by variations in independent variables such as reinforcement schedules, context, and stimuli presented during baseline and extinction sessions. Most of these studies have been conducted in animal laboratories that allow for high levels of precision and consistency in the animals immediate history. The findings from these studies may have significance for the design of treatments to address problem behaviors shown by children with developmental disabilities. Four translational studies on the persistence of appropriate communicative responses and/or problem behavior for children with autism will be presented. The presentations include: (a) an evaluation of response renewal following communication training in home settings, (b) an evaluation of the effects of different prompt schedules during treatment on the persistence of behavior following treatment, (c) an examination of the results of high rate versus low rate differential reinforcement schedules on response persistence, and (d) an evaluation factors influencing the effects of noncontingent reinforcement schedules on the persistence of target behavior. Dr. Chris Podlesnik will discuss the studies and the findings at the conclusion of the paper presentations.

Keyword(s): Communication Training, Reinforcement Schedule, Response Persistence, Translational Research
Evaluation of Renewal and Resurgence of Problem Behavior during Functional Communication Training Conducted via Telehealth
ALYSSA N. SUESS (The University of Iowa), David P. Wacker (The University of Iowa), Jessica Detrick (The University of Iowa )
Abstract: Previous research suggests that differential reinforcement procedures may inadvertently strengthen problem behavior resulting in relapse. The current study evaluated one potential solution based on Mace et al. (2010), which involved initially implementing functional communication training (FCT) within a context with a minimal history of reinforcement for problem behavior. Following initial treatment, we evaluated generalization of manding to the treatment context and then evaluated the maintenance of treatment during subsequent extinction challenges. Participants were four young children diagnosed with autism whose problem behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement. Parents implemented all procedures in their homes within multielement designs with coaching provided via telehealth. IOA was collected on 30% of sessions and averaged at least 90% across participants. Following an extinction baseline, FCT was implemented in three training contexts that had minimal history of reinforcement for problem behavior. Common stimuli from the treatment context were incorporated into the training contexts to program for generalization. FCT was then implemented in the treatment context, and extinction probes were conducted intermittently throughout treatment. Results demonstrated little to no renewal of problem behavior occurred in the treatment context. Furthermore, little to no demand fading was needed to maintain treatment effects with minimal resurgence during extinction.
Further Evaluation of Response Persistence Following FCT: The Role of Response Prompting
KRISTINA VARGO (Sam Houston State University), Joel Eric Ringdahl (Southern Illinois University), Wendy K. Berg (The University of Iowa), David P. Wacker (The University of Iowa), Patrick Romani (The University of Iowa), Stephen E. Ryan (The University of Iowa), Anna Ing (The University of Iowa)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) is the most widely used treatment for severe behavior problems with individuals with developmental disabilities. Typically, this approach includes two components: (a) discontinuing the response- reinforcer relation between problem behavior and reinforcement, and (b) delivering functional reinforcers contingent on appropriate communication. Previous research demonstrated the robustness of FCT across different topographies of problem behavior and appropriate communicative responses (e.g., vocal requests, manual signs). However, there is little research regarding the maintenance of treatment effects when FCT is disrupted (see, Wacker et al., 2010 for an exception). In the current investigation, persistence of communication was evaluated following two treatment conditions for a child with autism: (a) a dense rate of prompts to communicate (i.e., 2 prompts per minute) and (b) a lean rate of prompts to communicate (i.e., 0.2 prompts per min). Reinforcement rates were kept similar across the conditions. The dense prompt rate yielded greater persistence of communication suggesting that specific treatment components such as prompt density may influence the persistence of a response outside of treatment. Additional clinical applications and directions for future research will be discussed. Interobserver agreement scores were calculated for 30% of all sessions, and met a criterion of 90% agreement.
Examing Behavioral Persistence Following High-Rate and Low-Rate Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior
F. CHARLES MACE (Nova Southeastern University), Kristina Samour (Nova Southeastern University ), Tara M. Sheehan (Mailman Segal Institute), John A. Nevin (University of New Hampshire)
Abstract: When effective reinforcers for problem behavior can be identified by functional analysis, withholding those reinforcers during extinction while reinforcing alternative behavior has been effective in reducing many forms of problem behavior in children with autism or other intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). However, alternative reinforcement delivered in the same setting where target behavior occurs has been found to increase the persistence of that behavior, and to increase relapse when alternative reinforcement is discontinued. These findings have been obtained in basic, translational, and clinical research and are predicted by Behavioral Momentum Theory (BMT). To evaluate the effects of reinforcer rate for alternative behavior (DRA) on the level and persistence of analog problem behavior during extinction when DRA is discontinued, high-rate and low-rate DRA treatment components were alternately implemented in a multiple schedule arrangement. Results showed that high-rate and low-rate DRA were about equally effective in reducing target behavior. However, target behavior was more resistant to extinction following treatment with high-rate DRA. Implications for designing behavioral treatments utilizing DRA will be discussed.
Using Behavioral Momentum Theory to Evaluate the Effects of Discriminability and Alternative Reinforcement on Noncontingent Reinforcement and Persistence During Extinction
VALDEEP SAINI (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is a widely researched and empirically supported treatment for problem behavior. However, conceptual and quantitative derivations of behavioral momentum theory (BMT), along with some empirical findings, suggest that certain aspects of treatment may promote response persistence in some circumstances. Using children with autism we investigated these aspects and circumstances. In Study 1 we evaluated the effects of increasing the discriminability of noncontingent reinforcer deliveries during NCR and a subsequent extinction (EXT) challenge. In Study 2 we evaluated the relative effects of NCR delivered with and without EXT on the rapidity of reductions in the target response and on levels of persistence during an EXT challenge. Results of Study 1 suggested that increasing the discriminability of noncontingent reinforcer deliveries can increase the effectiveness of NCR and decrease response persistence during an EXT challenge. Results of Study 2 suggest that levels of response persistence are much higher when NCR is superimposed over ongoing reinforcement for the target response (i.e., NCR w/o EXT) than when contingent reinforcement is discontinued concomitant with the introduction of NCR (i.e., NCR with EXT). Potential refinements of NCR based on these findings are discussed in relation to conceptual and quantitative aspects of behavioral momentum theory.
Paper Session #472
Behavioral Economics
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
006D (CC)
Area: EAB
Chair: Carlos F. Aparicio Naranjo Naranjo (Salem State University)
Delay Discounting in Spontaneously Hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) Rats
Domain: Basic Research
Abstract: Animal models of attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) use the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), claiming that it shows behaviors that are functionally similar to those observed in humans with ADHD. This study investigated behavioral determinants of impulsive choice linked to ADHD and compared the performances of SHR with those of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats on a concurrent-chains procedure. Initial-link responses in two levers were interpreted as choices for a smaller reinforcer (1-food pellet) that could be produced immediately and a larger reinforcer (4-food pellets) that could be obtained after delays of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 or 80 s occurring in random order within sessions. Entries to the terminal-link were arranged dependently, controlling possible confound between frequency and delay of reinforcement. Delay discounting was well described by both a hyperbolic-decay model and a general form of the matching law. Estimates of rate of discounting and sensitivity to delay increased with increasing number of sessions. The role of extended training in determining the impulsive choices of SHR and WKY rats will be discussed.
Sexual Delay and Probability Discounting: Devaluation of Protected Sex Due to Delay or Uncertainty
Domain: Basic Research
SINEENUCH WONGSOMBOON (Arizona State University), Muchen Zhu (Arizona State University), Amanda Small (Arizona State University), Robert Ross (Arizona State University), Araceli Moreno (Arizona State University), Brandon McColley (Arizona State University)
Abstract: It has yet to be known why some people engage in sexual risk behavior even though it may lead to sexually transmitted Infections (STIs). This study examined college students preference for having protected sex when it is delayed or uncertain. During the delay discounting task participants were asked to rate their likelihood (0-100%) of waiting for a specified period of time to have protected sex while they could have immediate sex without protection. During the probability discounting task participants were asked to rate their likelihood of having protected sex when the chance to have it was uncertain and they could have unprotected sex for sure. Before both tasks began, participants were shown photographs of hypothetical sexual partners, and were asked to choose their preferred partners based on their attractiveness and perceived likelihood of having an STI. Preliminary data show that people preferred immediate or certain sex without protection over delayed or uncertain sex with protection especially when a partner was perceived as more attractive regardless of the perceived likelihood of having an STI.
The Sign Effect and Competing Contingencies
Domain: Basic Research
ELISE FURREBOE (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
Abstract: Deferring discomfort has been argued to be the same basic impulse as preferring sooner-smaller (SS) over later-larger (LL) gains (Ainslie, 2010). However, while some early studies have supported the conclusion that aversive outcomes are preferred delayed (Yates & Watts, 1975), other studies have found that subjective value of a gain decreased as the delay increases, but the same is not true for losses (Mischel, Grusec and Masters, 1969). There is growing evidence for the sign effect, which means discounting of gains is steeper than for losses (Frederick, Loewenstein, & O'Donoghue, 2002; Thaler, 1981). The sign effect seems to be greater for within-subject compared to between-subjects (Wilkinson & Klaes, 2012). This may indicate that some individuals in fact show zero discounting of losses. A flatter discounting curve could mean steep discounting of losses for some and no discounting for others, on an aggregate level, rather than generally flatter curves for most of the individuals (Mischel et al., 1969). The scope of this paper is to discuss results from discounting of losses and gains on an individual level, and to view these results in relation to the different effects positive and negative reinforcement may have on discounting.

Understanding the Relationship Between Response Effort and Food Demand

Domain: Basic Research
JONATHAN W. PINKSTON (University of North Texas), Christina Nord (University of North Texas)

There has been little work evaluating the relationship between response effort and consumption; moreover, research examining effort and consumption has used weighted response levers. Weighting response levers introduces a confound because the response definition changes as the threshold force of activation changes. In the present study, rats were trained to press a force transducer, which holds the response definition constant while varying the reinforcement criteria, to earn food in a rapid demand procedure. Fixed-ratio schedules varied daily during conditions, and force criteria for reinforcement varied from 5.6 g - 56.0 g across conditions. The response threshold was maintained at 5.6 g. When force criteria increased, response output increased by 10-50% more than required by the schedule; these subcriterion responses met the response threshold, but did not meet force criteria. Demand analysis showed that increasing the force requirement increased sensitivity to the nominal price. Control conditions showed that the subcriterion responses did not alter demand. The data indicate that effort is an important component of price, and the data showing the extra subcriterion responses did not alter demand suggest that effort may be more important than nominal price, e.g. response count per food, in determining consumption.

Symposium #473
CE Offered: BACB
Home-Based ABA Services: Maintaining High Standards and Best Practices in Function-Based Treatments
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
213AB (CC)
Area: PRA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Brandon Herscovitch (ABACS, LLC)
Discussant: Sandy Jin (Eastern Connecticut State University)
CE Instructor: Brandon Herscovitch, Ph.D.
Abstract: Functional analysis is a powerful tool for the assessment of challenging behavior in students with autism and other disabilities. Functional analyses systematically manipulate the antecedents and consequences of target behaviors so as to experimentally determine the function(s) of those behaviors. The results of functional analyses may then be used to develop more effective treatments. There is an abundance of research on the success of functional analyses in determining the maintaining variables of challenging behaviors, and in the increased efficacy of function-based treatments. Nevertheless, their use in home-based settings may be limited. However, functional analysis methodology may be modified for home settings, utilizing available resources, without sacrificing integrity or the ability to demonstrate experimental control. The present studies discuss the resources needed to conduct functional analyses in home-based settings and demonstrate how efficiently functional analyses may be conducted in the home, leading to the development of function-based treatments and better outcomes for students.
Keyword(s): Experimental Control, Function-Based Treatments, Functional Analysis, Home-Based Setting
Conducting Functional Analyses in Home-Based Settings: Preliminary Data on Resources Needed
STEPHANIE PHELAN (ABACS, LLC), Ashley Williams (ABACS, LLC), Meghan Clausen (ABACS, LLC), Brandon Herscovitch (ABACS, LLC)
Abstract: Functional analysis is a powerful tool for the assessment of challenging behavior in students with autism and other disabilities. Functional analyses systematically manipulate the antecedents and consequences of target behaviors so as to experimentally determine the function(s) of those behaviors. There is an abundance of research on the effectiveness of functional analyses, nevertheless, their use in home-based settings may be limited. Current research suggests that one reason for this may be the large number of resources traditionally associated with planning for and conducting functional analyses. In the current study, data were compiled on 14 different functional analyses conducted by an agency providing home-based ABA services. Preliminary data were described on a variety of dependent variables including duration of time to conduct functional analysis, total duration of consultation, and cost of analysis, among others. Data suggest that functional analyses can be efficiently conducted in home settings and with limited resources, which may lead to better treatment outcomes.
Using Functional Communication Training and Reinforcer Delay Fading to Treat Multiply-Maintained Aggressive Behavior
ASHLEY WILLIAMS (ABACS, LLC), Gretchen A. Dittrich (Simmons College)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) is a widely-accepted treatment for children with challenging behavior. Though effective, FCT fails to provide children with the skills necessary to tolerate delays or denials in accessing reinforcement. Previous research suggests reinforcer delay fading, among other procedures, to teach tolerance to longer periods of delay. In the current study, a demand fading procedure with extinction was used to teach tolerance to increasing delays in accessing positive and negative reinforcement (i.e. escape from academic demands and access to an iPad) following FCT training for a 3-year-old boy with autism spectrum disorder. Following a brief functional analysis, a multiple treatment with reversal design was used to assess rates of communication responses, aggressive behavior, and task compliance in a home setting with generalization to novel staff and setting. Results indicated rapid suppression of aggressive behaviors following FCT and increases in tolerance to delays in accessing reinforcement during delay fading. Task completion increased rapidly during the delay phase, with high, stable rates of mands and low, near-zero rates of aggression. Interobserver agreement was established at 96.6% across 73% of sessions, with procedural integrity averaging 91.5% across 41% of sessions. Future research should determine the effects of auditory and visual signals in facilitating delay tolerance.

Applications of Clinic-Based Research Into Home Settings

KIMBERLY DIGGS (TACT), Kevin Schlichenmeyer (TACT), Kara LaCroix (TACT)

Few studies have illustrated the behavior analytic assessment and treatment process from start to finish (Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty, 2014). We conducted a systematic replication of the process outlined by Hanley et al. (2014) to treat screaming exhibited by a young male with an autism spectrum disorder in a home setting. First, a single-function test consisted of alternation between test and control conditions. During test conditions, screaming produced 30s access to tangible items (e.g., ipad). During control conditions, we provided non-contingent access to tangible items. Functional analysis results suggested screaming was maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of tangible delivery. Treatment consisted of differential reinforcement of an increasingly complex functional communication response, denial training, and subsequent parent training and parent implementation. Results were similar to those reported by Hanley et al. (2014), such that substantial reductions in problem behavior were observed concurrent with establishing appropriate alternative responses not observed in baseline. Inter-observer agreement data were collected for 36 percent of sessions and exceeded 83 percent.


Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior Exhibited in Community Settings

KARA LACROIX (TACT), Kevin Schlichenmeyer (TACT), Kimberly Diggs (TACT)

Although functional analysis methodology is the most widely recommended pre-treatment assessment, the behavior analytic literature offers a paucity of functional analysis demonstrations in community settings. We extended research in this area by conducting a trial-based functional analysis in a community setting for screaming exhibited by a young girl diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Test conditions consisted of termination of walking to a particular location (e.g., Dunkin Donuts), whereas the control condition consisted of non-contingent access to walking to a particular location. Problem behavior occurred predominantly in test conditions relative to control conditions. Subsequently, a differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) procedure was implemented wherein pointing to a communication card produced access to the particular location while screaming was on extinction. The effects of the DRA procedure were replicated in a reversal design. During DRA conditions, screaming remained low and communication occurred consistently. A noteworthy feature of the analysis and treatment was its brevity, requiring 64 minutes and 55 seconds for completion. Inter-observer agreement data for the functional analysis were collected for 50 percent of trials and yielded 100 percent. Inter-observer agreement data for the treatment were collected for 32 percent of trials and yielded 89 percent.

Symposium #474
CE Offered: BACB
Non-linear Approaches to Behavior: Israel Goldiamond's Blue Books
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
007C (CC)
Area: TPC/PRA; Domain: Theory
Chair: Cameron Green (Florida State University, Brohavior)
Discussant: T. V. (Joe) Layng (Generategy, LLC)
CE Instructor: Ryan Lee O'Donnell, M.S.

The variables that control behavior are not an amalgamation of static stimulus conditions. Rather, behavior is changing, fluid, and evanescent (Skinner, 1953). This conceptualization is described by Israel Goldiamond whose pragmatic nonlinear approach to behavior recommends a multidimensional analysis. That is, one must acknowledge that the topography, function, history, and detection (measurement) of behavior may all yield varied accounts. An advantage to such a system is that it can bring the behavior of the scientist under multiple sources of control, engendering more effective technology. The purpose of this symposium is to highlight some of the key considerations presented by Israel Goldiamond, primarily from his comprehensive text entitled simply The Blue Books. In addition, the symposium will dive into the subtleties of key areas within the books including the focus on both scope and breadth of the constructional approach and the importance of Goldiamond's work in the area of stimulus control.

Keyword(s): Constructual Approach, Goldiamond, Non-linear

Goldiamond's Blue Books: Why the System Matters

MARC D'ANTIN (Brohavior)

The field of behavior analysis has been described as a scientific approach to behavior that is composed of at least three distinct branches. The branches consist of the experimental analysis of behavior, behaviorism, and applied behavior analysis. As changes occur in any given branch, similar changes will also occur to and alter the other branches. In order to establish a cohesive system, all changes to any given branch must be examined with respect to their impact with the other branches. Israel Goldiamond's non-linear behavior analysis provides a cohesive system that facilitates work at all levels of the science to be flexible and effectively interact with their subject matter. The current paper will outline the importance of a cohesive system for the behavior analysis, provide examples of problems created by altering constructs within one branch without reference to the others, and briefly demonstrate the interpretative power of the system to phenomena that fall outside of the current scope of experimental investigation. Future directions for exploration of a non-linear approach to behavior analysis will be addressed and the potential will be opened for further exploration of the system.


Goldiamond's Blue Books: Stimulus Control Part 1

JOHN LAMPHERE (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)

The "Blue Books" were a series of brilliant, relatively short, apparently basic, yet overall comprehensive modules, developed for a course taught at the Institute for Behavioral Research (IBR) during the 1960s, originally called, A functional analysis of behavior and its extensions. They were authored by Israel Goldiamond and Donald M. Thompson and programmed in collaboration with Harold L. Cohen. They were recently compiled, edited and remastered in 2002 by Goldiamond's student and colleague Paul Andronis. This presentation will examine the extensive chapter on stimulus control and share insights from our field's past that may help illuminate its future.


Goldiamond's Blue Books: Stimulus Control Part 2

DOMINIQUE STEDHAM (University of Nevada, Reno)

Stimulus control in the field of behavior analysis has several conceptual interpretations. Stimulus control, as conceptualized within Israel Goldiamond's Blue Books offers a parsimonious interpretation that allows practitioners and researchers to effectively interact with behavior as a subject matter. The current paper will outline the conceptualization of stimulus control as offered by Israel Goldiamond. Following the general outline of stimulus control, various examples will be explored offering a demonstration of how conceptualization can lead to rapid identification of potential treatment packages. Future research questions relevant to stimulus control across both the applied and experimental branches will be offered.


All Those "Others": A System That Allows Conceptualization of Other Research


A behavior analytic system of value must be able to generate novel research, create meaningful interventions, and have explanatory scope of other fields working inside of the domain of behavior. Israel Goldiamond's non-linear behavior analysis offers a conceptually systematic approach that has scope and depth. Non-linear behavior analysis will be applied to current research from various fields that often overlap with the subject matter of behavior. The value of contacting other fields work and being able to interpret them through a conceptually systematic approach will be highlighted. Key aspects to working with other investigators and applying a conceptually systematic approach will be discussed.

Paper Session #475
Teaching Tacts to Individuals With ASD
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
217B (CC)
Area: AUT
Keyword(s): Tacts
Chair: Michael Voltaire (Nova Southeastern University)

The Effects of Words, Paired With Corresponding Visual Stimuli, on Tact Acquisition in Persons Exhibiting Echolalia

Domain: Applied Research
MICHAEL VOLTAIRE (Nova Southeastern University)

Typically developing children learn words by virtue of being in a social environment where those words are spoken. Conversely, children diagnosed win autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may not be able to label (tact) common objects embedded in their immediate environment. Skinner (1957) considered the tact to be an important verbal operant and defined it as a response evoked (or at least strengthened) by a particular object or event or property of an object or event. Therefore, Tact training has been an important component of language teaching for persons diagnosed with autism. This presentation will review the findings of the effects of words, paired with corresponding visual stimuli, on tact acquisition in persons diagnosed with ASD and exhibiting immediate echolalia. The presentation will also highlight a method used in data collection and discuss the potential benefits of a training procedure for teaching basic words to persons with severe communication deficits.


Teaching Spontaneous Tacting to Learners With Autism

Domain: Basic Research
MICHELLE FUHR (University Pediatrician's Autism Center), Victoria Beckmann (University Pediatricians Autism Center), Ashley Nowak (Children's Hospital of Michigan Autism Center)

Tacting is a commonly taught verbal operant, which may include commenting or labeling, and occurs when a nonverbal stimulus is present. Unfortunately, tacting is typically taught in a manner which may not result in the child acquiring the desired skill spontaneously or generalizing the skill into the natural environment. A child should engage in spontaneous tacting of a nonverbal stimulus for a tact to have truly taken place. Presenters will discuss common interventions and strategies supported by B. F. Skinner's analysis as well as the literature, and discuss the use of these procedures in case studies. In addition, presenters will examine potential pitfalls with commonly used strategies of teaching tacting, including generalization, stimulus control, and reinforcement. Finally, presenters will discuss two case studies aimed to increase spontaneous tacting of two clients who demonstrate motivation to socially engage with other individuals, as evidenced by babbling, echolalia, or engaging in problem behavior as a function of attention. The clients demonstrate how spontaneous tacting can be taught to people of differing ages and functioning levels.

Keyword(s): Tacts
Paper Session #476
Issues in Clinical Practice: Mastery Criteria and Behavior Technicians
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
217C (CC)
Area: AUT
Keyword(s): Clinical
Chair: Kortnie Cotter (Mercyhurst University)
Determining Mastery Criteria: An Empirical Review
Domain: Applied Research
KORTNIE COTTER (Mercyhurst University), Jonathan W. Ivy (Mercyhurst University), Thomas P. Kitchen (Mercyhurst University)
Abstract: A hallmark of behavioral skills training is the objective and on-going assessment of socially important target behaviors. A component of this assessment process is the creation of quantifiable treatment goals that include criteria for mastery or goal completion. Mastery criteria are intended to reflect the level of skill necessary before expanding the current programming or shifting focus to more advanced skills. However, in establishing mastery criteria, practitioners often rely on non-empirical conventions or standards of practice. In this respect, mastery criteria are often derived on an arbitrary basis (e.g. professional judgment). Basic research (e.g. Ebbinghaus, 1885) makes apparent the direct relationship between opportunities to engage in behavior beyond acquisition (i.e. overlearning) and skill maintenance over time. Despite the importance of mastery criteria in the maintenance and generalization of target behaviors, there is little empirical research to guide the processes. This presentation will examine trends, guidelines, and standard practices for determining mastery criteria. Recommendations for future research and practice will also be provided.

Recognizing the Behavior Technician as a Profession: A Job Analysis

Domain: Service Delivery
Thomas McCool (National Association for Private School for Except), Michael Weinberg (Orlando Behavior Health Services, LLC ), MICHAEL REID (Innovative Learning LLC), Vicki Moeller (Innovative Learning LLC)

No one is surprised that although pharmacy technicians, EKG technician, clinical medical assistance, patient care technician, and a host of others in the workforce must adhere to basic qualifications and be licensed or certified as a demonstration that at least minimum level skills are in place. No such standardized system of accountability applies to the behavioral health paraprofessional, also known as a behavior technician. Unofficial survey results estimated that more than 80% of direct behavioral services were being provided by unlicensed, uncertified personnel. The fact that the services were being overseen by licensed or certified professionals appeared to be an acceptable level of oversight for these services. Now as the need for ABA services has grown exponentially the sector is once again forced to reassess this particular workforce and examine whether the behavior technician should be included in the growing list of allied healthcare professionals. Although there have been several job analyses on the behavioral health paraprofessional workforce including the direct support professional workforce supporting those individuals with a wide-range of intellectual and developmental disabilities, Innovative Learning LLC's task team is finalizing a comprehensive job analysis specifically looking at the paraprofessional role in providing applied behavior analysis treatment and support to individuals diagnosed with autism.In conducting the study, the IL Task Team chose methods that adhered to established standards in conducting a job analysis study. These principles and procedures are clearly outlined in the US federal regulation (Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures) and those of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The job analysis consisted of the following steps: 1.Initial Development and Validation 2.Validation Study 3. Development of Competency Areas 4. Validation of Competency Areas This presentation will review the process, results, and potential outcomes of this job analysis.

Keyword(s): Clinical
Symposium #477
CE Offered: BACB
Touchy Feely Fluffy Feelings: Current Research and Future Directions in Empathy and Perspective Taking
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
214A (CC)
Area: PRA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD))
Discussant: Marianne L. Jackson (California State University, Fresno)
CE Instructor: Adel C. Najdowski, Ph.D.
Abstract: Radical behaviorism is the philosophy that underlies behavior analysis as a comprehensive science of behavior and states that anything a person does is behavior, and in turn, part of the subject matter of behavior analysis. This includes private events even though they cannot be directly observed by others (Skinner, 1945, 1974). Currently, the behavior analytic skill acquisition research literature provides a heavy emphasis on teaching relatively simple repertoires of behavior, and inclusion of more complicated repertoires is needed if we are to have a comprehensive science of human behavior. Two areas that fall into this category include perspective taking and empathy. This symposium will provide a review of research on perspective taking and empathy and discuss directions for future research.
Keyword(s): autism, empathy, perspective taking, RFT
Caring About You Caring About Me: What Research on Perspective Taking Have we Done and Where are we Going?
ADEL C. NAJDOWSKI (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD)), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Autism Research Group, Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD)), Angela M. Persicke (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD))
Abstract: There has been a considerable explosion of research on perspective taking, much of it coming from the Theory of Mind (ToM) literature which has shown many children with autism have difficulty understanding and inferring the private events of others. More recently, behavioral researchers have begun investigating methods for teaching perspective-taking skills, and Relational Frame Theory (RFT) has been used to develop a behavioral process account of perspective taking. This presentation will provide a review of behavioral research in the area of perspective taking and discuss directions for future research.
Not Feeling the Love: The Limitations of Behavioral Research on Empathy
ANGELA M. PERSICKE (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD)), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Autism Research Group, Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD))
Abstract: Empathy is often referred to in mainstream psychology as the vicarious affective experience between two or more people resulting in one person directly experiencing the emotional state of the other person. Enhanced empathic responding has been shown to be highly correlated with important prosocial behaviors, such as offering help, sharing, volunteering, and other altruistic behaviors. The behavioral literature has paid little attention to understanding empathic responding as a behavioral phenomenon and functionally analyzing the behavioral mechanisms involved. Behavioral research on enhancing empathy has primarily focused on overt topographies of behavior without consideration of the emotion-sharing component of empathy. This presentation will review the strengths and limitations of research on empathy. Following, implications and future directions will be discussed.



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