Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


32nd Annual Convention; Atlanta, GA; 2006

Program by Day for Saturday, May 27, 2006

Manage My Personal Schedule


Special Event #6
International Development Brunch
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 AM–11:20 AM
Centennial Ballroom III
Chair: Simon Dymond (University of Wales, Swansea)
The international development brunch is scheduled on the first day of the convention to welcome the international members and review the international development of behavior analysis.
Special Event #2
Society for the Quantitative Analyses of Behavior
Saturday, May 27, 2006
7:00 AM–11:20 AM
International Ballroom South
Chair: Randolph C. Grace (University of Canterbury)
Attendees to SQAB events must register for the SQAB conference in addition to the ABA convention. Visit for more information.
Business Meeting #3
Special Interest Group Business Meeting with the ABA Presidents
Saturday, May 27, 2006
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Chicago A-F
Chair: Frances K. McSweeney (Washington State University)
Presenting Authors:
To discuss issues of SIGs with SIG representatives.
Business Meeting #4
Affiliated Chapters Meeting
Saturday, May 27, 2006
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Chicago A-F
Chair: R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School)
Presenting Authors:
To review activities of the Affiliated Chapters Board.
Special Event #5
Newcomers' Session
Saturday, May 27, 2006
9:30 AM–10:20 AM
Chair: John L. Michael (Western Michigan University), W. Scott Wood (Drake University)

An overview of ABA, its history, structures, and functions as an international locus of the field of behavior analysis. Awards, special interest groups, and other features will also be dealt with. Drs. Michael and Wood, two of ABA's original members, will review the origin and organization of ABA as well as describe the principles of behavior analysis that form the scientific foundation of the field.

Business Meeting #7
A Road Map to the Autism Program at ABA: A Guide for Newcomers.
Saturday, May 27, 2006
10:30 AM–11:20 AM
Chair: Jack Scott (Florida Atlantic University)
Presenting Authors:
This session will offer a brief review of the events in the Autism Area of the ABA Program. More specifically, the Program Coordinator for this area will outline presentations, their times, locations, and notable papers that would match the interest of the first time attendees such as students and parents.
Special Event #8
Opening Event: Society for the Advancement of Behavior Analysis Awards - 2006 SABA Awards
Saturday, May 27, 2006
11:30 AM–12:50 PM
Centennial Ballroom I & II
Award for Distinguished Service to Behavior Analysis: James A. Dinsmoor, Ph.D.
Abstract: (Awarded posthumously) Dr. Dinsmoors award will be accepted by Mrs. Kay Dinsmoor.
PHILIP N. HINELINE (Temple University)
Dr. Philip Hineline (Temple University) will deliver an address titled In Honor and Memory of James A. Dinsmoor. Jim Dinsmoor was at the core of behavior analysis from its very beginnings and remained so throughout his career. He participated in the very first “proto-ABA convention,” the Conference on the Experimental Analysis of Behavior at Indiana University nearly sixty years ago. As a graduate student under Keller and Schoenfeld at Columbia, he provided advice on research strategy to Murray Sidman. Moving to the Midwest, he took up the flag for behavior analysis in the Psychology Department at Indiana University while Kay, his wife, ran the back office for the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. Over the years, Jim accomplished a remarkable series of incisive research projects focused upon key conceptual issues. The first of these was a struggle to untangle the complex contingencies of escape and avoidance conditioning, the interpretation of which is a matter of contention to this day. The most notable project, in my view, served to unmask the cognitivist interpretation of conditioned reinforcement. He showed that a conception in terms of “information” was a misleading characterization of the processes involved. Concurrently, Jim was a political activist, supporting controversial causes through his reputation for personal integrity. And of course, Jim was prominent in the action first at EPA, at MPA, at MABA, and at ABA; where he could be counted on for good humor as well as supportive and provocative wisdom.
Award for International Dissemination of Behavior Analysis: Joseph E. Morrow, Ph.D.
Abstract: This paper raises the issue of bringing behaviorism to our culture and to the world. It examines the question of vehicles that are available to us to reach this goal. Certain vehicles are specified and elaborated on. Finally, the issue of why behavioralize the world is addressed. It is argued that, given our understanding of contingencies of reinforcement, it may be time for behaviorists to begin talking about such important issues as war and poverty.
JOSEPH E. MORROW (Applied Behavior Consultants)
Dr. Joseph Morrow received his Ph.D. in experimental psychology from Washington State University in 1965. Since that time he has taught at California State University, Fullerton; Indiana University, South Bend; and California State University, Sacramento, from which he recently retired. For the past nineteen years he has been president of Applied Behavior Consultants (ABC), a 300-person firm providing Applied Behavior Analysis Services. ABC operates day schools and provides home services throughout California for children with autism and other special needs. In the last few years, ABC has opened behavioral schools in China and Bahrain as well as providing services in several other countries. Dr. Morrow will give a presentation titled Behavioralizing the World.
Award for Public Service in Behavior Analysis: Robert H. Horner, Ph.D.
Abstract: The potential value of applied behavior analysis for society is most likely to be realized if behavior analysts focus on expanding our unit of analysis, increasing the range of our outcome measures, and improving the accessibility of our technology. This will require a blending of rigorous behavioral science with a practical transfer technology. Six recommendations will be offered for how applied behavior analysts may extend impressive demonstrations of individual behavior change to demonstrations of large-scale social change. The basic thesis is that applying the principles of behavior analysis at scales of social significance will not occur from an awakening of society to the value of behavior analysis, but through efforts of behavior analysts to reach out and make behavior analysis relevant to the needs of society.
ROBERT H. HORNER (University of Oregon)
Dr. Robert Horner is a professor of special education at the University of Oregon. He took his undergraduate degree in psychology from Stanford University, his master’s degree in experimental psychology from Washington State University, and his doctorate in special education at the University of Oregon. His research during the past 25 years has focused on the design of instructional technology for individuals with severe intellectual disabilities, generalization, stimulus control, and, most recently, positive behavior support. During the past 12 years Dr. Horner has worked with Dr. George Sugai on implementation of school-wide positive behavior support, an application of behavior analysis at the whole-school level. This approach currently is being implemented in over 3000 schools, and, when blended with academic interventions, is associated with improvements in both social and academic gains of students. Dr. Horner is a former associate editor of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, a past editor of JASH (The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps), and current co-editor of the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. His professional awards include the 1996 APA Fred Keller Educational Researcher Award and the 2002 AAMR Education Award. Dr. Horner will give a presentation titled Implementing Applied Behavior Analysis at Scales of Social Importance.
Award for Impact of Science on Application: Nathan H. Azrin, Ph.D.
Abstract: Laboratory studies of operant conditioning have justifiably been judged to provide the scientific basis for applied behavior analysis. Close examination of the specific procedures, methods of measurement, and behavioral generalizations reveals that very many of these laboratory procedures and findings have had little relevance to the procedures used in the area of applications. Successful applications have not been a direct translation of operant procedures but rather an exclusion of many of these operant procedures, a focus on several of the methodological features and development of several new procedures that have little or no relation to the laboratory programs. This analysis suggests that applied behavior analysis will continue to devise new treatments for complex, socially significant problems by continuing to develop new procedures that have not been central to the laboratory procedures and findings. The elements common to both endeavors appear to be specification, standardization, quantification, and experimental evaluation.
NATHAN H. AZRIN (NOVA Southeastern University)
Dr. Nathan Azrin is a professor at Nova Southeastern University in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. He received his Ph.D. under B. F. Skinner at Harvard University in 1956. Azrin began his career doing basic laboratory research in operant conditioning, later shifting his focus to applied psychology, in which he has been a pioneer in establishing the field of applied behavior analysis. Many of the treatment/training programs he developed are now in widespread usage. Specific examples are the Token Economy or Point Reward Program (with Dr. Ayllon); use of time-out; and effective self-care programs for retarded persons including toilet training, nocturnal enuresis, dressing, proper mealtime skills, self-stimulation, aggression, and self-injury. He also developed programs for non-retarded persons including alcoholism, drug use, medication adherence, tics, stuttering, Tourette’s Disorder, Trichotillomania, marital dysfunction, classroom management, toilet training, nocturnal enuresis, the Job Club method for securing employment for the chronically unemployed, parent-youth problems, and Major Depressive Disorder. The great diversity of problems he has studied reflects his conviction that applied behavioral analysis is a rich conceptual strategy with unlimited avenues of treatment applicability. Dr. Azrin will give a presentation titled Impact of Science on Applied Behavior Analysis.
Award for Enduring Programmatic Contributions in Behavior Analysis: Behavior Analysis and Therapy Program of Southern Illinois University, Carbondale
Abstract: Tony Cuvo, Ph.D. will accept the award on behalf of the Behavior Analysis and Therapy Program. In 1955, Guy Renzaglia founded the Rehabilitation Institute at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). The goal of the Institute is to serve as an academic home for training professionals in various branches of rehabilitation. In the same year, Israel Goldiamond joined the faculty of SIUCs Department of Psychology. Iz was instrumental in recruiting Nathan Azrin to Southern Illinois to become the founding director of the Behavior Research Laboratory at Anna State Hospital, located some 20 miles south of Carbondale. Guy and Nate collaborated in 1965 to form the first Masters degree program in Behavior Modification in the United States, The program became one of several graduate programs within the Rehabilitation Institute. Ed Sulzer was hired as the Behavior Modification Programs founding coordinator. Since its inception, there has been a close working relationship between the academic program on campus and the former Anna State Hospital, now named the Choate Mental Health and Developmental Center. The state Hospital provided the program with the initial faculty and a site for students to acquire research and clinical experience. Ed Sulzer and Nate Azrin, along with Don Hake and Ted Ayllon (both also from Anna), designed the original academic curriculum. Subsequently, Richard Foxx and other behavior analysts provided supervision to program students in their positions at the state hospital. In 1982, the name of the program was changed to Behavior Analysis and Therapy to reflect, not only our evolving disciplinary terminology, but also the comprehensive nature of the curriculum. The program is accredited by the Association for Behavior Analysis. A doctoral program in Rehabilitation, including a behavioral specialty, was also added during the early 1980s. Students have been able to receive education and training in both basic and applied behavior analysis, as well as behavior therapy. Some areas of specialization over the decades have included developmental disabilities, child abuse and neglect, acquired head injury, gambling, stimulus equivalence, school intervention, behavioral medicine, sexual behavior, community behavior analysis, organizational behavior management, functional analysis of challenging behavior, and other topics. Two major clinical training and community service programs have been externally funded for a number of years...
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Award for Effective Presentation in the Mass Media: James Kauffman, Ed.D.
Abstract: In this presentation, I raise concern about a new racism often mistaken for cultural sensitivity and cultural competence. It is characterized by the assumption that skin color or heritage, usually said to designate a culture, makes an individual responsive or unresponsive to particular therapies, educational methods, or other efforts to teach, heal, or help. Markers of the new racism include misleading statements and hyperbole, the creation of politically charged but scientifically and logically questionable categories or groups, the assumption that group identity is more important than individual characteristics, and the use of inappropriate proxies in making treatment decisions. Better science is our best hope of combating the new racism, and I hope that applied behavior analysts will play an important role in checking out the idea that skin hue and heritage determine how someone responds to behavioral operations.
JAMES M. KAUFFMAN (University of Virginia)
James M. Kauffman, Professor Emeritus of Education at the University of Virginia, received his Ed.D. degree in special education from the University of Kansas in 1969. He is a past president of the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders (CCBD). Among his honors are the 2002 Outstanding Leadership Award from CCBD and the 1994 Research Award from the Council for Exceptional Children. Besides the book Education Deform, published in 2002, he is author, editor, co-author, or co-editor of numerous publications in special education and related fields. One of his textbooks, Characteristics of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders of Children and Youth, is widely adopted in special education and is now in its eighth edition. His most recent co-authored books are Special Education: What it is and Why We Need It; Learning Disabilities: Foundations, Characteristics, and Effective Teaching; Children and Youth with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A History of Their Education; the fourth edition of Managing Classroom Behavior: A Reflective Case-Based Approach; and the 10th edition of Exceptional Learners: Introduction to Special Education. Dr. Kauffman will give a presentation titled Concerns about a New Racism.
2005 International Grant Awards
Abstract: The International Development Fund provides for three $1,000 International Development Grants to be awarded annually, through a competitive process. In 2005, the grants were awarded to support the following projects: Behavior Analysis Training in a Clinical Psychology Context, developed by Aldo Hernandez Barrios and Vladimir Bernal Alfonso (Universidad Catlica de Colombia, Unidad de Servicios Psicolgicos, Colombia) A University Training Program in Applied and Clinical Behavior Analysis in Tampere, Finland developed by Dr. Martti T. Tuomisto (Institute for Extension Studies, University of Tampere, Finland) Development of a BCBA Masters Degree Program, developed by Dr. Denis OHora (University of Ulster, Northern Ireland) 2006 Fellowship Awardees SABA Fellowships are awarded to doctoral students by way of a competitive process in two areas of concentration: Child Development and Experimental Analysis of Behavior. The Sidney W. and Janet R. Bijou Fellowship provides an annual fellowship to a doctoral student investigating child development from a behavior analyst perspective. Recipients in 2006 are Elizabeth Adams (University of Florida) and Sarah OConnor (National University of Ireland, Maynooth). The SABA Experimental Analysis of Behavior Fellowship provides an annual fellowship to a doctoral student in psychology or behavior analysis who is conducting research in the experimental analysis of behavior. The 2006 recipient is Bethany Raiff (University of Florida).
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Paper Session #9
Applied Behavior Analysis of Child Behavior Problems
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
Area: CBM
Chair: Charmaine Bill (ABA Supervisor)
Getting the Kids to Eat: A Dynamic Procedure Addressing Food Refusal in Selective Eaters
Domain: Applied Research
Abstract: Persuading children to eat what is on offer can be an extremely difficult task. It is a highly emotive issue for parents and can result in health problems associated with malnutrition. The present study focuses on a program developed to increase the flexibility and range of food consumed by children with self-imposed restricted diets. This population is a small subsection of the general population where their restricted diets have led to extreme health and social impairment. The program uses positive reinforcement through a points system to encourage the children to try new foods without the usual emotional outpourings that can impede the acceptance of new foods. The children are able to choose which foods to try from a selection on offer at each meal. The new food is introduced during a "starter" course while the "main course" is always something the child will already eat. The new food is gradually incorporated into the main course. This has proven to be an effective method of changing each new food from an item the parent wishes the child to eat for health reasons, to something the child will want to try in order to gain their reinforcer.
The Efficacy of Brief FBA Methods for Assessing ADHD Behaviors and Stimulant Medication Effect
Domain: Applied Research
C. BAKER WRIGHT (Behavior Management Consultants, Inc.), Jon S. Bailey (BMC, FSU, FABA)
Abstract: This study examined the efficacy of brief functional assessment methodologies, including descriptive assessment and contingency reversal conditions, in determining function of ADHD behavior and the effects of stimulant medication in regular classroom environments. Students diagnosed with ADHD participated in a double blind placebo controlled stimulant medication trial within this functional assessment. One of the four participants showed differential responding to stimulant medication during the descriptive conditions, suggesting an effect of the medication for this participant, and also showing the descriptive measures used can be sensitive to changes in behavior due to the presence of stimulant medication. Results from the brief FBA also showed the assessment procedures are sensitive enough to show differential responding to the medication as well as across manipulated environmental variables. Two of the four participants displayed the lowest levels of off-task behavior during the contingency reversal conditions, regardless of medication. Overall, results indicated the usefulness of the functional assessment procedures in common classroom environments in determining function of behavior and efficacy of stimulant medication. This study also continued to support the trend of current research by detailing the importance of individual assessment of behavior and the effects of stimulant medication on the treatment of ADHD behavior.
Invited Paper Session #10
CE Offered: BACB

OBM 2006: A View From the Field

Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
Centennial Ballroom I
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Leslie Wilk Braksick, Ph.D.
Chair: Timothy D. Ludwig (Appalachian State University)
LESLIE WILK BRAKSICK (The Continuous Learning Group, Inc.)
Dr. Leslie Braksick is noted for energy, honesty, and an intense commitment to results. She has earned the trust of AT&T, Bayer Corporation, Chevron Corporation, Ingersoll-Rand, Bell Atlantic, H.J. Heinz, and many other companies. Dr. Braksick’s power-packed, practical teaching, her personal ease, and her down-to-earth style make her the speaker of choice for anyone seeking the Holy Grail of strategy execution. Her key message—“success is driven by human behavior and the consequences that shape it”—resonates with today’s grand-slam execution challenges, like M&A, corporate creep, supply chain management, technology implementation, attracting and retaining top talent, succession, and knowledge management. In addition to speaking at conferences for Inc. Magazine, The Conference Board, and the International Society for Performance Improvement, Dr. Braksick is in great demand for strategic internal meetings. Executives of Fortune 100 companies turn to her for a message that is totally customized to advance their cause, delivered with passion, and grounded in real-world results. High demand to spread the word prompted her first book, Unlock Behavior, Unleash Profits (McGraw-Hill, 2000). Her provocative ideas have appeared in numerous popular business publications and refereed journals.

In this address, Dr. Leslie Braksick will offer her perspective on the State of Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) from the consultant and clients point of view. As a behavioral leadership coach to Fortune 100 executives and as the Co-Founder and Chairman of the largest behaviorally-based consulting firm, Braksick has an important perspective on the world of work and the opportunities and challenges for OBM practitioners. Braksick will discuss current and emerging trends in business and the role of behavior analysis in those trends. She will highlight client examples where Fortune 100 companies are, today, relying on behavior analysis as their strategic weapon for high performance and competitive differentiation. She will also draw attention to clients who say they are focusing on behavior but, in reality, use programs that have no scientific underpinning. The voice of the client will be seen and heard using video technology. Finally, Braksick will offer her perspective on areas of needed study by OBM researchers as well as how the OBM network might better market their behavioral solutions.

Special Event #11
SQAB 2006 Tutorial: Explicit Methods and Implicit Human Values in Quantitative Behavioral Models
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
International Ballroom South
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Randolph C. Grace (University of Canterbury)
Presenting Authors: : CHARLES P. SHIMP (University of Utah)
Abstract: Quantitative models of behavior will be described, sorted, and informally categorized in terms of their underlying metaphors, including geometric, mechanical, hydraulic, electromechanical, statistical, computer, cosmological, philosophical, political, ecological, and logical metaphors. They will also be categorized in terms of the purposes for which they are constructed, including to summarize data, predict new phenomena, to identify basic mechanisms, and to integrate diverse phenomena in terms of similar underlying mechanisms. The diverse means by which they are evaluated will also be described, for example, in terms of parsimony, descriptive accuracy against data, descriptive accuracy compared to that of other models, whether they can submit to a critical test, and the breadth of data to which they apply. Evaluative tools such as clarity, elegance, intuitive accessibility, biological plausibility, practical relevance, and the persuasiveness of the arguments advanced by their inventors, will be described. The relevance to model evaluation of historical trends, fads, and technological limitations will also be addressed. A sense in which quantitative models have only the appearance of being quantitative will be discussed.
CHARLES P. SHIMP (University of Utah)
Charles Shimp began his scientific career believing that science, especially quantitative science, offered a path to important knowledge about the human condition that was fundamentally different from those offered by art, literature, and music. Over the course of his career, he has come to question that belief. He now believes there are implicit and unevaluated
Invited Paper Session #12
CE Offered: BACB

Using Grounded Reflection to Reflect on the Constructivist Perspective

Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
Centennial Ballroom II
Area: TBA; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Vivian Fueyo, Ph.D.
Chair: Pamela G. Osnes (Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
VIVIAN FUEYO (University of South Florida, St. Petersburg)
Dr. Vivian Fueyo received her Doctorate in Developmental and Child Psychology at the University of Kansas and joined the faculty at USF St. Petersburg in 2003 as founding Dean of the College of Education. Prior to serving as Dean of the College of Education at USF-St. Petersburg, Dr. Fueyo was a faculty member in the College of Education at Florida State

Reflection, based on grounded theory and supported by research and the scientific method, is much more behavioral than constructivist. Despite this assertion, current priorities in teacher education posit that behavioral approaches are inadequate for defining the social and cognitive mediation necessary for teaching and learning in todays classrooms. Frequently, constructivist principles are advocated instead. In the second edition of The Handbook of Research on Teacher Education (Sikula, 1996), Constructivist Perspectives is one of eight subsections under Contemporary Conceptions of Learning to Teach. The others are Critical Perspectives, Teacher Reasoning, Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Multicultural Teacher Education, Global Teacher Education, Human Development, and Cognitive Instruction. Behaviorism and Behavior Analysis comprises a separate, stand alone section of this same book. It is telling that constructivist perspectives is listed as one among many in the handbook, while an entire section of the book is dedicated exclusively to behaviorism. Without behavioral approaches to teaching, all the requisite skills that students and teachers need to reflect and reason, such as active listening, attending to appropriate cues, clarifying and extending questions, paraphrasing, etc., could never occur. Nevertheless, the confusion continues. The purpose of this address is to engage the audience in a semantic and functional analysis of behavioral and constructivist approaches to teaching and learning.

Symposium #13
CE Offered: BACB
Acquisition and Generalization of Social Skills
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Centennial Ballroom III
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
CE Instructor: Marjorie H. Charlop, Ph.D.

Presentation of research conducted at the Claremont Autism Center that examines the acquisition and generalization of positive behaviors including social initiations and social skills. Studies to be discussed included a comparative analysis of generalization techniques, assessment of socio-communicative function of inappropriate behaviors, social initiations in nonverbal children, and a comparison of the effectiveness of Steps to Social Success (SSS) and Social Stories for Teaching Social Skills to children with autism.

Comparative Analysis of Generalization Strategies.
GINA T. CHANG (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: The study conducted a comparative analysis of generalization strategies with different loci of control. Research has demonstrated that specifically implementing facilitators of generalization into behavioral interventions increases generalization and maintenance of newly acquired skills (e.g., Chandler, Lubeck & Fowler, 1992; R. L. Koegel & Koegel, 1995; Schreibman, 1988; Stokes & Baer, 1977). However, only a few studies have attempted to understand the role that different strategies play in promoting generalization, and none have directly compared strategies. The present study presents a comparison of the known facilitators of generalization; multiple stimuli training, indiscriminable contingency training, and reinforced generalization training. The study uses a multi-element design with a multiple baseline design across and within children additional control to compare which generalization strategy works the most effectively in assisting children with autism to generalize behaviors taught in the clinical setting to the natural environment.
Increasing Social Initiations in Nonverbal Children with Autism: A Comparison of Modified Incidental Teaching Sessions (MITS) and Discrete Trial Training (DTT)
KARI BERQUIST (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: This study examined the acquisition and generalization of social initiations (e.g., greetings, sharing) in three nonverbal children with autism. Children were taught two different social behaviors in which they initiated an interaction with another person, thus promoting overt social communication. Modified Incidental Teaching Sessions (MITS) and Discrete Trial Training (DTT) were compared and used to increase children’s social initiations. It was hypothesized that children with autism would show increases in the use of social initiations after either treatment (MITS or DTT) was implemented, but that only the behaviors taught using MITS would show better generalization. An alternating treatment, multiple baseline design across participants was used. Inter-observer agreement was above 80% for each child. Initial results suggest that all three children increased in their frequency of social initiations after either treatment (MITS or DTT); however, generalization and maintenance of target behaviors was superior with MITS.
Increasing Social Initiations through Functional Assessment and Communication Training in Children with Autism.
KATHERINE K. BYRD (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: One of the major deficits of children with autism is in social interaction with others. These two experiments were designed to identify the socio-communicative function of inappropriate behaviors and assess the effects of communication training upon the use of replacement behaviors. In Experiment 1, we developed an assessment method for identifying the subtle and idiosyncratic behaviors in three children and classified these behaviors (e.g., grabbing, jumping, and engaging in stereotypy) in terms of social function. Results indicated that all children expressed inappropriate behaviors that served a social function. The most frequently displayed initiations were those aberrant behaviors expressing or requesting affection or attention. In Experiment 2, assessment data were used to select more appropriate social behaviors that served the same socio-communicative function as the previous behaviors. Two children participated in the communication training that consisted of modeling and prompting the replacement behaviors in the settings where each child previously displayed an inappropriate behavior. Results of a multiple baseline design across children showed that children learned the replacement behaviors and showed decreases in inappropriate behaviors. These findings suggest that identifying the social function of inappropriate behavior may facilitate the acquisition of effective social initiating behavior in low functioning children with autism.
A Comparison of Steps to Social Success (SSS) and Social Stories for Teaching Social Skills to Children with Autism.
SABRINA D. DANESHVAR (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: Social Stories (Gray & Garand, 1993) is a widely used social skills program for children with autism despite little empirical validation. Based on severe cognitive and social deficits present in these children, it is curious how Social Stories can be effective in teaching social skills to this population, and the scarcity of empirical data makes it more questionable. Despite the name “social” stories, what little data there are addressed behaviors other than social skills (i.e., tantrums, off-task behavior). In this study an alternative social skills program, Steps to Social Success (SSS), was created to capitalize on the strengths of children with autism and include facilitators for motivation, generalization and maintenance. Importantly, the program clearly focuses on teaching social behaviors. An alternating treatments design with a multiple baseline design across children was used to empirically assess and compare the effectiveness of Social Stories and the newly developed SSS program in teaching social skills to four children with autism. Results found that SSS was effective whereas Social Stories was not. Results also showed greater ancillary increases in spontaneous social behavior and decreases in inappropriate behavior in the SSS condition. Interobserver agreement was at satisfactory levels (greater than 80%). Results are discussed in terms of how children with autism learn best and the importance of scientific study of commonly used treatment techniques.
Paper Session #14
International Paper Session - Applied Behavior Analysis Training Programs: Design and Effects
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Area: TBA
Chair: Criss Wilhite (California State University, Fresno)
Behavior Analysis Dissemination in Spain: The Design of a Two-Year Training Program
Domain: Service Delivery
TOMAS JESUS CARRASCO-GIMENEZ (Universidad de Granada), Javier Virues Ortega (Instituto de Salud Carlos III & Universidad de Granada)
Abstract: The Association for the Advancement of the Science of Behavior (AASB) was founded during the Summer of 2004 in Granada (Southern Spain). The main goal of our institution is to provide students with a systematic education on behavior analysis and the acquisition of clinical skills. There are very few graduate programs that teach behavior analysis in Spain. The programs that do exist provide limited training and practical job opportunities. The AASB was created in order to offer specialized training to graduate students interested in further education on behavior analysis. We provide training to approximately 15 new students each year. Our institution seeks high levels of training excellence and accreditation by government agencies and international associations. The training provided to our students is organized along five guidelines: (a) theoretical education on behavior analysis, (b) supervised training with patients, (c) training on access to internship positions supplied by the health administration, (d) involvement in the management of our institution and in research activities, (e) provide job opportunities in behavior analysis at the completion of the training program, and (f) personal mentorship. This presentation will provide information regarding the particulars of the dissemination of instruction on behavior analysis in Spain. In addition, data on the details of our teaching methodology will be presented.
Effects of Teachers' Verbal Behavior and Application of Research Based Tactics on Instructional Objectives by Students with Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Domain: Applied Research
JEREMY H. GREENBERG (Columbia University)
Abstract: The present study demonstrates a functional relationship between a teacher training package and number of instructional objectives achieved by their students as well as numbers of learn units per instructional objective. The training package consisted of direct instruction of when to make data based decisions and verbal mastery of 14 research based scientific tactics. Participants included three special education teachers with prerequisite completion of specific repertoires in teaching using applied behavior analysis. Elementary students were diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder. The experimental design employed was a multiple baseline across teachers. The decision analysis phase consisted of verbal mastery and implementation of 100% correct instructional decision making by the teachers. The tactics treatment condition consisted of verbal mastery and application of 14 research based scientific tactics. Correct application was continuously monitored using the TPRA observation procedure. All teachers showed a significant increase in the number of instructional objectives taught in the decision protocol and tactics treatment conditions. In addition, number of learn units per objective decreased significantly for all three teachers which resulted in more efficient instruction. Teacher decisions and tactic selection was viewed as verbally governed using Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior. A cost benefit analysis was also discussed.
Shape Your Teacher: An Exercise to Improve Participation in College Courses
Domain: Service Delivery
CRISS WILHITE (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: Most university courses involve students passively listening to teachers. Techniques such as guided notes and response cards have been demonstrated to increase participation in lecture-based courses. The “Shape Your Teacher” project was developed to improve attendance, participation and student self-management projects in an introductory behavior analysis course. The professor recorded baselines the first week of school across a dozen of her own behaviors. Each week thereafter students filled out feedback forms to reinforce the professor regarding changes in the rates of her targeted behaviors. These forms also served as note-taking guides for students for their own projects. Points for completing forms could not be made up and the day the project was administered changed from week to week. Data from three semesters include outcomes on participation, attendance and quality of student self-management projects.
Symposium #15
Applied Verbal Behavior
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Learning Center
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jon S. Bailey (BMC, FSU, FABA)
Discussant: John L. Michael (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Each day the members of a community exchange a myriad of verbal episodes, not all of which are spoken. From asking someone to pass the salt to writing a letter to your congressperson, all of these examples of verbal behavior serve a function. In an effort to better understand common communication in our society, a group of graduate students analyzed a few examples of such episodes. The areas of interest to be discussed are the art of the pick-up line, the language of teenagers, communication styles of men vs. women, what your car is communicating to your neighbors, and exploring the techniques of a motivational speaker.
A Behavioral Interpretation of Pulling Your Own Strings (Wayne Dyer).
KELLE WITT (Florida State University, Panama City)
Abstract: Behavioral methods to deal with verbal coercion will be demonstrated.
He Just Doesn't Understand Me! Gender Differences in Applied Verbal Behavior.
CARA L. PHILLIPS (Florida State University, Panama City)
Abstract: Ineffective verbal episodes between a male and female will be analyzed based on the function of the episode for the speaker, and changes for improvement will be explored.
“If I Said You Had a Beautiful Body Would You Hold it Against Me?” Using Verbal Behavior to Perfect Pick-Up Lines: A Practical How-To Guide.
CRISTAL E. ELWOOD (Florida State University, Panama City)
Abstract: Visit any bar or nightclub, in any town, and you will likely observe at least one man use a pick-up line—better yet, you will likely see that man slapped by the woman he tried to pick up. Since most people—especially men who hang out in bars—do not typically read Verbal Behavior, they do not realize the error in their ways, but this paper aims to bring Verbal Behavior theory into the realm of the pick-up line, and to help men be more successful in starting conversations with women.
Paper Session #16
Awareness, Free Will, and Intention
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Area: TPC
Chair: Paul D. Neuman (Bryn Mawr College)
Who Needs Awareness?
Domain: Theory
SOLANGE PASQUET (Florida International University)
Abstract: Academic debates concerning the role of awareness in adaptive learning continue. Although our literature lacks an explicit definition of awareness, many researchers argue that it must be present for conditioning to take place. But just how essential is awareness in the learning process? An attempt is made here to highlight key studies that have successfully implemented Operant Conditioning techniques in the absence of awareness. Emphasis is placed on studies where autonomic responses (such as galvanic skin resistance, gastric acid secretion, and tics), nocturnal behaviors, and responses emitted by comatose patients have come under operant control.
The Belief in Free Will as Establishing Operation: Universal Biological Adaptation or Western Cultural Phenomenon?
Domain: Theory
RICHARD F. RAKOS (Cleveland State University)
Abstract: In previous papers, I suggested that the tenacious belief in free will, as opposed to the existence of free will, is a biological adaptation of human beings. That is, in the course of human history, those persons who believed they could freely choose among response options were more successful in propagating offspring than persons who possessed less of this belief. If the belief in free will is a product of evolution, it should be a universal phenomenon – a part of human nature. To shed light on this hypothesis, the current paper will summarize my previous work in this area, focusing on establishing operations and primary reinforcement, and then examine the conceptualization of human agency in a range of non-Western cultures and religions and contrast those perspectives with the Western view.
An Intentional Interpretive Perspective
Domain: Theory
PAUL D. NEUMAN (Bryn Mawr College)
Abstract: To the extent that the concept of intention has been addressed within behavior analysis, descriptions of intention have been general and have not specifically included important distinctions that differentiate a behavior-analytic approach from vernacular definitions of intention. A fundamental difference between a behavior-analytic approach and most other psychological approaches is that other approaches focus on the necessity of intentions to explain behavior, while a behavior-analytic approach is directed at understanding the interplay between behavior and environment. Behavior-analytic interpretations include the relations between the observer’s behavior and the environment. From a behavior-analytic perspective, an analysis of the observer’s interpretations of individual’s behavior is inherent in the subsequent attribution of intention. The present agenda is to provide a behavior-analytic account of attributing intention that identifies the establishing conditions for speaking of intention. Also addressed is the extent to which we speak of intentions when the observed individual’s behavior is contingency-shaped or under instructional control.
Symposium #17
Behavior Analysis and Issues of Social Concern: From Metatheory to Praxis
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
Chair: Michelle Ennis Soreth (Temple University)
Discussant: Maria R. Ruiz (Rollins College)
Abstract: Behavior analysts have long addressed issues of social and ethical concern, typically asserting that social and cultural practices can be improved through a scientific approach to human behavior. Despite this long history, a detailed examination of the direct relation between behavior analysis and issues of social concern has yielded only a few seminal pieces of literature (e.g., Skinner, 1971; Sidman, 1989; Baum, 1979). This symposium will extend these analyses and examine the theoretical underlying assumptions of the behavioranalytic system that are relevant to issues of social, political, and ethical concern, and the manner in which they differ from other explanatory systems. The authors will describe the implications, practical considerations, and specific applications of these assumptions for the continued development of a technology of behavior and the continued pursuit of social justice and responsibility.
The Behavior Analytic Path to Social Justice is Paved with Implicit Assumptions.
MICHELLE ENNIS SORETH (Temple University), Philip N. Hineline (Temple University)
Abstract: One of the primary differences between behavior analysis and other psychological systems involves the nature of the explanatory prose found within each system. The directionality of explanatory prose used in behavior analysis is distinct from that commonly used in the vernacular and in many psychological theories to account for the behavior of others (Hineline, 1990). While the impact of behavior analytic explanatory patterns on notions of personal responsibility and freedom have been well established (Skinner, 1971; Baum, 2005), the view that the causal directionality within behavior analytic explanation is neither neutral nor value-free has yet to be discussed at great length. The extensions of psychological theories that elevate the person to causal status present potentially destructive social implications. However, behavior analysts may face a similar, inverse critique of their own system that focuses on the problems inherent in an account that privileges explanation in terms of environmental selection. Through an increased awareness of the implications for social justice that are inherent within the patterns of explanation of a given psychological system, behavior analysts can be better equipped to address criticisms of the theory in relation to social issues while advancing the behavior analytic system on both conceptual and technological levels.
The Implications of the Medical Model on Social and Mental Health Policies.
CHRISTEINE M. TERRY (University of Washington), Robert J. Kohlenberg (University of Washington)
Abstract: In the United States, the medical model of mental health is the foundation on which many decisions about diagnosis and treatment are built. In addition, research on mental health concerns utilizes the model to select research samples and outcome variables (e.g., remission of symptoms). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM – IV, 2000) is perhaps, the most conspicuous sign of the medical model in mental health. While the medical model, particularly the use of the DSM-IV, may provide clinicians with a common language to discuss and research mental health concerns, others, including behavior analysts, have raised concerns about the use of the medical model in mental health (e.g., Follette, Bach, & Follette, 2003; McWilliams, 2005). In particular, behavior analysts have raised concerns about the nomothetic, as opposed to the idiographic, nature of the medical model. Psychologists have also raised concerns about the high rates of co-morbidity among disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety), which broaches concerns about the validity of diagnostic categorization and criteria. The current paper critically examines the use of the medical model in mental health as well as the implications of this model on treatment and mental health and social policies.
Critical Psychology: Building Careers in the Service of Social Justice.
MARY D. PLUMMER (University of Washington)
Abstract: This presentation explores the roles and responsibilities of behavioral scientists in working towards social justice in their professional fields and personal lives. In doing so, it references Critical Psychology [CP], an academic movement committed to challenging forces within mainstream psychology that maintain or perpetuate unjust political, economic, and societal structures. CP advocates a values-explicit psychological profession in the service of reciprocal empowerment, self-determination, distributive justice, human diversity, and democratic participation. While countless academics have published theory and empirical data regarding these issues, we as individuals and as a profession often limit our engagement to the written word, and rarely transfer our assertions into practice. This imbalance in our discipline is the product of multiple aspects of our professional culture and training, including failure to disseminate socially-relevant research findings within the communities which could most benefit; discomfort or ignorance surrounding the role of critical psychology within individual and group psychotherapy; arbitrary boundaries separating one’s professional and personal responsibility to alleviate human suffering; and lack of proximal reinforcement within one’s professional environment for orienting towards social justice. Each issue will be discussed and tackled, concluding with practical suggestions on how one might structure their work in the service of social justice.
Symposium #18
Building Vocal Mands and Tacts for Pre-Speakers: Existing Tactics from Verbal Behavior
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Susan Mariano-Lapidus (Columbia University)
Abstract: Four experiments examining effects of tactics to establish echoic, mand, and tact behavior for pre-speakers diagnosed with developmental disabilities are presented. Experiments 1 and 2 present research applications of rapid motor imitation to induce echoic behavior with mand and tact functions for elementary school children with autism. Experiment 3 presents research applications of auditory match-to-sample to establish echoic behavior with mand and tact functions for school-age children with communication delays. Experiment 4 presents research applications of stimulus-stimulus pairing procedures to teach echoic behavior with mand functions to preschool children with autism. Results of each investigation show that the tactics resulted in establishing echoic, mand, and tact behavior for most participants. Limitations, applicability, and future studies for each tactic are discussed.
Effects of Rapid Motor Imitation and Verbal Function Training on Acquisition of Echoic Behavior for Young Children with Autism.
DENISE E. ROSS (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School)
Abstract: Two experiments examining effects of a rapid motor imitation antecedent paired with verbal behavior training on acquisition of echoic behavior, mands, and tacts are presented. The first experiment demonstrated the effectiveness of a faded motor imitation antecedent on induction of echoic and independent mands for five pre-speakers with autism. The second experiment systematically replicated the faded motor imitation antecedent with mands and tacts for three pre-speakers with autism. Interobserver agreement was 90%-100%. Results of both experiments show that fading the rapid motor imitation tactic produced echoic and independent vocal verbal for all participants.
Effects of Rapid Motor Imitation with and without Verbal Function Training on Early Vocal Verbal Behavior.
DENISE E. ROSS (Columbia University Teachers College), JoAnn Pereira Delgado (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: This study tested for the relative effectiveness of the mand and rapid motor imitation components on acquisition of echoic behavior for pre-speakers with autism. The procedure was a systematic replication of the rapid motor imitation and verbal function training tactic, but the echoic was omitted to test the effective component of the procedure – rapid motor imitation and echoic training without verbal function or the combination of rapid motor imitation and verbal function (mand or tact) training. Baseline data showed that all participants infrequently emitted echoic mands and tacts before treatment. In an alternating treatment design, the intervention consisted of presenting participants with rapid motor imitation and verbal function training, and alternately presenting rapid motor imitation with echoic (non-verbal function) training. Following mastery under each condition, baseline probes were conducted again. The results are discussed in regards to the effectiveness of the rapid motor imitation procedure on the acquisition of vocal speech.
Effects of Auditory Word Match-to-Sample on Echoic Repertoire of Students with Language Delays.
JENNIFER LONGANO (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: This study tested effects of an auditory word match-to-sample procedure on echoic repertoires of two school-age children with language delays. The dependent variable was topographically accurate (exact) echoic responses emitted under mand and tact conditions, which both participants emitted infrequently during baseline. During treatment, the auditory word match-to-sample procedure was used to teach participants to discriminate between various sounds and words under increasingly difficult conditions. Probes conducted after each condition showed a significant increase in topographically accurate echoic responding under mand conditions (99% interobserver agreement).
Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing and the Acquisition of Echoic Repertoires.
KENYA CLAY (Columbia University)
Abstract: Research suggests that stimulus-stimulus pairing procedures condition vocal sounds by pairing specific sounds with a reinforcing event to evoke vocal verbal behavior. In the current paper, research applications of the stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure are reviewed. Results show that the procedure effectively produces echoic responses for pre-speakers. Findings of research applications are discussed in terms of limitations and future studies.
Symposium #19
Can Surveys Predict Behavior?
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Area: TPC; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Chris S. Dula (East Tennessee State University)
Discussant: E. Scott Geller (Virginia Tech)
Abstract: This symposium explores the ability of several diverse surveys to predict behavior. Although much survey research purports to predict behavior, much of it relies on participants’ self-reports and/or behavioral intentions. In contrast, each of the three studies presented here examines survey data as it relates to direct behavioral outcomes. The first paper examines the behavioral predictability of an intervention that measures the five most popular personality traits in contemporary psychology: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion/introversion, agreeableness/sociability, and emotionality. In the second paper, the connection between decision-making behavior and the construct of psychological entitlement is examined in both a laboratory and real-world setting. For the third presentation, the ability to predict alcohol consumption by college students using measures of social anxiety, alcohol expectancies, and self efficacy to refuse a drink will be discussed. E. Scott Geller will discuss the practical significance of the results with regard to applied behavior analysis and intervention design. He will attempt to make a case for “humanistic behaviorism,” and explain how valid surveys can c0ontribute to this approach to behavior-based intervention.
Can the “Big 5” Personality Traits Predict Behavior of College Students?
PHILIP K. LEHMAN (Virginia Tech), Aaron Vollmer (Virginia Tech), Elise A. Drake (Virginia Tech)
Abstract: Many personality theorists contend there are five traits which account for the most critical individual differences in personality: (a) openness to experience, (b) conscientiousness, (c) extraversion/introversion, (d) agreeableness/sociability, and (e) emotionality. Ostensibly, these traits influence behaviors, but research examining the relationship between personality measures usually relies on self-reported behavior. To address this weakness, we administered an inventory measuring each of the Big 5 personality traits to two large introductory psychology classes (n = 840). Over the course of the semester, analyses explored relationships between the five traits and behaviors. Preliminary analyses revealed a small, but significant relationship between openness to experience and test performance (r = .18, p < .01), and an expected relationship between emotionality and the time in which students completed and turned in an exam. Those who turned in the exam with less than five minutes remaining in the class were significantly higher in emotionality than other students (F = 6.35, p < .05). Additional analyses will examine the predictive validity of the survey regarding other course-related behaviors, including class attendance, completion of extra-credit, and final course grades. Practical significance of the results will be discussed, with a behavioral perspective on “personality”.
Exploring the Relationship Between Psychological Entitlement and Behavior.
CHRISTOPHER DOWNING (Virginia Tech), Catherine C. Eckel (Virginia Tech), Philip K. Lehman (Virginia Tech)
Abstract: Psychological Entitlement is a stable and pervasive perception that one deserves more positive consequences than others. This personality characteristic has been linked to various personality traits and hypothetical situations. It has also been associated with specific behaviors. The current studies explored the predictive ability of the Psychological Entitlement Scale to forecast behaviors in laboratory and real world settings. In the first study, participants made decisions about the distribution of money. More specifically, the participants were randomly assigned the role of the “giver” or the “taker”. The giver was asked to allocate money to either themselves or an unknown taker, while the taker was asked to of predict how much money they thought they would receive from the giver. As hypothesized, the results showed that high entitled givers kept significantly more money than did givers low in entitlement. In addition, the takers’ high entitlement predicted the giver would keep more money. The second study examined whether the entitlement scale would predict students’ requests for extra credit in an introductory psychology class. The students in two classes (n = 840) took the psychological entitlement scale and subsequently their email requests for extra credit will be tracked throughout the semester.
Social Anxiety, Alcohol Expectancies, and Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Alcohol Consumption at Fraternity Parties.
IAN J. EHRHART (Virginia Tech), Kent E. Glindemann (Virginia Tech), E. Scott Geller (Virginia Tech)
Abstract: Wechsler and colleagues (2000) reported that 44% of college students in 1999 were classified as binge drinkers (defined as consuming five or more alcoholic drinks in a sitting for men and four or more drinks in a sitting for women), with 24% classified as frequent binge drinkers. This paper explores one possible reason for elevated alcohol consumption within this population. Specifically, feelings of insecurity/anxiety in social situations (i.e., social anxiety), like a fraternity party, activate expectancies that alcohol can ameliorate these symptoms, increasing alcohol consumption. This relationship may be further moderated by one’s perceived self-efficacy to refuse a drink. Data were collected at seven fraternity parties, with 89 participants completing survey assessments and having their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) assessed at the end of the party. The dependent variable was BAC, the direct outcome of drinking behavior. Using stepwise multiple regression, it was found that, among a group of high socially anxious participants (n = 26), social anxiety level (Step 1) and alcohol expectancies (Step 2) accounted for 76.0% of the variance in BAC. This presentation will explore how the personality assessment results of this research could inform the design of interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among college students.
Symposium #20
International Symposium - CAPSIzing Higher Education: PSI on the Internet in Canada and the United States
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Robert W. Allan (Lafayette College)
Abstract: The computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI) is based on Keller’s PSI program of learning. The use of small units of study, generative short essay-type answer to guided study questions, in-class peer reviewing, mentoring, and self-paced study are hallmarks of a rich PSI program. Previous research has indicated that despite criticisms about the text-based aspect of PSI, that higher order thinking can be achieved using CAPSI. Recent advances in programming and availability through the internet have made CAPSI available to a wider audience of educators. This symposium will address student and instructor behavioral changes in terms of positive and negative reinforcement, feedback, and other principles and procedures. In general, it is suggested that by using behavioral principles judiciously in adopting CAPSI that students at all levels can and will engage in appropriate behavior, including that which we term “higher order thinking”, self-pacing, and other student engagement activities that are related to better learning outcomes. Also, the mastery-based generative answers in CAPSI seem to lead to better performance when compared with a multiple choice format. Finally, student feedback on the CAPSI teaching method will be discussed by several presenters, and the lessons learned from introducing this program into a novel environment.
Critical Thinking Development in a CAPSI Taught First Year University Course.
LOUIS SVENNINGSEN (University of Manitoba)
Abstract: CAPSI (Computer Assisted personalized System of Instruction) is a learning method that helps develop student’s critical thinking through a first year Introduction to University distance education designed course. This approach moves the responsibilities and activities to the student with the instructor being a facilitator of knowledge development; exploring with students, difficult concepts, or concerns throughout the course. A unique aspect of this design is that students peer review test answers of fellow students, make critical comments on other students’ answers, and decide whether to issue a pass or re-study. As a result, students develop greater involvement in the course material, involvement with the instructor, and fellow students. To assess changes in critical thinking the CAPSI course delivery has been compared to an in-class, lecture style delivery of the same Introduction to University course. To help gauge differences in critical thinking between the two styles of delivery a pre and post critical thinking assessment has been done with the students. The results of these assessments and a discussion of the course design will be discussed.
Using WebCAPSI to Teach Graduate Courses.
JOSEPH J. PEAR (University of Manitoba)
Abstract: WebCAPSI was used as one component of the teaching method in three graduate courses: statistical regression, history and systems of psychology, and verbal behavior. Other course components included working in groups to solve problems or present reports, class discussions, and brief lectures. As might be expected, graduate students wrote more extensive essay answers and gave richer feedback and more resudies than undergraduate students tend to do. The graduate students also rated WebCAPSI highly on a course evaluation. Description of the teaching method, course evaluation data, and examples of students answers' and peer feedback given by students are presented. Recommendations for using the system effectively with graduate students, and pitfalls to avoid, are discussed.
Lessons Learned: Introducing CAPSI in Psychology Courses at Delta State University.
DARLENE E. CRONE-TODD (Delta State University), Jessica M. Honeycutt (Delta State University), Heidi L. Eyre (Delta State University), Joseph J. Pear (University of Manitoba)
Abstract: During Spring 2005, CAPSI became available for the first time through the internet. CAPSI was adopted for use in two upper-level psychology courses at Delta State University: a sophomore-level research methods course and a senior-level applied behavior analysis course. Using small units of study and peer review in a mastery-based system, students provide short answer essay-type responses to randomly selected unit test questions. Initial reaction to the program was positive; however, as the term progressed, student interest appeared to decrease as the number of restudies increased. This presentation will discuss behaviourally-based teaching strategies for increasing student writing, including feedback, bonus points for unit test completion, and other strategies currently employed in the firth author’s other undergraduate courses. Students' responses to questions about CAPSI, their overall persistence in the system, development of academically-appropriate textual responses, higher order thinking, and adoption of alternative assessment of mastery criteria will be discussed in terms of student success and ongoing research using CAPSI at Delta State.
Student Response Rate and Persistence in a CAPSI-taught Developmental Psychology Course.
HEIDI L. EYRE (Delta State University), Heather Muller Peacock (Delta State University), Darlene E. Crone-Todd (Delta State University), Jennifer L. Klein (New England Center for Children), Joseph J. Pear (University of Manitoba)
Abstract: Two sections of Developmental Psychology are compared in terms of student response rate and persistence in mastering tests. Both sections were seminar-formatted and used the same course manual that consisted of small units of material with study questions that formed the pool of questions for the short-answer exams. One section was taught using CAPSI, meaning that students completed self-paced, mastery-based, short-answer unit tests and had the opportunity to peer review other students’ unit tests. The second section used WebCT and took instructor-paced multiple-choice unit tests that were marked by the computer (students were allowed three attempts and their highest score was recorded). Results indicated that students enrolled in the CAPSI-taught course had a higher rate of responding in terms of attempting and completing unit tests and interacting with the computer system, as well as a higher level of persistence in mastering tests. Discussion will focus on students’ verbal reports about using CAPSI or WebCT and why students enrolled in the CAPSI-taught course had a higher response rate.
Paper Session #21
Celeration and Frequency
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Area: TPC
Chair: John W. Eshleman (Optimal Instructional Systems)
Standard Measurement as a Precursor to a Science of Human Behavior
Domain: Applied Research
CLAY M. STARLIN (University of Oregon)
Abstract: One of the hallmarks of science is standardization of measurement units, procedures and display systems. It is evident from strolling through the ABA poster sessions that measurement standardization is not currently part of the “science” of human behavior. If we wish to develop into a true science we must address the issue of standardization in measurement. This session will build the case that the Standard Celeration technology (aka Precision Teaching) has appropriately addressed the need for measurement standardization. The session is designed to provide the skeptic and the unfamiliar with a user friendly scientific rationale for the use of the Standard Celeration technology.
Behavior Change and Celeration Comparison: Considering Advanced Charting Techniques
Domain: Theory
JOHN W. ESHLEMAN (Optimal Instructional Systems)
Abstract: Even a cursory review of the published precision teaching literature reveals that researchers and teachers rarely make use of the advanced charting techniques covered in the later chapters of the Handbook of the Standard Celeration Chart (Pennypacker, Gutierrez, & Lindsley, 2003). As a result, most users and their readers miss out on some of the most powerful analytic features of the standard celeration chart. Moreover, an incomplete representation of Precision Teaching results. These analytic techniques, central to what truly sets the chart apart from various "rate" graphs and other displays of behavior change over time, include (1) projecting celeration lines, (2) comparing concurrent celerations, (3) comparing consecutive celerations, and (4) precisely describing the effects of behavior change procedures using the Accuracy Improvement Measure (AIM). This presentation will (a) document the historical usage of these techniques on yearly standard celeration charts, and (b) illustrate these advanced charting methods with databased examples. The objective is both to clarify and to encourage greater use of these rarely used but highly powerful charting features. The presentation will also cover how we can increase the frequency of the use of these advanced techniques with the goal to advance the measurement practices of behavior analysis.
Some Discoveries in Designing Research for Frequency of Practice
Domain: Theory
ELIZABETH A. SWATSKY (Ann Arbor Public Schools)
Abstract: A research project was completed looking at the effects of frequency of response on retention. An adapted version alternating treatments design was implemented. Interesting discoveries will be discussed to help guide future research.
Paper Session #22
International Paper Session - Clinical Behavior Analysis
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Area: CBM
Chair: Karen H. Griffee (Concord University)
No Objective Observers Here: Therapy Interpretations as Contingency-Shaped Behavior
Domain: Theory
KAREN H. GRIFFEE (Concord University)
Abstract: Psychologists doing clinical work are understandably interested in identifying the factors which best predict and allow for positive therapy outcomes. The adequacy of clinical training is one “therapist” factor contributing to therapeutic change. It can be argued that good clinical training is an essential context for effective “rule-governed” therapeutic behavior. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the therapist’s behavior as shaped directly by the client during the process of therapy. These therapist behaviors might be understood as “contingency-shaped” behaviors. Process-oriented therapies involve attending to and effectively describing (“interpreting”)the contingencies which seem to determine the client’s behavior, as these contingencies unfold in the therapy room. Although clinical training and other sources of “rule-governed” therapeutic responses are important, sensitivity to the contingencies provided directly by the client is critical in process-oriented work. It is suggested that a process-oriented, or contingency-shaped, orientation to clinical behavior analysis is 1)useful, 2)consistent with a behavior-analytic philosophy of science, and 3)compatible with many other behavior-analytic approaches, including those described in the literature on “acceptance and commitment”. Rather than focus on interpretation of client behaviors, a goal of this paper is to “interpret” the contingencies surrounding effective therapy behaviors. In particular, this paper considers some specific kinds of client-controlled contingencies that may directly shape effective therapeutic responses.
The Role of Values Work in ACT Applications
Domain: Applied Research
JOANNE DAHL (University of Uppsala, Sweden)
Abstract: We have used “values” as the context for treatment in the areas of chronic illness such as epilepsy, chronic pain, diabetes, obesity, and headache. Identified valued life directions serves as an internal compass from which the client can gage his or her steps in life. We have developed the “Life Compass” as way of helping the client to determine his/her valued directions. In this procedure, the client learns to distinguish between goals and values. Another aim of the life compass procedure is to help the client see the discrepancy between the valued life as he or she would like it to be and how it actually is. Simple behavior change is not difficult to obtain, the difficulty with most treatment is maintaining the behavior change. Using values as the context of the behavior change insures that any change of behavior coincides with the client’s deeply held values. This two-step process is likely to lead to long-term behavior changes. In the areas of chronic illness, the values are identified in the first session are the constant reference from which all work is done. This presentation will demonstrate how values can be used in a variety of treatment protocols in this way.

Practical Single-Subject Evaluation Designs for Practitioners

Domain: Applied Research
STEPHEN E. WONG (Florida International University)

Practitioners' usage of single-subject evaluation designs may be limited by requirements of collecting lengthy baseline phases, postponing treatment, withdrawing treatment, or administering treatment across multiple baselines. This presentation reviews relatively practical designs for practitioners that omit these requirements, including the Pretest-Posttest and the Periodic Treatments, the BC and BCD, the aggregated AB and the aggregated randomized AB, the short reversal, the short multiple baseline, and the short alternating treatments. Strengths and weakness of these designs, plus ways of combining practical designs with design components to obtain more definitive findings are discussed.

Symposium #23
CE Offered: BACB
Contributions of Behavioral Pharmacology/Toxicology to the Experimental Analysis of Behavior: III
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Area: BPH; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Steven I. Dworkin (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
Discussant: Steven I. Dworkin (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
CE Instructor: Steven I. Dworkin, Ph.D.

This is the third symposium in the continuing series of presentations outlining the contributions of research in behavioral pharmacology to the experimental analysis of behavior. Although the contributions of EAB to BPH are easily identified, the advancements made in the other direction are not as readily apparent. This symposium will highlight significant contributions of BPH to EAB.

Using Poisons to Probe Behavior - and Vice Versa.
ROBERT C. MACPHAIL (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)
Abstract: A central concept that emerged early in behavioral pharmacology was that of drug-behavior interactions. By this principle, the behavioral effect of a drug depended on the compound and its dose - but also on the conditions maintaining the behavior under investigation. The concept has had broad applicability in neurobiology and to a lesser degree in toxicology. Studies will be reviewed, however, supporting the conclusion that the effects of many toxic environmental pollutants (pesticides, metals and toxins) also display drug-behavior interactions.
Translating the Contributions of Behavioral Pharmacology/Toxicology to Human Health Issues.
JOHN R. GLOWA (National Institutes of Health)
Abstract: n/a
A Look Back Towards the Future.
VICTOR G. LATIES (University of Rochester Medical Center)
Abstract: n/a
Paper Session #24
Data Analysis, Research Quality, and Effective Interventions
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Area: EDC
Chair: Richard M. Kubina Jr. (Pennsylvania State University)
A Survey of Grapical Usage in Special Education Journals
Domain: Applied Research
RICHARD M. KUBINA JR. (Pennsylvania State University), Douglas E. Kostewicz (Pennsylvania State University), Shawn Datchuck (Pennsylvania State University), David L. Lee (Pennsylvania State University)
Abstract: Studies have shown that journals in the natural sciences use more statistical graphics than journals found in the social sciences. The rated hardness of a journal corresponds with the measure of fractional graph area (FGA) whereas the inverse holds true for fractional table area (FTA). This study surveyed over 30 different journals in special education. We inspected all of the issues in four volumes, each spread 5 years apart, for all of the journals and ended up surveying over 500 issues. We discuss the results of the FGA, FTA, and other uses related to our survey of graphical usage in special education journals.
Behavioral Assessment: Evaluating Discrepancies in Your Data
Domain: Applied Research
KIM KILLU (University of Michigan, Dearborn), Kimberly P. Weber (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: A basic component of behavior analysis involves the collection of quantitative data used to determine program needs and make modifications based on the interpretation of evidence. The data obtained maybe derived from a variety of sources and the results may be in direct conflict with one another for a number of reasons. The variance obtained when collecting large amounts of data can interfere with the data's interpretation and evaluation. Such variance in data, however, is inevitable and simply an inherent characteristic of organisms and environments. Rather than viewing variability and discrepancies as a hindrance to program development, they should be embraced as an expected occurrence and a source for further investigation. This paper will examine common discrepancies in data, the reasons for variance in data, and provide recommendations for integrating data discrepancies with intervention planning.
Lies, Damned Lies and Educational Research: Why We Need a Journal of Misrepresentations and Failed Instructional Methods
Domain: Applied Research
ROGER FRANK BASS (Carthage College)
Abstract: Education's instructional fads have so predictably cycled through our classrooms that the history of education is largely a thesaurus of failed teaching techniques. One reason that for that lamentable state of affairs is the hyper-marketing of low quality research. Some current examples from studies of reading instruction will be provided as will an outline of the much less developed movement to exert counter-control over such publications. This critique goes beyond academic interest to illustrate how invalid research influenced state and federal decisions involving millions of dollars.
Symposium #25
Driving Behaviors
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Marisa Snow (Florida State University)
Discussant: Ryan B. Olson (Oregon Health & Science University)
Abstract: Applied and experimental studies have demonstrated both diminished driving ability due to cellular phone usage and increased risk for injury or death when not wearing a seatbelt. The present studies provide further study in the area of driving-related safety behaviors.
Seatbelt and Cellular Phone Usage by Automobile Drivers: A Descriptive Analysis.
MARCO D. TOMASI (Florida State University), Jon S. Bailey (Florida State University)
Abstract: Over four thousand drivers were observed while stopped at traffic lights along a set route in a Southeastern city in this two phase study. During both phases, observations were conducted by research teams driving a 6.9 mile route during peak evening traffic hours. At stoplights the research teams observed the drivers directly to their right. In the first phase of the study seatbelt usage was evaluated before, during, and after the national Click-It-Or-Ticket campaign. The second phase of the study focused on the seatbelt and cellular phone usage of drivers. Researchers collected data on seatbelt and cellular phone usage, gender of the driver, type of vehicle, vehicle color, and weather conditions. Observations were collected over an eight month period to evaluate any possible effects due to changes in student populations. The data were then analyzed to investigate gender differences and differences in vehicle type in relation to the target behaviors.
Increasing Seat Belt Use at an Apartment Complex.
WILLIAM C. VOSS (Florida State University), Nadia E. Raed (Florida State University), Jennifer Rava-Wooten (Florida State University)
Abstract: The Engerman, Austin, and Bailey (1997) article attempted to assess the effectiveness of verbal prompts used at a supermarket to increase the use of seat belts. The current study tried to assess the effectiveness of visual prompt on seat belt use. The lack of a seat belt has been show to be a major factor in death and serious injury in automobile accidents. The average baseline data taken on seat belt usage at the apartment complex was at about 30 percent on average. The current study used a visual prompt, a sign, in an apartment complex in an attempt to assess the effectiveness of signs posted in the natural environment on seat belt usage. Observers will watch driver behavior to record if a seat belt is used from an unobtrusive location. The sign will then be removed for a return to baseline. The sign will be posted after data stabilizes again. The sign will be removed once more for a third baseline before a new condition is conducted; an official government is sign is placed where the sign was most effective. The study is still being conducted. The current condition is a return to baseline. The average seatbelt usage went from 33% during the first baseline, to 56.4% during the first treatment phase, and 22% during the return to baseline.
The Effects of a Variable and Fixed Seatbelt-Gear Delay on Seatbelt Use of 120 Drivers.
RON VAN HOUTEN (Western Michigan University), J. E. Louis Malenfant (Centre for Education and Research in Safety)
Abstract: Van Houten, Malenfant, Austin and Lebbon (2005) found that a seatbelt-gearshift delay that required unbelted drivers to either buckle their seatbelt or wait a specified duration before they could put their vehicle in gear increased seatbelt use in five drivers, and that the duration of the delay that produced relatively consistent seat belt use varied across drivers from 5 to 20 s. In a follow-up study is currently underway with 120 drivers in the U.S. and Canada. This study compares variable interval and fixed interval delays of 8 and 16 s. using a multiple baseline counterbalanced design. The improved device monitors driver seatbelt use and only introduces the delay when a pattern of low use is detected. Once the program is activated the driver can only earn their way off the program by demonstrating consistent seatbelt use. This research is being supported by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and Transport Canada.
Symposium #26
Feeding the Word Machine: Factors that Influence Relational Responding
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Area: CBM; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Amanda C. Adcock (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee)
Abstract: Facilitated acquisition of novel members into equivalence classes is an understudied area in the field of relational conditioning. It is assumed that salience of the stimuli affect the formation of classes of stimuli. Four studies designed to directly study this phenomenon will be discussed. Data will be presented from these four studies demonstrating various factors that influence the formation of equivalence classes.
Reptiles & Relations: The Influence of Aversive Functions.
CHAD DRAKE (University of Mississippi), Kelly G. Wilson (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: Some previous research (Plaud, 1993; Plaud, et. al, 1998) has indicated that participants demonstrate inhibited acquisition of derived relations among fear-relevant stimuli. Such findings conflict with other studies (Wilson, unpublished; Merwin & Wilson, 2005), which found facilitated acquisition among self-relevant and distress-relevant stimuli. The current study examined this apparent contradiction in findings. The results suggest that both outcomes can be accounted for by differences in the pre-existing functions of the class members. These findings can be integrated by referring to the psychological flexibility of fear-relevant stimuli.
Academic Cues Run Rampant: The Role of Relational Responding in Academic Distress.
BRITTANY A. HAMMER (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee), Amanda C. Adcock (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee), Jaime M. Owens (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee), Leslie Anne Kuhn (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee), Douglas W. Woods (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee), Kelly G. Wilson (University of Mississippi), Chad Drake (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: The problem of attrition on college campuses is rampant; almost half of students enrolling in college courses will not complete a degree. It has been reported that college students that report higher distress are generally those performing poorly academically. This study examines the relationship between academic performance and distress, as well as examines the ability of students to derive relations among academic distress relevant stimuli as compared to controls. Data will be presented from a college sample that completed a matching-to-sample procedure designed to train conditional discriminations among stimuli A and B, and A and C, and subsequently test for bi-directional derived relations between B and C, where A and C are arbitrary line drawings and B is either academically relevant words, color words or shape words.
Personal Content: Friend or Foe?
AMANDA C. ADCOCK (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee), Douglas W. Woods (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee)
Abstract: An idiographic assessment of the effects of personal and emotional content on relational responding was conducted. Data will be presented from a matching-to-sample procedure designed to evaluate the acquisition of novel arbitrary members to personally relevant stimulus classes as compared to emotional stimulus classes and a neutral control class. Participants reporting high and low levels of distress as measured by the Outcome Questionnaire participated in an interview to determine the personally relevant stimulus used in the procedure.
Jumping into Joy or Diving into Depression: The Role of Emotion in Relational Responding.
CHRISTINE A. CONELEA (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee), Amanda C. Adcock (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee), Douglas W. Woods (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee), Katie Gilbart (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee), Laura Biwer (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee)
Abstract: No research in the area of derived relational responding has compared the acquisition of novel members to stimulus classes containing positive or negative emotion words. The purpose of the present study was to determine if there are different acquisition rates for arbitrary members to emotion word equivalence classes. The matching-to-sample procedure trained conditional discriminations between A and B and A and C, and subsequently tested for bidirectional relations between B and C, where A and C are arbitrary stimuli and B is either a positive, negative, or neutral emotion word. Participant responses in the testing phases of the matching-to-sample procedure will be presented.
Symposium #27
CE Offered: BACB
Further Evaluation of Indirect and Direct Methods of Functional Assessment
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Centennial Ballroom IV
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Cynthia M. Anderson (University of Oregon)
CE Instructor: Cynthia M. Anderson, Ph.D.

Practitioners interested in conduting a pre-intervention functional assessment are faced with the daunting challenge of identifying a method that will be useful in a given setting and with a given population. The difficulty they are faced with has only increased in recent years as the number of functional assessment methods available in journals and on the world wide web has exploded. In this symposium we explore questions related to reliability, validity, and treatment utility of indirect and direct methods of functional assessment.

Current Status of Validity Data for the QABF (Questions About Behavioral Function).
THEODOSIA R. PACLAWSKYJ (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Johnny L. Matson (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Ruth M. DeBar (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Mary-Claire Brett (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: A persistent challenge for clinicians in applied settings who work with individuals with developmental disabilities and maladaptive behaviors is to reconcile the need for efficacious assessment and treatment development with the knowledge that functional assessment questionnaires are not guaranteed to produce an accurate or valid outcome. Most ABA practitioners are aware of the fact that functional analyses conducted via analog sessions demonstrate the greatest validity and experimental control. However, in too many cases clinicians lack the resources necessary to conduct such analyses, whether due to time, personnel, or workload factors. Therefore, further efforts at validation of a functional assessment checklist remain critical. In the current paper, we present the comparison data between the outcomes of the QABF and functional analysis sessions and compare these outcomes to treatment data. Patient data for 90 cases in which a function-based treatment was successfully implemented were reviewed retrospectively. Agreement between the QABF and functional analysis outcome was modest (mean across subscales=64%). Results are discussed in terms of identifying the limiting conditions for use of the QABF in clinical settings.
Agreement between Teachers and Students on Function of Student Problem Behavior as Indicated in Brief Functional Behavioral Assessment Interviews.
KENT MCINTOSH (University of Oregon), Robert H. Horner (University of Oregon)
Abstract: This paper describes results from a study comparing data obtained from brief functional behavioral assessment interviews. Participants were 50 general and special education students in 4th, 5th and 6th grades with chronic problem behavior and their teachers. Each teacher participated in a brief functional behavioral assessment interview, during which a summary statement (identification of problem behavior, antecedents and function) was generated. Students were then provided with a summary statement with the function information omitted and were asked to provide a function for their problem behavior. Results indicated moderate agreement between sources, with several factors influencing the level of agreement. Such factors will be discussed in relation to increasing the accuracy of functional behavioral assessments completed in regular school settings.
Descriptive and Experimental Analyses of Potential Precursors to Problem Behavior.
CARRIE S. W. BORRERO (University of Florida & Spectrum Center, Inc.), John C. Borrero (University of the Pacific), Andrew R. Weiher (Spectrum Center, Inc.)
Abstract: We conducted a descriptive analysis of severe problem behavior for an individual with developmental disabilities in order to identify potential precursors to problem behavior. After identifying potential precursors, we compared the unconditional probability of the precursor to the conditional probability of the precursor given problem behavior. We then conducted functional analyses of both the problem behavior and precursor to determine if both were reinforced by the same events. Results of the descriptive analysis demonstrated that the probability of the precursor was greater given problem behavior than the unconditional probability of the precursor, and suggested that the response may be a precursor to problem behavior. In addition, results of the functional analyses demonstrated that both problem behavior and the precursor were reinforced by access to tangible items and escape from instructional demands. The method may be useful for determining the extent to which one response precedes problem behavior and whether precursors and problem behavior are members of the same (or different) response classes.
Psychometric Properties of the Questions About Behavioral Function Scale in a Pediatric Population.
KURT A. FREEMAN (Oregon Health Sciences University), Michael Walker (Oregon Health Sciences University), Jeremy Kaufman (Oregon Health Sciences University)
Abstract: The Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) scale is a caregiver report form designed to identify behavioral functions of aberrant behavior. Previous research regarding the psychometric properties of this instrument has been conducted with adults, largely in residential settings. Because of this, the goal of the present investigation was to evaluate psychometric properties of the QABF in an outpatient pediatric population. Ninety-one children between the ages of 2 and 18 with developmental delays and aberrant behavior (e.g., physical aggression, self-injury, property destruction) participated. All participants were seen in an outpatient behavioral assessment clinic operated through a medical university hospital. One caregiver (i.e., parent or legal guardian) completed the QABF and Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) focused on one problematic behavior identified in a pre-appointment interview for each child. Results indicate that the QABF exhibited fair to good internal consistency, acceptable inter-subscale correlations, and convergent validity with the MAS. Current results extend the literature on the QABF by demonstrating acceptable psychometric properties with a pediatric population evaluated in an outpatient setting. Available data suggest that the QABF may be a viable functional assessment tool for use in situations in which more experimentally rigorous functional assessment procedures (e.g., analog functional analysis) are not feasible.
Symposium #28
CE Offered: BACB
Further Refinements of Observation and Measurement Procedures
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Regency VI
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Eileen M. Roscoe (New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Eileen M. Roscoe, Ph.D.

This symposium will present four papers describing various refinements in observation and measurement procedures in the field of applied behavior analysis. The first paper, presented by Jeffrey Luke, will present data comparing whole-session means and latency to first response as methods for identifying the function(s) of severe problem behavior. The second paper, delivered by Maeve Meanny, will discuss data comparing partial-interval recording (PIR) and momentary-time sampling (MTS) methods for estimating duration and frequency. She will also present data evaluating how PIR and MTS methods may affect treatment interpretation. The third paper, delivered by Frank Symons, will review the strengths and weaknesses of recent developments in sequential analysis, focusing on issues relevant to contingency analysis in natural environments. Finally, the last paper, presented by Luanne Witherup, will discuss the utility of obtaining behavioral measures of running away for children in foster care.

Utilizing Latency-to-First-Response as a Measure in the Evaluation of Functional Analysis Outcomes.
JEFFREY R. LUKE (University of Iowa), Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Iowa), Tory J. Christensen (University of Iowa), Jayme Mews (University of Iowa), Jason M. Stricker (University of Iowa), Terry S. Falcomata (University of Iowa)
Abstract: Since the initial application of functional analysis logic to the assessment of severe problem behavior, variations in the methodology have emerged. Typically, such variations have included a change in design or in length of the assessment. In this study, we compared the graphic display of whole-session means and latency to first response as methods for identifying the function(s) of severe problem behavior. Visual inspection of the graphic displays latency to first response resulted in similar conclusions as visual inspection of whole-session mean data. These results will be discussed relative to their implications for session length during analog functional analyses and when such methodology should be employed (e.g., dangerous behavior, etc.). Inter-rater agreement was obtained for at least 30% of the comparisons and was above 90%.
A Comparison of Momentary Time Sampling and Partial Interval Recording Measurement Methods.
MAEVE G. MEANY-DABOUL (New England Center for Children), Eileen M. Roscoe (New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare partial interval recording (PIR) and momentary time sampling (MTS) methods for estimating duration and frequency, and to evaluate how PIR and MTS methods may affect treatment interpretation. Five individuals with autism, who exhibited problem behavior characterized by different bout durations, participated. Responding was recorded across baseline and treatment conditions using each type of measurement method to determine whether the different methods affected the data record, and thus, data interpretation. Results indicated that MTS was a better estimator of duration than PIR across all bout durations, and that PIR was a better estimator of frequency than MTS across short and medium bout durations. Long bout durations resulted in decreased accuracy of estimates when compared to frequency. Separate graphic displays were then created for each measurement method. A dual-criterion (DC) method was used to analyze each graph for evidence of appropriate phase changes and treatment effects. Visual inspection using the DC method resulted in appropriate phase-change decisions but varied treatment interpretations across measurement methods and bout durations. IOA was collected during 33.8% of sessions and averaged 95%.
Calculating Contingencies in Natural Environments.
FRANK J. SYMONS (University of Minnesota), Jennifer J. McComas (University of Minnesota), Ellie C. Hartman (University of Minnesota), John D Hoch (University of Minnesota)
Abstract: In this paper, we rejoin the discussion initiated by Vollmer and Hackenberg (2001) on identifying and estimating reinforcement contingencies in the natural environment. The conceptual and logical basis for inferring a reinforcement effect is revisited. Recent developments in sequential analysis are reviewed along with their strengths and weaknesses. Data from descriptive analyses are used to illustrate points of convergence and divergence. Remaining issues germane to contingency analysis in natural environments are discussed. It is concluded that the conceptual distinctions among contiguity, contingency, and dependency are critical if the logic of sequential analysis is to be extended successfully to a behavior analytic account of reinforcement in natural environments.
Baseline Measurement of Running Away Among Youth in Foster Care.
LUANNE WITHERUP (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and usefulness of obtaining behavioral measures of running away for children in foster care. Participants included 84 runaways residing in one service district of the Florida Department of Children and Families (FDCF). All data were obtained from existing databases managed by FDCF. Seven baseline measures were calculated for each runner including (a) the number of run initiations, (b) the proportion of opportunity days in which the child initiated a run, (c) the number of days the child spent on the run, (d) the proportion of opportunity days that the child spent on the run, (e) the duration of successive run episodes, (f) successive episode inter-response times and (g) successive initiation inter-response times. The first four of these measures were also calculated for various sub-groups of children constructed from the original sample. In addition, an observer-panel evaluation was conducted to identify baselines that would be suitable for research-based treatment evaluations. Results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining baseline measures of running away, but suggest that such measures may not be suitable for research-based treatment evaluations in many cases. However, results indicate that such treatment evaluations may be possible via an analysis of groups of runners rather than individual subjects.
Panel #29
Professional Development Series: Conversation Hour with Prominent Women in Behavior Analysis
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Area: PRA; Domain: Theory
Chair: Christy A. Alligood (West Virginia University)
LINDA J. PARROTT HAYES (University of Nevada, Reno)
MARIA E. MALOTT (Association for Behavior Analysis)
FRANCES K. MCSWEENEY (Washington State University)
CAROL PILGRIM (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
BETH SULZER-AZAROFF (Browns Group Naples)

Panelists will discuss their experiences in the field and invite questions from attendees.

Symposium #30
CE Offered: BACB
Promoting Compliance and Decreasing Problem Behavior
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Rachel H. Thompson (University of Kansas)
CE Instructor: Rachel H. Thompson, Ph.D.

This series of presentations will explore a number of variables that influence the extent to which behavior is allocated toward compliance with academic tasks and other adult requests rather than less desirable responses (e.g., noncompliance, stereotypy). Collectively, these studies explore the effects of praise, instructions, three-step prompting, differential reinforcement, shaping, and non-contingent reinforcement. These variables were evaluated under both analog experimental conditions and under in more naturalistic settings (e.g., the preschool classroom.). The utility of and limitations associated with each of these strategies will be discussed, and researchers will provide recommendations for practice.

An Evaluation of Strategies for Promoting Desirable Response Allocation Among Toddlers.
PAIGE M. MCKERCHAR (University of Kansas), Rachel H. Thompson (University of Kansas), Nicole M. Cotnoir (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Caregivers working with toddlers are challenged with arranging environmental conditions to promote appropriate responses (e.g., compliance) and discourage inappropriate responses (e.g., destructive behavior). This study evaluated the effects of commonly recommended procedures on toddler response allocation, within a concurrent-operants arrangement. Data were collected on the frequency of simple responses (e.g., stacking) under analog conditions. Interobserver agreement was collected during a minimum of 28% of sessions and averaged above 85% across participants. Results showed that, for all participants, praise alone was ineffective in producing desired response allocation. For participant 1, the delivery of an edible combined with descriptive praise was effective. For participant 2, instructions plus general praise plus delivery of an edible was successful. For participants 3 and 4, three-step prompting plus general praise was effective. And for participants 5 and 6, three-step prompting plus general praise plus access to a preferred item was required to produce desired response allocation. Results for participant 6 were replicated under naturalistic conditions in the classroom. These results suggest that, although there is an abundant amount of research demonstrating the effectiveness of praise, it may be insufficient to produce desirable changes in toddler behavior even when combined with explicit instructions.
Evaluation of a Three-step Prompting Procedure to Reduce Noncompliance among Typically Developing Preschool Children.
DAVID A. WILDER (Florida Institute of Technology), Julie Atwell (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: The effectiveness of a three-step prompting procedure to reduce noncompliance among typically developing preschool children was evaluated. After baseline data on compliance to common demands were collected, a parent, instructional assistant, or graduate research assistant implemented the three-step prompting procedure, which involved the delivery of progressively more intrusive prompts contingent upon noncompliance. The effects of the procedure were examined using a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants. The results suggest that the procedure was effective for four of the six children who participated.
An Examination of Percentile Schedules of Reinforcement to Increase Compliance.
ELIZABETH S. ATHENS (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Claire C St. Peter (University of Florida)
Abstract: Shaping is frequently used to teach new behavioral repertoires as well as to increase the likelihood of engagement in current behavioral repertoires. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a method of quantifying the shaping process in applied settings using percentile schedules. Percentile schedules are used as a mathematical method of quantifying the shaping process in order to limit variation in the shaping procedure between subjects. Despite its successful implementation in basic research, the method has gained little attention in application. In experiment 1 of the current study, percentile schedules were implemented in an elementary school setting with three children as a shaping procedure targeting compliance during various academic tasks. Results showed that percentile schedules were successful at shaping higher levels of compliance. In experiment 2 of the current study, we examined several different parameters for one of the variables in implementing a percentile schedule. The results of these experiments indicate that percentile schedules may be useful in the application of shaping, enabling quantification and objectivity across clients and therapists.
Selective Effects of Noncontingent Access to Reinforcers "Matched" to Problem Behavior on Problem Behavior and Academic Behavior.
ELIZABETH CHRISTENSEN (New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Non-contingent access to sources of reinforcement matched to the putative sensory consequence maintaining automatically reinforced problem behavior has been shown to be an effective treatment. In the present study, a functional analysis indicated that the problem behavior (stereotypy) of two participants diagnosed with autism was automatically maintained. A competing-items assessment showed that non-contingent music suppressed vocal stereotypy in both participants. The effects of non-contingent music on stereotypy and engagement in academic responding in a classroom setting were examined using a multi-element design. The results showed that non-contingent access to reinforcement matched to the hypothesized sensory consequence maintaining problem behavior produced decreases in stereotypy but no decreases in rates of trial completion or accuracy of responding.
Symposium #31
CE Offered: BACB
Promoting Spontaneous Language Use and Cooperative Play in Young Children with Autism
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Regency V
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Thomas S. Higbee (Utah State University)
Discussant: Patricia J. Krantz (Princeton Child Development Institute)
CE Instructor: Thomas S. Higbee, Ph.D.

Many children with autism display deficits in the use of spontaneous language and cooperative play. Research recently conducted at Utah State University to address these challenges will be presented in this symposium. Topics will include the use of social scripting and script fading procedures, cooperative activity schedules, and strategies to teach manding for information by contriving motivating operations.

Parents Use of Script Fading Procedures to Teach Conversation to Children with Autism.
KARA A. REAGON (Utah State University), Thomas S. Higbee (Utah State University)
Abstract: Scripts and script fading procedures have been effective strategies to teach children and adolescents with autism conversational language. Audio taped scripts have been used with nonreaders (Stevenson, Krantz, & McClannhan, 2000) and written textual scripts (Krantz & McClannahan, 1993; Krantz & McClannahan, 1998; and Sarokoff, Taylor & Poulson, 2001) have been used with readers. Conversational topics have included initiations and question asking to adults about an upcoming event, initiations to peers and or adults about recently completed activities or upcoming activities, and lastly children have been taught to comment about objects within their environment, such as a snack or video game. Script and script fading procedures have also been implemented to teach youths appropriate conversational skills during simulated shopping trips that were then generalized to local retail stores (Brown, 2003). The purpose of the present study is to extend the use of script and script fading procedures to a home setting by training parents to implement and systematically fade scripts to promote conversational language in young children with autism. Both the parent’s use of script and script fading procedures and children’s use of scripts and unscripted responses will be examined using a multiple-probe design across participants. Generalization across activities will also be assessed.
Teaching Children with Autism to Mand for Information By Contriving Motivating Operations.
KATIE ENDICOTT (Utah State University), Thomas S. Higbee (Utah State University)
Abstract: Although many students with autism have demonstrated the ability to mand for tangible items, they often experience difficulty asking questions. Questions can be categorized as mands for information, as the question is controlled by a motivating operation and the response provided results in specific reinforcement. In the present study, young children with autism were taught to mand for information by contriving motivating operations to make the information more "valuable" and thus making mands for information more likely. Results of the study will be shared and their implications for establishing question asking repertoires in children with autism will be discussed.
Teaching Preschool Aged Children with Autism to Engage in Peer Play Using Group Photographic Activity Schedules and Script Fading Procedures.
ALISON M. BETZ (Utah State University), Kara A. Reagon (Utah State University), Thomas S. Higbee (Utah State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to increase social engagement and social interaction between two children with autism by using a group activity schedule. Three dyads of preschool aged children with autism were used to assess the effects of using a group photographic activity schedule on children’s social engagement including on-task behavior and percentage of independently completed activities. Scripts and script fading procedures were used to increase social interactions and initiations. A multiple baseline across dyads was used in this study.
Symposium #32
International Symposium - The Effects of Implementing CABAS® Components on the Acquisition of Academic Skills and Verbal Behavior in Three Schools for Children Diagnosed with Autism
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Regency VII
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Robin A. Nuzzolo-Gomez (Columbia University Teachers College)
Discussant: Katherine M. Matthews (Virginia Commonwealth University)
Abstract: CABAS is a behavioral model of schooling developed by Dr. Greer of Columbia University that draws on a) the other behavioral models of schooling, b) the tactics and strategies from the applied and experimental branches of behavior analysis, c) the epistemology of behavioral selectionism, d) research on the model and its components and, e) demonstration applications to several schools. CABAS components are applied to all the individuals involved in the school community - a) students, b) parents, c) teachers, d) supervisors, e) the university training program - on a system wide basis. These components were applied to three schools for children with autism including the Centro Al-Mudaris in Spain, The Jigsaw School in the UK, and The Faison School for Autism in the United States. The results of the implementation showed increased academic skills and levels of verbal behavior for students. These results are discussed in relation to research found in behavior analysis and suggest effective teaching practices.
The Effects of Implementing CABAS® Components on the Acquisition of Academic Skills and Verbal Behavior in Three Schools for Children Diagnosed with Autism.
KATHERINE M. MATTHEWS (Virginia Commonwealth University), Adam S. Warman (Virginia Commonwealth University), Ania Young (Virginia Commonwealth University), Jose Julio Carnerero (Centro Al-Mudaris, Spain), Ana Pastor Sanz (Centro Al-Mudaris, Spain), Emma Hawkins (Jigsaw School)
Abstract: CABAS is a behavioral model of schooling developed by Dr. Greer of Columbia University that draws on a) the other behavioral models of schooling, b) the tactics and strategies from the applied and experimental branches of behavior analysis, c) the epistemology of behavioral selectionism, d) research on the model and its components and, e) demonstration applications to several schools. CABAS components are applied to all the individuals involved in the school community - a) students, b) parents, c) teachers, d) supervisors, e) the university training program - on a system wide basis. These components were applied to three schools for children with autism including the Centro Al-Mudaris in Spain, The Jigsaw School in the UK, and The Faison School for Autism in the United States. The results of the implementation showed increased academic skills and levels of verbal behavior for students. These results are discussed in relation to research found in behavior analysis and suggest effective teaching practices.
The Effects of Implementing CABAS Components at the Centro Al-Mudaris in Spain.
JOSE JULIO CARNERERO (Centro Al-Mudaris, Cordoba), Ana Pastor Sanz (Centro Al-Mudaris, Cordoba)
Abstract: The Centro Al-Mudaris in Spain provides services to students diagnosed with autism, specifically those between the ages of 2 and 6 years old, although the school provides services for children up to age 12 and has a total of 21 students. Centro Al-Mudaris has an intensive teaching program based on the principles of behavior analysis. The curriculum is based on verbal behavior and the research developed by Dr. Greer and applied within CABAS schools. Centro Al-Mudaris has implemented several CABAS components which have resulted in significant improvements for students.
Improving Academic Skills, Verbal Behavior, Social and Play Skills as the Result of Implementing CABAS Components at The Jigsaw School in England.
EMMA HAWKINS (The Jigsaw CABAS School)
Abstract: The Jigsaw School opened in September 1999 as a CABAS® component school with six students diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Since June 2003 it has become a certified CABAS® school and now has 27 children on roll across two sites in Mytchett and Guildford in Surrey. The school is registered to take children from 4-12 years old and are working towards opening secondary provision (to take children up to 18 years old). As a result of the CABAS implementation, the students' academic, social, communication, and play skills have improved as demonstrated in PIRK assessments and school-wide data.
Symposium #33
CE Offered: BACB
The Modification of Direct Instruction For Use with Different Learner Characteristics
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
International Ballroom North
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: David M. Corcoran (BEACON Services)
Discussant: Robert K. Ross (BEACON Services)
CE Instructor: Robert K. Ross, M.S.

Direct Instruction (DI) has been proven to be a very effective instructional program. This symposium will describe extensions of DI to learners with varying characteristics. DI has been used with learners with developmental disabilities, emotional disturbance, and autism. The three presenters will discuss modifications of DI for each of these populations, with sample data showing the continued effectiveness of the DI protocols.

Modification of Direct Instruction Programs for Students with Developmental Disabilities.
WENDY L. KOZMA (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: This presentation will review Direct Instruction implementation in a residential setting for children and young adults with severe disabilities, emphasizing the instructional modifications required to implement DI with atypical learners. Program emphasis for DD populations has historically focused on the development of self-help and vocational skills. Direct Instruction implementation, including DISTAR Math, Corrective Reading Decoding, and Language for Learning, allows the more traditional academic skills to be incorporated into vocational and self-help domains. Rigorous teacher training and coaching allows for systematic modification of instructional delivery and program materials while maintaining fidelity to scope and sequence and integrity of the overall curriculum. Discussion will include presentation of several case studies and video clips of teachers implementing DI formats utilizing specific modifications. Data supporting the effectiveness of modifications will be presented and a model for ongoing, center-wide coaching and supervision of DI teachers will be suggested.
The Use of Direction Instruction in the Public Schools with Children with Autism.
ANN FILER (BEACON Services), Robert K. Ross (BEACON Services)
Abstract: This presentation will provide a review of outcome data related to the implementation of two (DI) curriculum components; Language for Learning and Reading Mastery in a population of children with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The relevance for use with individuals with ASD will be demonstrated. Modifications of instruction and strategies to support the implementation of DI with children with ASD will be discussed and highlighted via videotape. The methods and structure of DI incorporate behavioral principles into instruction, including prompt fading, use of multiple exemplars and frequent measurement of efficacy. The instructors will provide in depth review of the types of instructional modifications required to implement DI with atypical learners. These modifications will include the use of token systems, visual schedules, additional visual prompts, presenting tasks in isolation and pre-teaching. These modifications although not specified in traditional DI scripts and trainings will be reviewed.
Accelerating Reading and Writing Skills in Students with Emotional Difficulties Through the Implementation of a Comprehensive Language Arts Program.
MARY K. LENGEL (Keystone Schools/UHS)
Abstract: This paper will present evidence of effectiveness of core intervention Direct Instruction programs: Corrective Reading, Reasoning, and Writing/Expressive Writing Program, and Spelling Mastery/Spelling Through Morphographs, in significnatly accelerating language arts fluency with students diagnosed with Emotional Disturbance. Pre and post test data will be presented; data from periodic fluency measures will also be presented and discussed. Methods for collecting baseline data and post test data will be described. Procedures for obtaining bi-weekly fluency measures will be described and demonstrated and the process for interpreting and disseminating results to classroom teachers will be outlined. Implementations for school-wide academic scheduling, individual student program adjustments, and evidenced-based instructional decision making will also be addressed.
Symposium #34
International Symposium - The Way Forward: Efficient and Effective Teaching and Learning Across the Globe
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Janet S. Twyman (Headsprout)
Discussant: Janet S. Twyman (Headsprout)
Abstract: Effective and efficient methods of teaching and learning can have a profound effect on social change. This symposium describes the work that began at Morningside Academy in Seattle, Washington over 25 years ago and its extension via P.E.E.R., Partnerships for Educational Excellence and Research. The power of education in both Native American and South African township communities is emphasized. Successful change depends not only on effective educational methods, but also, on the contributions of each community and their culture. We will discuss our collaborations and outcomes to date, our plans for the future, and the role a Constructional Approach to Social Problems (Goldiamond, 1974) can play in building better futures.
The Role and Responsibility of Behavior Analysts in Creating Large Scale Social Change through Education
KRISTINE F. MELROE (Morningside Academy), Sonia M. Lewis (Lewis Educational Assessment & Consulting)
Abstract: The world faces a critical mass of social issues which must be addressed. Whereas applied behavior analysts have made vital contributions to the field of education, it has primarily occurred at the micro level. On the macro level, the institution of education can have a profound effect on social change. The behavior analyst’s understanding of human behavior places us in a unique position to make substantial contributions in creating an array of successful interventions for social change. It is our contention that many of these changes can and will be made through the institution of education. It is also important to examine what other contributions outside the field of behavior analysis have to offer. By examining a specific unit of society, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, we can see how the education system has affected social change. This community is the poorest community in the United States, in addition has one of the country's highest dropout rates. This presentation will study the social, political and economic contingencies in effect on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and explore how educators who implement the Morningside Model of Generative Instruction can influence the historically ineffective educational system and play a positive role in restoring and maintaining a healthy culture.
Morningside and Active Schools, South Africa: P.E.E.R. Planning
JOANNE K. ROBBINS (Morningside Academy), Bruce Damons (Sapphire Road Primary School), Nomvuyo Dubula (Funimfundo Primary School), Sipho Matyolo (Cebelihle Primary School), Lulama Hopa (Loyiso High School)
Abstract: P.E.E.R., Partnerships for Educational Excellence and Research, was established to improve the teaching and learning community in several township schools in South Africa. The learners in Port Elizabeth live in communities where there is a 90% unemployment rate. The South African National Department of Health estimates about 5 million, or 1 in 10 South Africans, are now HIV positive. According to the Health Systems Trust, a study completed by the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund has found that AIDS “orphans showed a very strong inclination to want to continue their schooling…" and the orphans themselves identified their priority needs as the most immediate basics: food, clothing and education.”Educators from Port Elizabeth, SA first met in Seattle with educators from the U.S. who are experienced in the Morningside Model of Generative Instruction. We next met in Port Elizabeth. School officials participated in Goldiamond’s (1974) Constructional Interview. Professional development workshops were held in Port Elizabeth based upon consensus gleaned from the Constructional Interviews. Inspired by the Port Elizabeth educators' immediate sharing of this model with their colleagues, we accelerated the implementation. We will discuss our outcomes to date, our plans for the future, and the role a Constructional Approach to Social Problems (Goldiamond, 1974) can play in South Africa and elsewhere.
Morningside and Active Schools, South Africa: P.E.E.R. Implementation
SEAN ABRAHAMS (Sapphire Road Primary School), Tuleka January (Funimfundo Primary School), Joanne K. Robbins (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: The vision of the PEER project is best summarized by Sapphire Road Deputy Principal, Sean Abrahams during a speech he gave on South Africa's Social Development Day in November of 2004:"We strive to free the minds of our educators to embrace new methodologies, concepts and ideas. Through Active schools we are in the process of piloting a teacher-training programme with Morningside Academy in the USA that will equip educators from the RSA and the USA to deal with the challenges of education in a changing globe." Allow me to end with this saying from Teilhard de Chardin: 'We are one, after all, you and I. Together we suffer, together exist, and forever will recreate each other.' "This paper will present the performance data gathered in three primary schools in several townships in Port Elizabeth, South Africa during the 2005 school year. Challenges and successes of our partnerships will be detailed. Partnerships include peer-tutoring partners, teachers within single schools, teachers within the Active Schools coalition, partnerships between educators in RSA and the US. The special design of reading and maths instruction designed for Xhosa and Afrikaans speaking learners will also be presented.
Symposium #35
CE Offered: BACB
Using Multiple Modalities to Enhance Communication in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Chicago A-F
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Stephanie Lockshin (Institute for Child Development, State University of New York, Binghamton)
Discussant: Stephanie Lockshin (Institute for Child Development, State University of New York, Binghamton)
CE Instructor: Stephanie Lockshin, Ph.D.

One of the defining characteristics of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders is a qualitative impairment in communication. The deficits in communication seen in children range from mutism, impaired use of nonverbal communication, limited ability to initiate or sustain conversational exchanges. These deficits present challenges to parents and educators and they clearly impact upon the social/emotional development of children on the spectrum. The papers included in this symposium will present behavioral interventions that have been developed for the purpose of overcoming problems often encountered when trying to teach language to children on the spectrum.

Nonverbal Communication: Portable Materials that make use of Pictures for Communication Less Cumbersome.
STEPHANIE LOCKSHIN (Institute for Child Development, State University of New York, Binghamton)
Abstract: Nonverbal communication has been established as an effective, alternative mode of communication for nonverbal children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder. However, as the children develop the capacity to use multiple pictures to communicate their wants and needs, the use of picture books can be cumbersome and the books may not always be accessible when communication needs arise. The current paper investigates the impact of using a more “user friendly” version of a picture communication system on functional and social usage.
Social Scripting to Increase Communication about Affective States in order to Reduce Maladaptive Behavior in a Classroom Setting.
ROSE F. EAGLE (Institute for Child Development, State University of New York, Binghamton), Emily Huber Callahan (Institute for Child Development, State University of New York, Binghamton), Stephanie Lockshin (Institute for Child Development, State University of New York, Binghamton)
Abstract: The current presentation describes an intervention implemented at the Institute for Child Development focused on providing children with behavioral disorders (including pervasive developmental disorders) tools to increase their ability to communicate about affective states. Teaching children with language delays coping skills presents various challenges, however we have found the use of a variety of visual and written strategies to be helpful. The current paper investigates the effectiveness of using social scripts, symbols, pictures, and other visual cues such as reminder cards on a child’s ability to communicate and regulate affect.
Assessment of Preferred Modalities for Instruction.
EMILY HUBER CALLAHAN (Institute for Child Development, State University of New York, Binghamton), Sara White (Binghamton University), Latha V. Soorya (Mt. Sinai School of Medicine), Rose F. Eagle (Institute for Child Development, State University of New York, Binghamton), Stephanie Lockshin (Institute for Child Development, State University of New York, Binghamton)
Abstract: In young children with limited language abilities, it is often difficult to determine with which language modality instruction should begin: Verbal language? Picture communication? Sign language? The current paper describes an assessment procedure developed at the Institute for Child Development that assists in determining a child’s preferred modality for instruction. Data resulting from the assessment procedure will be presented, as will data related to the external validity of the assessment procedure.
Symposium #35a
International Symposium - Reaching Out from the Lab: Applications of Research on Derived Relational Responding to Complex Behavior
Saturday, May 27, 2006
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Hong Kong
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Simon Dymond (University of Wales, Swansea)
Abstract: Behaviour analysts have not systematically investigated the topic of motivational influences on the emergence of derived stimulus relations such as equivalence relations. Within the context of a laboratory experiment on equivalence relations, a range of potential motivational operations exist that may exert control over participants' behaviour, such as the task instructions, the status of the experimenter (student or lecturer), and the physical layout of the setting. In this study, we set out to systematically examine the relative contribution of these motivational operations on the emergence of three, three-member equivalence relations. We manipulated task instructions, apparent authority level of the experimenter and presence or absence of an audience. Results indicate that the emergence of equivalence relations is facilitated by procedures that maximise the motivational operations at work during the session.
How to Raise Your Child's I.Q with Relational Frame Theory (and magic): Putting Multiple Exemplar Training to the Test.
SARAH O'CONNOR (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Bryan T. Roche (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Denis P. O'Hora (University of Ulster)
Abstract: The current paper reports on a research program designed to test the utility of multiple exemplar relational training in raising the intellectual abilities of a range of 8 - 12 year old children. Specifically, 8-12 year children were exposed to relational tests for Same/Opposite and More than/Less than responding in order to establish baseline levels of relational skills. They were then exposed to multiple exemplar training on the same relational tests. This served to improve both the accuracy and the fluency of the relational skills by providing feedback and reinforcement on a trial-to-trial basis. Given this training subjects showed modest improvements in similar relational tasks using novel stimulus sets. Changes in I.Q scores are open to interpretation, but results appear to suggest that multiple exemplar training may be of use in interventions for intellectual deficit.
Motivational Influences on the Emergence of Equivalence Relations.
SIMON DYMOND (University of Wales, Swansea), Ian T. Stewart (National University of Ireland, Galway)
Abstract: Behaviour analysts have not systematically investigated the topic of motivational influences on the emergence of derived stimulus relations such as equivalence relations. Within the context of a laboratory experiment on equivalence relations, a range of potential motivational operations exist that may exert control over participants’ behaviour, such as the task instructions, the status of the experimenter (student or lecturer), and the physical layout of the setting. In this study, we set out to systematically examine the relative contribution of these motivational operations on the emergence of three, three-member equivalence relations. We manipulated task instructions, had both students and academic members of staff conduct sessions, and unobtrusively observed participants via closed circuit cameras. Results indicate that the emergence of equivalence relations is facilitated by procedures that maximise the motivational operations at work during the session.
Playing The Relational Frame Game:An experimental analysis of computer game performance and enjoyment.
CONOR LINEHAN (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Bryan T. Roche (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
Abstract: The current research applied a derived relations approach to understanding on-line game-playing. A computer game was designed that required subjects to respond with a mouse-clicking response to earn points upon the presentation of one stimulus (A1) and to produce an avoidance response in response to the presentation of a second stimulus (A2) associated with loss of points. Subjects were exposed to this game following baseline conditional discrimination training for the formation of two five-member equivalence relations; A1-B1-C1-D1-E1 and A2-B2-C2-D2-E2, where the B, C, D and E stimuli were nonsense syllables and the A stimuli were the discriminative stimuli employed in the game. Subjects were then re-exposed to the game with the important difference that only the E stimuli were presented. For some subjects on-line network delays were also simulated in a controlled manner throughout the game in order to assess their impact on game performance and enjoyment. Subjects’ performances in the final game suggest that computer game-playing performance and enjoyment can be understood partly in terms of derived relational responding.
Derived Relations and Cognitive Neuroscience: Bilateral Redundancy Gain in Equivalence Relations.
EOGHAN J. RYAN (Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge), Simon Dymond (University of Wales, Swansea), Bettina Mohr (Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge)
Abstract: It has been observed that for many cognitive tasks involving complex processing, subject performance is facilitated by presentation of stimuli to both visual fields simultaneously relative to presentation to one or other field individually. This technique can restrict input to either the left or right cerebral hemisphere, through contralateral presentation to a single visual field. With bilateral presentation, both hemispheres may be involved in processing and a pooling of resources may occur. In the case of simple tasks such as identity matching of letters (e.g., ‘A’ with ‘A’), the costs associated with organising and integrating this interaction appear to outweigh the benefits accrued from the gain in processing power. For more complex tasks such as letter name matching (e.g., ‘A’ with ‘a’) the gain in performance outweighs the attendant costs and a performance advantage is seen relative to unilateral presentations. Previous work in which pseudowords were paired with natural language stimuli suggests that this effect is a function of learning histories and not simply a byproduct of simple increased cognitive load. The current paper presents research conducted in this area within a derived relations framework that extends this work to the use of equivalence relations as a cleaner behavioural model of natural language relations.
Special Event #39
International SQAB 2006 Tutorial: Neural-Network Modeling in Conditioning Research
Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
International Ballroom South
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Jeffrey L. Elman (University of California, San Diego)
Presenting Authors: : JOSE E. BURGOS (Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro de Estudios e I)
Abstract: This tutorial is a primer to neural-network modeling in conditioning research. After a brief historical introduction to this kind of modeling and philosophical disquisition on model plausibility in empirical science, the elementary concepts of neural processing element, connection, activation function, and learning function, are presented. Emphasis is made on the concept of a neural network as a set of (inter)connected realizations of a neurocomputational model. Then three well-known models (McCulloch-Pitts, perceptron,and backpropagation) are reviewed and judged as neuro-behaviorally too implausible. The model proposed by Donahoe, Burgos, and Palmer (1993; JEAB, 60, 17-40) is presented as a more plausible (albeit admittedly incomplete) alternative. Its behavioral plausibility is exemplified through simulations that have implications for persistent conceptual issues in behavior science, such as the operant-respondent dichotomy. To show its heuristic value, two novel predictions for Pavlovian conditioning are discussed.
JOSE E. BURGOS (Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro de Estudios e I)
Dr. José E. Burgos holds a License in Psychology (Universidad Católica Andrés Bello, Caracas, 1983), an M.S. in Experimental Analysis of Behavior (Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, 1989), and a Ph.D. in Neuroscience and Behavior (University of Massachussetts/Amherst, 1996, under the advisement of Dr. John W. Donahoe). During his undergraduate studies he discovered Skinner and became a Skinnerian bulldog (much to the detriment of his social relationships with his peers). His undergraduate thesis was on the effects of cyclic AMP injected to the nucleus accumbens on FR and FI performance in rats. His Master’s thesis was on autoshaping and automaintenance in pigeons. His current scientific work sprung from his doctoral dissertation, a massive set of computer simulations of the phylogeny of Pavlovian conditioning. He has published numerous scientific papers on computer simulations of conditioning phenomena using a neural-network model devised with Dr. John W. Donahoe and Dr. David C. Palmer. He has also published papers on the metaphysics of behavior and neurobehavioral epistemology of neurobehavioral science. He also is interested in human behavior and has started a research line on counterfactual thinking. Currently he is Full Professor and Researcher at the Center for Behavioral Studies and Research at the University of Guadalajara, member of the Board of Editors of Behavior and Philosophy, and Editor of the Mexican Journal of Behavior Analysis. His hobbies include playing classical guitar, listening to classical music, reading fiction, going to the movies, and playing computer games. He lives in Guadalajara with his lovely wife Rocío (no pets and no kids ... yet).
Invited Paper Session #40
CE Offered: BACB

Teaching the Principal the Principles: The Role of ABA in Public Schools

Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Centennial Ballroom II
Area: TBA; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Ilene S. Schwartz, Ph.D.
Chair: Pamela G. Osnes (Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
ILENE S. SCHWARTZ (University of Washington)
Dr. Ilene S. Schwartz earned her Ph.D. in child and developmental psychology at the University of Kansas. She has an extensive background working with young children with special needs, specifically with young children with autism and other severe disabilities. Currently, Dr. Schwartz is the faculty advisor of the integrated preschool and kindergarten programs at the Experimental Education Unit at UW. Dr. Schwartz maintains an active line of research and personnel preparation activities. She is the Principal Investigator of the PDA Center, an OSEP funded national training program on autism and of a model demonstration project to develop school-based services for young children with autism, a research project to assess the differential effectiveness of preschool programs for young children with autism, and of a personnel preparation to prepare early childhood teachers who work with children with severe disabilities in inclusive settings.. Dr. Schwartz has published numerous chapters and articles about early childhood special education and social validity. She was recently appointed to the Governor's Commission on Autism in Washington State.

The purpose of this presentation is to describe the role of behavior analysts in preparing educators to work with children with and without disabilities. Although much of the work of applied behavior analysts deals with the school age population, as a field we are often absent from debates about school reform and teacher education. During this presentation we will make the case forwhy it is important to increase our presence in these forums and suggest strategies to talk about behavior principles in a manner that is acceptable to our colleagues in public schools and colleges of education.

Symposium #41
Performance Catalyst® across Multiple Industries
Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:00 PM–3:20 PM
Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Ned Morse (Continuous Learning Group)
Discussant: Ned Morse (Continuous Learning Group)
Abstract: Performance Catalyst® has become CLG's flagship offer to clients of multiple industries. Based on CLG's 14 years of experience working with a variety of industries and business issues, Performance Catalyst has become a core methodology for aligning key stakeholders towards optimizing bottom line results. Presented will be three examples of how Performance Catalyst was implemented to meet the client's business needs towards achieving bottom line results, and key learning’s for the OBM community.
Safety and Reliability in Your Pocket.
KELLY L. THERRIEN (Continuous Learning Group), Galen Reese (Continuous Learning Group)
Abstract: When a merger of major oil companies combined two competing, neighboring refineries in the Far East, the new management teamwas tasked with realizing $200 million in “synergy savings” within a few years. CLG was called in to help the company to reach its goal. The company was able to increase safe behavior and maintenance of machinery by employees Sustaining Zero Incidents over time. This project employed personal scorecards with a pocket tracker for employees to carry with them. The focus was to improve operation performance on five Critical Success Factors (CSFs): Safety, Reliability, People, Expense Reduction, and Gross Margin. The methodology and results will be introduced.
A Systematic Approach to Improving Call Center Results.
MANUEL A. RODRIGUEZ (Continuous Learning Group), Brian L. Cole (Continuous Learning Group)
Abstract: In 2002, the service operations of a fortune 100 company in the healthcare insurance field faced what they called a “Perfect Storm” of challenges that resulted in a mounting backlog in claims processing triggering overwhelming call volumes in the service call centers. Morale suffered and turnover increased. A new VP of Service Operations was appointed and faced this conundrum. He was instructed to make Service Ops a clear competitive strength for the organization. The presentation will explore how, using CLG’s Performance Catalyst® methodology combined with the client’s Customer Centric Service Model, resulted in identifying critical path behaviors essential to the sysmatic deployment across the service operations. Results across multiple sites within the service operations will be introduced.
Cultural Change, Behavior Change, and Results Change: What more can you ask for?
TRAVIS G. MCNEAL (Continuous Learning Group), Judith A. Johnson (Continuous Learning Group)
Abstract: Generalization and sustainability are two major aspects of influence the field of behavior analysis has on the world. In OBM, our interventions secure and enable leaders of organizations to have the tools needed to maintain and sustain results through behavior change and other forms of change (i.e., process improvement). The aspect of generalization has implications for organizations to utilizing OBM methodology towards advancing strategic initiatives and key business opportunities to the next level. One of CLG’s clients has been utilizing CLG’s Performance Catalyst® Methodology in 3 regions across Canada and the United States. All 3 regions have had change efforts across the organizations culture, performance, and leadership prior to and during CLG’s involvement. The findings of CLG’s involvement include not just behavioral and results changes, but cultural changes as well.
Symposium #42
International Symposium - How IRAP and How I Eat: Relational Processes and Disordered Eating
Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:30 PM–3:20 PM
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Mississippi)
Discussant: David R. Perkins (University of Louisiana, Lafayette)
Abstract: In the current studies, the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) is used to investigate subjects' ability to interact flexibly with eating and exercise-related stimuli. Data will be presented from research with obese adults pre- and post- bariatric surgery, and college students. Implications for treatment and prevention of obesity and disordered eating will be discussed.
Inflexibility in Food-Related Responding in College Student.
EMILY KENNISON SANDOZ (University of Mississippi), Kelly G. Wilson (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: Treatment in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) focuses on increasing psychological flexibility. In this model, eating behaviors might be considered pathological when they are not sensitive to immediate contingencies. The current study considers the relationship between inflexibility in responding to food-related stimuli and self-reported eating pathology. Using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), subjects sort specific food items (e.g., “pizza” or “carrots”) in terms of evaluative stimuli (e.g., “harmful” or “healthy”). Subjects reporting elevated levels of eating pathology are expected to exhibit longer latencies and decreased fluency when matching “unhealthy” foods to positively charged stimuli. Possible implications for treatment will be discussed.
Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Toward Food and Exercise in Obese Clients in a Bariatric Setting.
DANIEL J. MORAN (Mid-American Psychological Institute), Patricia Bach (Illinois Institute of Technology), Dermot Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
Abstract: This study will investigate differences in explicit and implicit attitudes regarding physical exercise and food between pre-bariatric surgery obese adults, post-bariatric surgery non-obese adults, and a matched control group. The implicit attitudes will be assessed using the IRAP. It is expected that the three groups will show similarly positive explicit attitudes for physical exercise and healthy food, and similarly negative explicit attitudes toward sedentary behavior and unhealthy food. The presentation will include discussion of treatment and prevention for obesity, and will also discuss the data regarding pre-bariatric surgery counseling and education.
Abstract: Blank
Paper Session #43
International Paper Session - Modern Teaching Machines and Programmed Instruction
Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:30 PM–3:20 PM
Area: EDC
Chair: George H. Buck (University of Alberta)
Skinner’s Teaching Machines and Programmed Instruction: Forgotten Applications of Behavioral Analysis with Implications for Today
Domain: Applied Research
GEORGE H. BUCK (University of Alberta)
Abstract: It has been over 50 years since B.F. Skinner first created a teaching machine based on his ideas of behavioral analysis. Since then, teaching machines and programmed instruction, ostensibly based on Skinnerian behaviorism, gained widespread use in many educational settings. Nevertheless, most teaching machines and even programmed instruction disappeared by the mid 1970s. While Skinner speculated that this disappearance occurred largely because of educators’ fear that such innovations would replace teachers, there is evidence both from the 1960s and later to show that other factors led to this demise. Among them was that many individuals did not understand Skinnerian behaviorism, and thus created machines and materials incongruent with Skinner’s research and theories. A similar situation exists with the current popularity of PowerPoint and similar software, where little attention is paid to theoretical and pedagogical approaches in deploying such software effectively. This presentation describes Skinner’s application of behavioral analysis to non-human forms of instruction, and identifies reasons why his innovations were ultimately abandoned. Parallels are drawn between the misunderstanding of Skinnerian behaviorism, the demise of teaching machines and programmed instruction, and the current controversy surrounding the pedagogical applicability of software such as PowerPoint
Audio Narration and Reading Ability in Programmed Instruction
Domain: Applied Research
WENDY JAEHNIG (Western Michigan University), Alyce M. Dickinson (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The advancement of computer technology has allowed more extravagant computer-based instruction, including graphics, audio, and video. However, the addition of such features can be expensive, and the effects on the efficacy and efficiency of programmed instruction have not been determined. It's possible that such features have differential effects on people based on ability levels. This research examined how adding audio narration to a computer-based programmed instruction module affected the learning of people with different reading abilities. The instruction was administered to one group with textual narration only, to one group with audio narration only, and to another group with both textual and audio narration. Each participant also took a reading test. This studied addressed the question: what impact do audio narration, textual narration, and audio-textual narration have on performance on a criterion test, for persons with different reading abilities?
Paper Session #44
The Frontiers of Applied Behavior Analysis
Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:30 PM–3:20 PM
Area: TPC
Chair: Todd N. Schirmer (Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science)
Animal Behaviour Therapy: The Mis-understood Application of ABA
Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH ANNE MCBRIDE (University of Southampton), Lewis A. Bizo (Southern Cross University), Edward Redhead (University of Southampton)
Abstract: Animal Behaviour Therapy is an expanding applied area that is rapidly gaining recognition as a distinct field of professional development. It refers to animals kept as companions or as working animals, in homes, zoological collections or laboratories. It relates to the prevention and resolution of behaviours that are deemed problematical. Problem behaviours can have a variety of causes and associated motivations. They may have been learned or deliberately trained. They may be related to species specific behaviours and aspects of the animal’s ethology. Their prevention and resolution will always involve modification of, human behaviour. Animal Behaviour Therapy is by its nature multidisciplinary. However, the field has evolved from several backgrounds, most of whom have little academic or practical overlap. These include Ethologists and Psychologists, the former having a wealth of knowledge of species behaviour and function, the latter an in depth understanding of the role of learning, functional analysis and ABA. However, much animal behaviour therapy is undertaken by those with a purely non-theoretical animal training background The current paper will seek to illustrate how the skills and knowledge from these different research and practical areas can be unified to produce a coherent approach to Animal Behaviour Therapy.
Schizophrenia: Where are the Behavior Analysts?
Domain: Theory
TODD N. SCHIRMER (Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science), Kim Meyer (Hawaii State Hospital)
Abstract: Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric disorder characterized by disabling symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, vocalizations, and social withdrawal. Early work by major figures in the field of behavior analysis focused heavily on the symptoms of this disorder (e.g. Lindsley & Skinner, 1954; Skinner, 1956). However, in modern research and clinical practice, behavior analysts have virtually ignored schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Some potential reasons for this waning focus on schizophrenia include the de-institutionalization of seriously mentally ill individuals, poor reimbursement rates, and an entrenched medical paradigm emphasizing the treatment of the disorder with psychotropic medications. Autism shares many similar phenomological features as schizophrenia. Behavior analysis has been widely applied to autism and is considered a standard and effective treatment for the disorder (US Department of Health and Human Services, 1999). We propose a return to our roots as behavior analysts with the application of methods already in use to treat autism to schizophrenia. These methods include the utilization of single subject designs, well-defined dependent variables, and an emphasis on observable phenomenon to treat challenging behaviors and help individuals acquire necessary and meaningful life skills.
Symposium #45
CE Offered: BACB
Autism Spectrum Disorder: Comparing the Effectiveness of Behavioral & Traditional Treatment Approaches
Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Regency V
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Christine Reeve (Mailman Segal Institute)
CE Instructor: Jeannie A. Golden, Ph.D.

Behavioral and traditional approaches to treating children with autism are very different in terms of philosophies, goals, curriculums, and specific teaching methods. Each of the presenters will provide a brief overview of these differences and discuss a study that they are implementing together in order to compare the effectiveness of the two approaches. The participants in this study are children ages 2-5 years that have a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The children were videotaped in a standard situation with the same teacher and typically developing peer. Once the children had been video taped in the three situations, trained observers used the Autism Behavioral Observation System (ABOS) to measure the percentage of intervals in which specific target behaviors occurred. Inter-observer reliability and validity were measured for the ABOS. As the children were being video taped, their parents were interviewed in order to obtain detailed diagnostic information, as well as to determine which type of treatment approach had been chosen by the parents. Nine months later, parents will be interviewed again and the children will be videotaped in the same standard situations. Comparisons will be made between the children who are matched according to age, gender and initial level of autism to ascertain their progress in various areas of development. The researchers also investigated family characteristics that effected parents selection of a behavioral vs. traditional approaches to treatment of their children with autism. Finally, there are examples of using ABA approaches for children with ASD within the public school regular classes.

The Development of a Tool for Measuring Videotaped Interactions of Children with Autism & a Typically-Developing Peer.
KIM FLOYD (East Carolina University), Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract: Measures of children with autism do not often include observation of their interaction with peers, although this is one of the more difficult problems exhibited by children with autism. The presenters will describe a tool that has been developed to videotape children with autism in a standard situation with the same teacher and typically developing peer. The children are video taped in the three situations: teacher child interaction, teacher led child and peer interaction, and child and peer free play.
The Autism Behavioral Observation System: Is It A Valid & Reliable Measure Of Autism?
JEANNIE A. GOLDEN (East Carolina University), Amy Diachenko (East Carolina University), Alicja Lipinski (East Carolina University)
Abstract: The participants in this study were children ages 2-5 years that have a diagnosis of Autism or PDD-NOS using Gillian Autism Rating Scale (GARS). The study took place at a childcare center in Greenville, North Carolina. The children were videotaped in a standard situation with the same teacher and typically developing peer. Once the children had been video taped in the three situations (teacher child interaction, teacher led child and peer interaction, child and peer free play), trained observers used the Autism Behavioral Observation System to measure the percentage of intervals in which specific target behaviors occurred. As the children were being video taped, their parents filled out the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) to determine the degree of autism of the children. Degree of autism as determined by the GARS and SCQ was compared to the frequency of specific target behaviors to determine the concurrent validity of the Autism Behavioral Observation System as a measure of autism. Inter-observer reliability of the behavioral observation system was also measured and found it to range from 78 to 100%.
The Role of Family Demographics in the Choice of Treatments for Autism: Does Where You Live Make a Difference?
EMILY COGDELL (East Carolina University), Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract: This study looked at the family demographics of families with children with autism in two states, Florida and North Carolina, to determine which characteristics predicted whether the family chose an ABA program or special education program. The families were contacted through local agencies and asked to fill out a survey based on family characteristics at the time of diagnosis. Demographic information requested included income level, education level of parents, number of children in family, internet access, and race. It was hypothesized that two characteristics which will predict that a family chooses ABA over traditional special education programs in North Carolina are high income and high level of education, whereas in Florida these factors would be irrelevant.
Using Embedded Instruction to Support Students with Autism and Developmental Disabilities in General Education Classrooms.
JESSE W. JOHNSON (Northern Illinois University)
Abstract: Embedded instruction is a set of instructional strategies that capitalize on opportunities to teach critical skills to students with moderate and severe disabilities in the context of naturally occurring routines (Brown, Evans, Weed, & Owen, 1987; Ford et al, 1989). This presentation summarizes the results of eight studies focused on examining the utility of embedded instruction in supporting students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and students with moderate and severe disabilities in general education settings. The results of all eight studies showed that 1) embedded instruction can be implemented successfully by general educator and paraprofessionals, and 2) embedded instruction procedures are effective in teaching targeted skills to students with moderate and severe disabilities in general education class rooms. There are important implications of these studies for providing
Symposium #46
CE Offered: BACB
Behavior Analysis Research in Safety and Health
Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: John Austin (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: R. Wayne Fuqua, Ph.D.

Behavior excesses and deficits have been identified as causal or contributing factors for a the leading causes of death, injury and disability. This symposium illustrates the role of behavior analysis interventions in altering risky behavior (i.e., dangerous behavior on school playgrounds), in promoting protective behavior (i.e., wearing bicycle safety helmets), and understanding factors that contribute to injurious behavior (i.e., the influence of violent video games on aggressive behavior).

It's All Fun and Games until Somebody Gets Hurt: Reducing Risky Behavior on School Playground Equipment.
KIMBERLY SECKINGER (Western Michigan University), R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University), Geoffrey D. DeBery (Western Michigan University), Nancy J. Lindahl (Advantage Schools Inc. - Kalamazoo Academy)
Abstract: Each year, over 200,000 people receive emergency room care for injuries sustained on recreational equipment, and a vast majority of these injuries involve children under the age of 15 who have been hurt on school playground equipment. A number of strategies to reduce playground injury have been proposed but few controlled studies have been published to evaluate the impact of injury reduction proposals on safe and risky playground behavior. A notable exception was Heck, Collins, & Peterson, 2001 who reported reductions in risk-taking behavior on playground equipment when programmed consequences were implemented for unsafe behavior. The purposes of the current investigation were to replicate and extend previous research though a component analysis of an injury prevention package designed to decrease unsafe use of playground recreational equipment among elementary school children. Results demonstrated that consistent behavioral contingencies for risky behavior produced the greatest reduction in students' unsafe behavior on the slide, although a portion of this decline could be attributed to a reduction in the absolute amount of play on this particular piece of equipment. Implications of these findings and further areas for research are discussed.
Effects of Playing Violent Video Games and Young Adult's Behavior and Physiology.
R. WAYNE FUQUA (Western Michigan University), Kent D. Smallwood (Western Michigan University), Joseph Charles Dagen (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Each year, interactive technology becomes more and more advanced, offering more lifelike environments, immersive experiences, and realistic situations. Additionally, the videogame industry has over doubled in size in less than ten years, now rivaling the box office industry. However, technological advances have quickly outpaced our understanding of the effects of certain types of adult content on the game player. To date, the majority of the research on the topic was conducted before the games themselves were technologically advanced enough to draw meaningful conclusions; the few studies conducted in the last few years, while offering promising methodological advancements from previous work, still have several shortcomings, mostly in their choice of dependent measures. The purposes of the present investigation were to build off of the small research base related to effects of violent video games on behavior and physiology, as well as utilize several different types of dependent measures not used in other studies. Results demonstrated limited behavioral effects and no physiological or attitudinal difference between the group that played the nonviolent game, compared to the group that played the violent game. Implications of these findings, limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
An Evaluation of the Behaviorally Based Helmet Program in Middle Schools.
RON VAN HOUTEN (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The Behaviorally Based Helmet Program was evaluated at two middle schools with a history of helmet use enforcement and a third School with no background of helmet use enforcement using a multiple baseline across schools design. One of the two schools with a history of helmet enforcement also received the Behaviorally Helmet Program the previous year. Researchers scored helmet use and correct helmet use in the afternoon when students left school to ride home. Probe data were also collected in when students arrived at school in the morning, and some distance from the school in the afternoon to determine whether they took there helmets off. The treatment consisted of: 1. Group goal setting on helmet use; 2.) A short lecture on the importance of helmet use; 3.) a short DVD on how to correctly fit a helmet; 4.) peer helmet monitoring in the afternoon; 5.) Posted feedback on afternoon helmet use based on peer collected data; 6.) Shared reinforcement in the form of a party when peers for increased helmet use. Following the introduction of the treatment package afternoon helmet use increased from 82% to 98% at the school that received the program the previous year (baseline the previous year was about 50%) and from 52% to 95% at the second school which had not received the helmet program the previous year. The remaining school which only applied the Behaviorally Based Helmet Program without a history of enforcement showed an increase in helmet use from 14% to 45%. Correct helmet use was scored when the helmet was appropriately buckled, and level. Correct use increased from 64% to 80% and from to 37% to 78% at the schools with a history of helmet enforcement and from 9% to 40% at the school which did not have a history of helmet enforcement. The major reason that helmets were scored as worn incorrectly during baseline was that they were unbuckled. During treatment most were buckled but those scored as being worn incorrectly typically were not secured as tightly. These increases in helmet use were maintained after the program was terminated and in spot checks conducted some distance from the schools and transferred to the morning arrival. It is interesting to note that students were rarely ticketed for not wearing their helmets after the program was introduced at the two schools which had a policy of enforcement for non-helmet use.
Symposium #47
Building Evidence Based and Individually Tailored Instruction in Behavior Analytic Schools for Children with Autism
Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Robin A. Nuzzolo-Gomez (Fred S. Keller School)
Discussant: Katherine M. Matthews (Virginia Commonwealth University)
Abstract: When building evidence based and individually tailored instruction in behavior analytic schools for children with autism a priority of any instructional model should be staff training. The research literature shows that when school staff acquire more expertise in verbally mediated and contingency shaped teaching skills, students learn not only more, but acquire skills at faster rates. This presentation highlights three key areas of teacher training in schools. The TPRA observation tool can be used by behavior analysts when conducting staff interactions with children, decision protocol training, and numerous child driven tactics that can be implemented to ensure student progress.
Training Teachers to be Effective Pedagogues Utilizing the TPRA.
ROBIN A. NUZZOLO-GOMEZ (Fred S. Keller School)
Abstract: The Teacher Performance Rate and Accuracy Procedure (TPRA) (Greer & Ingham, 1991) is used in schools in the United States and internationally to train teachers to become more effective pedagogues. It is a tool that can be used by behavior analyst supervisors and administrators to ensure that flawless learn units are being presented and consequated to students. It can also be used to increase the rate at which teachers instruct and students respond. A step by step how-to-use presentation will be done with in situ examples.
Decision Protocol Training for Teachers.
KATHERINE M. MATTHEWS (Virginia Commonwealth University)
Abstract: Measurement is essential when instructing children. It is not enough just to measure, one must also Frequently analyze the data collected. The decision protocol training for teachers is an easy to implement procedure for those collecting data on their students' progress. The protocol instructs teachers when it is time to intervene with a change in instructional strategy via a tactic from the corpus of behavioral literature based upon trend and length of the data path. It also ensures that instructional strategies are not used for a longer length of time when they are no longer effective. A step by step how-to-use presentation will be done with in situ examples.
Using Child-Driven Tactics When Instructing Children with Autism.
EMMA HAWKINS (The Jigsaw CABAS School)
Abstract: The corpus of behavioral literature contains over 200 instructional strategies or what we will call tactics that can be applied based on the child's level of verbal behavior and instructional history. It is important that every teacher become fluent with a handful of tactics for each specific level of verbal behavior. This presentation will expose the audience with approximately 10 of these tactics that we have found to be the most commonly used tactics for students.
Symposium #48
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Correspondence Training: Educational and Recreational Applications
Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Michael J. Cameron (Simmons College)
CE Instructor: Michael J. Cameron, Ph.D.

Correspondence training, also referred to as "say-do" instruction can be used for: improving academic performances, behavioral support, and teaching motor skills. The purpose of this symposium is to demonstrate how correspondence training was used in the classroom and community. Implications for educators will be discussed.

Effects of Reinforcement History and Types of Verbalization on the Generalization of Say-Do Correspondence.
EDHEN LAURA LIMA (West Virginia University), Josele Abreu-Rodrigues (Universidade de Brasilia)
Abstract: This study analyzed the effects of reinforcement history (reinforcement dependent on correspondence, independent on correspondence and dependent on the absence of correspondence) and types of verbalizations emitted between ‘say’ and ‘do’ (of numbers and of ‘doing’) on the acquisition and generalization of say-do correspondence. Thirty-nine 3 to 5 year-old children were divided in four groups. The groups differed in terms of verbalizations emitted during the training, as well as percentage of reinforcer delivery dependent on the presence of correspondence. After correspondence training, generalization was tested with two different behaviors. The findings suggest that: (a) effects of reinforcement contingencies were affected by the type of verbalizations emitted between ‘say’ and ‘do’; (b) reinforcement of correspondence was effective only in the presence of verbalizations of ‘doing’; (c) reinforcement of non-correspondence was effective only when verbalizations of distracting stimuli (numbers) occurred, and (d) the functional role of ‘say’ was influenced by correspondence – reinforcer relations.
The Use of Correspondence Training to Increase Compliance.
KRISTOFER VAN HERP (Simmons College), Michael J. Cameron (Simmons College)
Abstract: Problematic or socially inappropriate behaviors in individuals should be replaced with behaviors that are functionally equivalent, but socially appropriate. This study will shows that the use of discrimination training followed by correspondence and functional communication training can assist individuals in choosing to express their frustration in a socially appropriate and more successful manner. The participant in this study was a 7 year old boy, Wade, who attended a suburban public school in Massachusetts. In times of challenge for Wade, he would display “resistance” behaviors. Resistance behavior was displayed through a slouching body, vocal unresponsiveness, as well as aggressive behavior towards adults and his environment. We used discrimination training to self-identify in situations of frustration for him. This was followed up by correspondence training paired with functional communication training which taught Wade what to say and what to do when he identified his frustration. Frequency of the problem behavior, resistance, and the latency from the onset of resistance to the display of functional communicative responses was recorded. This training resulted in Wade's increased ability to appropriately communicate his difficulty in challenging situations to adults as well as decrease both his frequency and duration of resistance behavior episodes.
The Effects of Correspondence Training on Exercise.
ELISE COOKE (Simmons College)
Abstract: Physical exercise is a cornerstone of a healthy lifestyle. Individuals who are in good health have more productive years and less medical expenses. Although as behavior analysts we are committed to examining socially significant issues, there is relatively little research on physical exercise in this field. The majority of the published behavior analytic research on exercise focuses on exercise as an antecedent, as part of a treatment package, or as contingent punishment. Few articles highlight exercise as the primary behavior targeted for change. This paper focuses on the use of correspondence training to change exercise behavior of typically developing adults. Inspired by the numerous sports psychology research articles relating to imagery, mental rehearsal, and visualization, we use a behavior analytic lens to examine measurable visual/verbal preparation and its effects on exercise performance.
Symposium #49
Current Advances in the Assessment and Treatment of Severe Behavior Problems Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement
Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Regency VI
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Iowa)
Discussant: Richard G. Smith (University of North Texas)
Abstract: The assessment and treatment of problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement continues to be an important and challenging area of research within applied behavior analysis. One of the most widely used treatment strategies applied to behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement is the noncontingent delivery of alternative or competing stimuli intended to replace the target problem behavior. In the proposed symposium, three papers will be presented that describe the application of this treatment strategy to the reduction of severe problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. One study will discuss the utility of access to alternative available stimuli as a potential treatment for topographies of self-restraint that are hierarchically related. A second study will discuss the use of response interruption and redirection plus alternative stimuli as a treatment for reducing vocal stereotypy. The third study will discuss assessment techniques to predict when access to alternative stimuli will be an effective treatment approach and when other treatments (such as differential reinforcement) are necessary to reduce self-injurious behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement.
The Occurrence of a Response Class Hierarchy of Self-restraint.
ROBERT-RYAN S. PABICO (Marcus Autism Center), Henry S. Roane (Marcus Autism Center and Emory University School of Medicine), Michael E. Kelley (Marcus Autism Center and Emory University)
Abstract: A response class hierarchy is a set of responses (e.g., aggression, disruption, screaming) that are maintained by the same reinforcement contingency (e.g., attention) and occur in a specific order (i.e., some responses are more likely to occur than others). In such hierarchies, lower probability responses occur primarily when higher probability responses are prevented. Previous studies have demonstrated response class hierarchy with topographies of destructive behavior (e.g., screaming, aggression, self-injury). In the current investigation, we examined a hierarchical relation among multiple topographies of self-restraint. Multiple baseline and reversal designs were used to demonstrate that blocking specific topographies of self-restraint would occasion the emergence of other topographies of self-restraint. Likewise, when preferred items were introduced, self-restraint generally decreased. Throughout all analyses, reliability data were collected on at least 25% of sessions and averaged over 80% for all topographies of self-restraint and item interaction. These results will be discussed in terms of identifying the variables that influence response class formation.
Altering Automatically-Reinforced Stereotypy: The Effect of Adding Materials.
KATHLEEN M. CLARK (New England Center for Children), Robert Parry-Cruwys (New England Center for Children), Jessica Masalsky (New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: We have examined the effects of both direct (response interruption plus redirection) and indirect (response independent access to preferred activities) interventions for treating stereotypy maintained by automatic reinforcement. While both procedures are generally effective for decreasing stereotypy, indirect treatment does not provide an active redirection of behavior. Simply redirecting stereotypy, however, does not necessarily result in increases in appropriate behavior. This presentation will illustrate the effects of adding preferred stimuli in order to set the occasion for appropriate vocalizations to be emitted and reinforced for four children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. For all participants, functional analysis found vocal stereotypy to be maintained by automatic reinforcement. Response interruption and redirection produced lower levels of stereotypy than baseline, however, levels of appropriate communication did not increase until materials were added to the treatment setting. Interobserver agreement data were collected in all phases of the analyses and intervention comparisons and mean total agreement scores exceeded 85%.
Using Assessment Results to Select NCR or DRA Treatments for Behavior Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement.
JASON M. STRICKER (University of Iowa), Wendy K. Berg (University of Iowa), Kelly M. Vinquist (University of Iowa), Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Iowa), David P. Wacker (University of Iowa), Jayme Mews (University of Iowa)
Abstract: Ringdahl et al. (1997) and Shore et al. (1997) showed that noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) was an effective treatment when participants played with preferred items to the exclusion of behaviors maintained by automatic reinforcement. Both studies demonstrated mixed results using NCR and DR procedures, but showed that the absence of problem behavior during preference assessments was predictive of the effectiveness of NCR. Stricker et al. (2005) showed that results of a concurrent operants assessment predicted the efficacy of differential reinforcement (DR) procedures. This study examines the parameters under which NCR or DR procedures may be effective for self-injury maintained by automatic reinforcement. Sean’s eye poking was maintained by automatic reinforcement with elevated responding during the alone condition and low rates during all other conditions. Nedra’s finger/object mouthing was maintained by automatic reinforcement with elevated rates across all test and control conditions. Concurrent operants assessments showed that both participants selected alternative leisure/social stimuli to the exclusion of self-injury. We predicted that a NCR treatment would be effective for Sean and that a DR program would be necessary for Nedra. Treatment results confirmed our hypotheses. The predictive utility of functional analysis and concurrent operants assessments for selecting treatments for self-injury will be discussed.
Symposium #50
CE Offered: BACB
Expanding the Use of Functional Assessment: Three Case Examples of Effective Behavior Support Plans with Children Under Three During Typical Home Routines
Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Michelle A. Duda (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Glen Dunlap (University of South Florida)
CE Instructor: Michelle A. Duda, Ph.D.

In recent years, researchers have employed strategies associated with positive behavior support to develop interventions that focus on the reduction of challenging behavior. PBS and the process of functional behavioral assessment offer an empirically sound approach to intervening with the problem behaviors of children and adults with disabilities (Lucyshyn et al., 2002). Although there is great confidence from researchers in the importance of this approach for children, very little research has been conducted with children younger than three years. Three case studies will be presented that demonstrate the completion of an FBA and comprehensive PBS support plan. Following assessment, hypotheses were formulated and support plan strategies developed. The components generated included changes to parent interactions, child participation, and environmental modifications. All components were implemented by each childs mother, and were effective in reducing challenging behavior and increasing child engagement during typical home routines. A multiple baseline design was utilized for each study and illustrates changes in behavior. These investigations broaden the scope and utility of conducting functional assessment and provides evidence of the expanded impact of behavior analytic principles with a population not widely represented.

An Illustrative Case Example of a Behavior Support Plan for A Two-Year-Old Child Across Three Home Routines.
SHELLEY CLARKE (University of South Florida), Lise Fox (University of South Florida), Glen Dunlap (University of South Florida), Stephanie Johnston (University of South Florida)
Abstract: The current study demonstrates the completion of an FBA within a PBS support plan for a twenty-four-month-old boy who exhibited a speech delay, and engaged in challenging behavior. Following assessment, hypotheses were formulated and support plan strategies developed. The components generated included changes to parent interactions, child participation, and environmental modifications. All components were implemented by the child’s mother, and were effective in reducing challenging behavior and increasing child engagement during three typical home routines. A multiple baseline design illustrates changes in behavior. This investigation broadens the scope and utility of conducting functional assessment and provides evidence of the expanded impact of behavior analytic principles with a population not widely represented. Data-based; video vignettes will be shared.
Functional Communication Training with Toddlers in Home Environments.
GLEN DUNLAP (University of South Florida), Lise Fox (University of South Florida), Tera Ester (University of South Florida), Sherri L. Langhans (Infinite Possibilities in Behavior Support, LLC)
Abstract: This study was conducted to study the effects of functional communication training when used by mothers to address the serious challenging behaviors of toddlers. Multiple baseline (across home routines) designs were used with two mother-child dyads. The data showed that the mothers used the procedures correctly, and that the interventions produced reductions in the children’s challenging behaviors and increases in their use of communicative replacement skills. Social validity data supported the clarity of the effects and indicated that the procedures were viewed by the mothers as feasible and as having acceptable contextual fit. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of resolving challenging behaviors early in a child’s life, and the need for additional research on effective strategies that can be used by typical intervention agents in typical settings. Data-based.
Evaluating Multi-Component Behavior Support Plans in the Home Environment of a Preschool-Aged Sibling Set.
MICHELLE A. DUDA (University of South Florida), Lise Fox (University of South Florida), Shelley Clarke (University of South Florida), Glen Dunlap (University of South Florida)
Abstract: This case study involved a family whose three children demonstrated challenging behavior (two fraternal twin 30 month-old boys, a 5 year-old girl). An individualized positive behavior support plan was developed and implemented by natural intervention agents (e.g., mother, older sister) across four routines within the home environment (e.g., playtime, clean up, dinner). A multiple baseline design was used to demonstrate reductions in challenging behavior, reductions in composite challenging behavior, and increases in engagement across both children and routines. In addition, procedural fidelity data document the implementation of plan components by the parent. Data-based; video vignettes will be shared.
Paper Session #51
International Paper Session - Human Learning I
Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Area: EAB
Chair: Li-Ching Hung (Mississippi State University)
Assisting Parents to Promote the Problem-Solving Skills in Preschoolers with Challenging Behaviors
Domain: Service Delivery
YANHUI PANG (Tennessee Technological University), Dean David Richey (Tennessee Technological University)
Abstract: This session provides useful and practical information for parents to addresses some common challenging behaviors on typically developing preschoolers. Functional assessment will be conducted to explore the causes of the atypical behaviors in a preschooler in a university-based child development laboratory. The caregivers, parents and grandparents who interact with the child on frequent basis will be interviewed concerning the definition of the atypical behaviors, the description of the history of the target behaviors as well as the instructional information that might lead to the target behaviors. Direct observation will be made to record antecedent/consequence of the target behavior and the scatter plot will be used to jot down the frequency of the occurrence of the target behaviors and the effective specific problem-solving strategies used to address these target behaviors. Thus, the session addresses how to reduce the occurrence of challenging behaviors by promoting young children use problem-solving skills or by helping them master some appropriate problem-solving skills.
Acquisition and Translativity of a Matching to Sample Task under Different Language Modes and Cross-Modal Transfer
Domain: Basic Research
JOSUE ANTONIO CAMACHO CANDIA (Universidad Veracruzana), Agustin Daniel Gomez Fuentes (Universidad Veracruzana)
Abstract: The main purpose was to analyze the initial acquisition, translativity and cross-modal transference of problem solving behaviors and second-order matching to sample tasks through direct matching. 24 experimentally unaware children participated in the experiment, aged 9 to 12, in the fourth grade the elementary school in the cities of Xalapa, Veracruz and Puebla, Puebla. A pre-test/ post-test design was applied, five training sessions and three transference tests for each language mode. The results demonstrated that the speed and the final level of acquisition and translativity were greater in the speaking mode, medium in writing and lower in pointing out. The average results demonstrated a greater cross modal transference in the pointing out mode while speaking and writing were used during the training procedure. These results suggest that the transference is greater when during the training, the mode having more arbitrary morphological characteristics is used, and in the transference tests the least arbitrary morphological modes are used.
Positive Reinforcement as a Method for Increasing the Learning of English
Domain: Basic Research
LI-CHING HUNG (Mississippi State University), Cary S. Smith (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: Within America’s borders, there resides a large, non-native, and diverse English speaking adult population; specifically, the U.S. Department of Education (2004) wrote that during the 2002-2003 program year, 43% of participants in state-administered adult education programs were enrolled in English as a Second Language (ESL) classes. In other words, almost half of those enrolled in adult education programs in the United States are English language learners. Adult English learners have myriad educational backgrounds that directly influence their English proficiency. Behavioral methods, if used correctly, can greatly aid student learning. In order to test this hypothesis, 30 students, ranging in ages from 19 to 51 and enrolled in the ESL center’s classes, met once each week for 10 weeks in 2 groups (one experimental and one control) for approximately 90 minutes. The experimental group received individualized rewards while the control group received nothing. Each member was placed in his/her respective group due to overall similarities. Before the first class commenced, each student was assessed to gauge his/her English ability; likewise, the same procedure was conducted on the last day. A one-way ANOVA was used to interpret the data. The information gathered was both fascinating and statistically significant.
Symposium #52
CE Offered: BACB
Increasing Advanced Interpersonal Skills in Children with Autism
Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Centennial Ballroom III
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Discussant: Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
CE Instructor: Gerald E. Harris, Ph.D.

Early behavioral intervention has often demonstrated the ability to instill or increase basic social and interpersonal skills in children with autism. However, there remain many more advanced skill areas where programming is less evolved. This symposium presents data based procedures for ameliorating deficits in stranger safety, assertiveness and joint attention skills. These skill areas are often more challenging to develop than basic language, academic, and self-help behaviors. As behavioral interventions become more widespread and effective, increased numbers of children need assistance with the more subtle social skills. The first presentation reports on a program designed to improve childrens ability to protect themselves in high risk situations in the community. Child abduction is a real threat in todays world, and previous research has shown that children with autism are vulnerable. The second presentation describes an intervention to help children protect themselves from less severe mistreatment by peers in their environment. Being assertive is a positive social skill, and may also reduce resorting to aggressive behavior for self protection. The third presentation tells about a behavioral intervention to increase joint attention in children with autism, thus allowing the shared awareness and experience that makes social interaction so rewarding.

Stranger Safety Training for Children with Autism.
FRANK B. CARLE (Texas Young Autism Project), Sanjuanita Pedraza (Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: Current literature suggests that children with autism are more susceptible to lures provided by strangers than typical developing children. The current study provided behavioral intervention to participants who displayed susceptibility to lures presented by a stranger. The intervention consisted of 3 phases. Phase 1: learning to discriminate between familiar people (i.e., family members) versus unfamiliar people (i.e., strangers). The child was taught to receptively and expressively label pictures either by the familiar person’s name, or as a “stranger.” Phase 2: a video in which a stranger presented various types of lures, the video was immediately paused and the child was taught the correct verbal response (stating “No!”) and motor response (e.g., running away). The child moved to Phase 3 contingent upon meeting the mastery criteria (90%) for Phase 2. Phase 3:Testing the children in the natural environment to observe if the safety skills taught in phases 1 and 2 maintained and generalized. Interobserver agreement for the dependent variables of verbal and motor response averaged 90% across sessions. The results of this study demonstrate that children with autism can emit correct verbal and motor responses in a risky situation when Behavioral Skills Training (BST) is imposed.
A Comparison of Two Different Approaches for Teaching Assertiveness to Young Children with Autism.
LAUREN HARRINGTON (Texas Young Autism Project), Maureen Childs (Texas Young Autism Project), Maritza Cervantes (Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: Previous research has shown differential effects for various procedures used to teach assertiveness to children with autism. The present study used a multiple baseline design to compare two procedures for teaching assertiveness. The dependant variable for this study was assertiveness, defined as the ability to verbally and physically maintain possession of a preferred item. Four children participating in a discrete trial ABA program were randomly assigned to one of two conditions; each consisted of a well-established behavioral method for teaching assertiveness. The first method, a role-play approach, taught children using confederates. The second method shaped assertiveness using sequencing cards. After five months of implementing the assertiveness training, each child was placed in an experimental analog scenario to elicit learned assertiveness skills. Tests to evaluate maintenance of these skills were administered approximately two weeks later. The children were then placed in a novel scenario to determine if learned assertiveness skills generalized. A follow-up assessment was conducted six weeks after treatment was discontinued to further assess skill maintenance and generalization. Results suggest that although the role-play approach yielded faster skill acquisition, the sequencing card approach lead to broader generalization. Inter-observer agreement was found to be above 80% for all phases.
A Behavior Analytic Intervention and Programmed Generalization of Joint Attention Skills in Children with Autism.
TREA DRAKE (Texas Young Autism Project), Alexis Hyde-Washmon (Texas Young Autism Project), Jennifer Shen (Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: Joint attention has been identified as an essential element of a functional social repertoire. Deficits in joint attention often serve as discriminative behavioral markers in children with autism. This study evaluates a treatment protocol developed by the Texas Young Autism Project designed to mitigate the joint attention deficits of children with autism. Three children from the project’s Day Treatment Center participated in the study. Each child’s ability to respond to the joint attention bids of others and to initiate joint attention exchanges was assessed utilizing components of the Early Social Communication Scale (ESCS) and natural environment observations of parent and peer interactions. The treatment protocol emphasized generalization of the skills to the child’s home environment. All participants reached mastery criterion in both responding to the joint attention bids of others and initiating joint attention. Assessment of joint attention skills in the natural environment revealed that the skills generalized following programmed natural environment training. Inter-observer agreement was evaluated for 30% of the sessions revealing an average agreement of 95%.
Panel #53
Professional Development Series: Perspectives on the Future of Behavior Analysis
Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Area: TPC; Domain: Theory
Chair: Cade T. Charlton (Utah State University)
THOMAS C. MAWHINNEY (University of Detroit Mercy)
MARC N. BRANCH (University of Florida)
WAYNE W. FISHER (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
GREGORY J. MADDEN (University of Kansas)
Abstract: As behavior analysis continues to grow, it is important to understand where the field is headed. To encourage dialogs on the development of the field, this panel will discuss the history of the field, current research and application trends, and the directions that the panel members feel are most important for the continued evolution of the field. This is a Student Committee-sponsored event.
Symposium #54
Promoting Language Abilities with Verbal and Nonverbal Students Diagnosed With Autism
Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Chicago A-F
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Kelly A. Young (Crossroads Center for Children)
Abstract: This symposium will present four different strategies used at Crossroads Center for Children to promote both spontaneous language and receptive language abilities.
The Effect of Social Stories on Promoting Spontaneous Language Abilities in a Pre-schooler Diagnosed With Pervasive Developmental Disorder.
AMY SOKOL (Crossroads Center for Children), Helen Bloomer (Crossroads Center for Children), Laura L. Krosky (Crossroads Center for Children)
Abstract: This study will demonstrate the benefits of the use of incorporating social stories into speech programming for a child diagnosed with PDD. Social stories can be used to promote appropriate and spontaneous language between a student diagnosed on the autism spectrum and a communication partner.
The Use of a Picture Communication System To Promote Spontaneous Language Abilities In a Student Diagnosed On the Autism Spectrum.
TARA RAMSEY (Crossroads Center for Children), Helen Bloomer (Crossroads Center for Children), Laura L. Krosky (Crossroads Center for Children)
Abstract: Nonverbal students often have difficulty effectively communicating their desires. The use of this picture communication system will enable the nonverbal student to express their needs with a variety of communication partners.
Incorporating A Least-To-Most Prompting Procedure To Facilitate Spontaneous Language For A Student Diagnosed on the Autism Spectrum.
MEGAN L. DAIGLE (Crossroads Center for Children), Helen Bloomer (Crossroads Center for Children), Laura L. Krosky (Crossroads Center for Children)
Abstract: Students with limited or emerging language abilities often require prompting to use their functional language skills spontaneously. The use of a procedure, termed "Wait-Gesture-Ask-Say-Do", which is a least-to-most prompting procedure, will be demonstrated. A case study will also be presented.
The Effectiveness of a Simplified Language Approach Versus a More Complex Linguistic Approach to Facilitate Receptive Language.
JENNIFER LEIGHTON (Crossroads Center for Children), Helen Bloomer (Crossroads Center for Children), JoAnne Emerle (Crossroads Center for Children)
Abstract: Children appear to respond to different types of receptive input in order to learn to comprehend individual word meanings for objects, pictured objects, and body parts. A comparison of data from two types of approaches will be presented.
Paper Session #55
Religion, Values, and Materialism
Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Area: TPC
Chair: Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Values Conversion in Psychotherapy: Considerations from a Behavioral Perspective
Domain: Theory
JORDAN T. BONOW (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Basic ethical principles of psychology make two pronouncements concerning issues surrounding client values. They declare that 1) clients have a right to hold to their own unique values and 2) therapists should not influence these values. Behaviorists working in clinical settings also hold to these principles, especially in the context of defining the goals of therapy. However, this ethical ideal seems to be problematic for those coming from a behavioral perspective for two reasons. First, it is likely impossible to achieve. Past research has shown a tendency for the values of a client to shift during the course of therapy to be in more accord with the values of the therapist. This can even occur when a therapist is explicitly attempting to not influence the client. Second and more importantly, this ideal is not necessarily compatible with basic philosophical underpinnings of behaviorism. Expression of values, whether through verbal report or overt action, can be viewed as no different than any other behavior. If an individual’s values are fully determined by learning history, there seems to be no justification for proscriptions against deliberately targeting a client’s values for change.
Psychological Materialism: Objections to Cognitivism from the Philosophical Buddhist Perspective
Domain: Theory
PATRICK C. QUINN (NorthEast Psychiatric & Psychological Institute)
Abstract: Traditional and Philosophical Buddhism reject three major forms of materialism. The most familiar to those outside of Buddhism is the rejection of physical materialism. There are two other forms of materialism that are also addressed in the Buddhist tradition. These other two are psychological materialism and spiritual materialism. The Buddhist objections to psychological materialism are very similar to the behavioral objections to the some of the problems inherent in the new cognitive psychology. This paper will discuss the concept of materialism as understood in the Buddhist tradition with special emphasis on psychological materialism. Sources from the Buddhist literature will be presented. The work of Chogyam Trungpa and other Buddhist scholars who have written on this topic will be presented. Trungpa’s Cutting Through Spiritual Materialism (1973) is the best known treatment of this topic in the modern Buddhist literature. The goal of the paper will be to present the similarities of critical analysis in Buddhism and Behaviorism. The paper will use a PowerPoint displaying links to available web based and other resources.
Beyond Religion Too
Domain: Theory
LINDA J. PARROTT HAYES (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: In this paper it is argued that theists justify their adherence to transcendental assumptions and beliefs on the basis of faulty logic and misinterpreted evidence. With respect to the first of these, theists contend that in as much as there is no proof for the existence or non-existence of a deity, believing and not believing in the existence of a deity are equally valid. With respect to evidence, the fact that transcendental beliefs are present in every culture is taken as support for their validity. Added to this is the evidence of natural scientists of every variety holding to such beliefs. The facts of cultural evolution and individual enculturation are invoked to contest these arguments. Also addressed is the prevalence of transcendental views among behavior scientists. We contend that this problem is a result of insufficient training of behavior scientists in the philosophy of behaviorism and the analysis of verbal behavior. The implications of this circumstance for the future of our science are discussed.
Symposium #56
Taking the Show on the Road: Morningside Teachers' Academy Experience
Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Kristine F. Melroe (Morningside Academy)
Discussant: Clay M. Starlin (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Morningside Teacher's Academy has implemented the Morningside Model of Generative Instruction in 90 (?) schools and agencies across the United States and Canada. These school-wide implementations are intended to assist teachers in implementing effective educational technologies and programs. Successful implementation at new sites is a function of at least three factors: teacher training in which teachers learn the rudiments of instructional protocols and programs, learn how to diagnose instructional problems, and become proficient in making instructional decisions based on student progress; teacher coaching in which teachers learn to perform instructional protocols and programs with ease in the context of a classroom; and cultural change in which teachers and administrators bring contingencies in line with programmatic and student learning requirements. This symposium describes the Morningside Model as it applies to training teachers and refining school cultural practices.
Analyzing Effective Training Methods.
DEBORAH BROWN (Morningside Academy), Kristine F. Melroe (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: School districts pour millions of dollars into training with the hope that the information will change the behavior of teachers and result in improved student learning. The outcome for training is to develop the instructional repertoire of the teacher to a level that enables them to apply new principles, concepts and strategies across the curriculum. Using Tieman and Markle's System of Instruction framework, this paper describes the training protocols that are used at Morningside Teacher's Academy and identifies successes and challenges that consultants have experienced in school-wide implementations. A critical aspect for training is to understand the entering repertoire of the teacher; which includes basic skills, instructional content and cultural issues. Effective training sessions need to both informative and interactive. Training sessions need to be quickly followed by direct observation of the teacher's performance with their students. This provides a feedback loop to determine what the specific content of next training sessions should include. Training is only as effective as the coaching that follows.
Coaching: A Delicate Blend of Methods, Style and Sensitivity.
SUZANNE CASSON (Morningside Teachers Academy), Abigail B. Calkin (Calkin Consulting Center)
Abstract: Direct instruction and roleplaying provide the teacher with a set of skills that, when artfully combined, create a performance repertoire that is effective in real-time, real-classroom situations. However, it is rare for a teacher to fully realize this integration without in situ coaching. Morningside Teachers' Academy relies heavily on coaching to transition teachers from training to practice. This paper will describe some of the common difficulties teachers face in applying training to the hustle and bustle of a classroom, will describe an overall paradigm for coaching, and will describe how personal characteristics of the teacher and of the coach interact to streamline the process in individual classrooms with individual teachers.
Changing the Culture of a School: A "Four Frames" Analysis.
LIBBY M. STREET (Central Washington University)
Abstract: Although training and coaching are fundamentally critical elements to ensuring that teachers can implement a prescribed instructional program with fidelity, an analysis of and intervention in the prevailing school culture is essential to ensuring that organizational barriers to implementation are removed and that school-wide contingencies support change. This is particularly challenging for a consultant who has no designated leadership role in the organization. This presentation will address school culture from the perspective of Bolman and Deals, "Reframing Organizations," identify challenges we've faced in school-wide implementation of the Morningside Model, and describe steps we've taken to address them.
Symposium #58
The Application of Skin Shock Treatment with Higher Functioning Students with Severe Behavior Disorders
Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Patricia Rivera (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract: The use of skin shock to treat individuals with severe behavior disorders has been well documented in the literature. The research has focused primarily on a population of individuals with some form of cognitive delay. This symposium will address the positive effects of implementing skin shock therapy as a supplement to positive behavioral programming for students that are more cognitively typical. The presenters will discuss the overall benefits of supplemental skin shock and how it relates to increased access to rewards. Video will be presented highlighting student and parent testimonials about the positive effects of skin shock treatment. The effect of skin shock on educational improvement will also be discussed along with case studies of students who, just by the mere mention of skin shock being implemented, showed sustained behavioral improvement.
The Use of Skin Shock in the Treatment of Higher Functioning, Cognitively Typical Students.
PATRICIA RIVERA (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Ed Langford (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract: The use of skin shock to treat severe behavior disorders has been well documented in the literature. The research has focused on a population of individuals with severe behavior disorders, the majority of who are cognitively impaired to some degree. This discussion will focus on the use of skin shock treatment with more cognitively typical students who have been referred to a residential facility because they have a long history of exhibiting inappropriate behaviors. These behaviors have significantly limited their educational and social development. Data will be presented showing the immediate and sustained behavioral improvement for the majority of these cognitively typical students.
Skin Shock Treatment as a Gateway to Facilitate Positive Programming.
ED LANGFORD (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Patricia Rivera (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract: All students that enter the Judge Rotenberg Center are treated with positive-only behavioral programming. Due to the intensity and frequency of some students’ behaviors, their access to rewards is severely limited in order to keep them and those around them safe. About 40% of our population does not respond well to positive-only treatment and requires the use of supplemental skin shock treatment. Data will be presented showing the decrease in the students’ inappropriate behaviors and an increase in access to positive programming. Parent and student testimonials will also be shown.
Educational Improvement Made Possible through the Use of Skin Shock Treatment.
MICHELLE HARRINGTON (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Angela Galvin (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Amy Inclima Wood (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract: Students who are admitted to the Judge Rotenberg Center are usually academically far behind their cognitively typical peers. The severity of their behaviors impedes with the amount of time they utilize for learning. Consequently, they have not been able to make acceptable academic progress. Once a student has the skin shock treatment implemented in their program, they tend to make tremendous academic gains. This discussion will focus on the different types of progress students make. Data will be presented from academic testing that shows grade level gains as well as increased seat time, and appropriate classroom behavior.
Suppressing Problematic Behavior by Merely Announcing that Skin Shock Treatment will be Used.
THELMISHA VINCENT (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Nick Lowther (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract: Approximately half the student population at the Judge Rotenberg Center experience treatment success using positive only interventions (i.e. token economy, point systems, contracts, and rewards). For the remaining half, it becomes necessary to implement skin shock treatment. Typically, in these cases, the problematic behavior does not improve until after the actual implementation of skin shock. However, for some students the knowledge alone that skin shock is under consideration is sufficient to effect significant positive behavioral change. Two case studies of individuals with severe behavior disorders will be discussed demonstrating rule governed behavior.
Symposium #59
CE Offered: BACB
Variables Influencing Response Allocation in the Treatment of Behavior Disorders
Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
Centennial Ballroom IV
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Stephanie M. Peterson (Idaho State University)
CE Instructor: Stephanie M. Peterson, Ph.D.

This symposium will provide four presentations that consist of unique applications of concurrent schedules of reinforcement to the treatment of problem behavior. Two of the presentations focus on prevention of problem behavior, while the other two focus on teaching alternative behaviors (mands) and biasing responding in favor of them. The first presentation evaluates the effects of preferred and nonpreferred toys during demand conditions. Results showed that the participants consistently allocated their time to demanding tasks and displayed little problem behavior when preferred toys were present. The second presentation provides a summary of a 4-experiment study in which the authors identified alternative stimulation that was substitutable for problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. Providing alternative stimulation reduced problem behavior when both were concurrently available. The third presentation demonstrates how different qualities and durations of reinforcement can be manipulated to bias choice responding in favor of work requests, as compared to break requests and problem behavior, within functional communication training packages. The final presentation demonstrates that a resurgence of problem behavior may occur during FCT when newly taught alternative behaviors are placed on extinction or lean schedules of intermittent reinforcement; thus, these alternative behaviors may no longer compete effectively with problem behavior.

An Evaluation of Competition Between Positive and Negative Reifnorcement During a Choice Assessment.
JAY W. HARDING (University of Iowa), David P. Wacker (University of Iowa), Wendy K. Berg (University of Iowa), Kelly M. Schieltz (University of Iowa)
Abstract: We evaluated time allocation, problem behavior, and task completion during a choice assessment that manipulated the presence of preferred and non-preferred toys during demand conditions. The participants were 2 preschool-aged boys with developmental delays who displayed severe problem behavior. All procedures were conducted in the children’s homes with their mothers serving as therapists. Multielement, concurrent schedules and reversal designs were used to evaluate assessment results. Inter-rater agreement was assessed across 30% of sessions and averaged 97%. During Phase 1, a preference assessment identified highly preferred and less preferred toys. During Phase 2, functional analyses showed that problem behavior was maintained by both positive and negative reinforcement. In Phase 3, we conducted a choice assessment with two conditions. In Condition 1, the participants had a choice between a demand option with less preferred toys or playing with the same toys alone. In Condition 2, the choice was between demands with highly preferred toys or playing with a less preferred toy alone. Results showed that both children allocated their time primarily to the demand option and displayed relatively low levels of problem behavior and high levels of task completion when tasks involved preferred toys.
Further Evaluation of Methods to Identify Matched Stimulation.
JOHN T. RAPP (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: The effects of alternative stimulation on the vocalizing of two individuals were evaluated in a series of experiments. Experiment 1 showed that the vocalizing of both participants persisted in the absence of social consequences, but decreased markedly during noncontingent access to music. Experiment 2 showed that one participant manipulated toys that did and did not produce audio stimulation; however, only sound-producing toys (contingent audio stimulation) decreased vocalizing. For the other participant, sound-producing toys, alone, did not decrease vocalizing and paradoxically increased vocalizing when presented with music. Experiment 3 showed that the vocalizing of both participants remained below pre-intervention levels following the removal of audio stimulation and that one participant’s vocalizing increased following the removal of contingent reprimands. These patterns suggest that audio stimulation functioned as an abolishing operation for vocalizing and reprimands functioned as an establishing operation for vocalizing. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that a participant preferred a toy that produced contingent audio stimulation over an identical toy that did not generate audio stimulation. Collectively, the four experiments provide a method for identifying alternative stimulation that may be substitutable for automatically reinforced behavior.
"I Choose Work:" Increasing Work Choices Using Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcmeent Within Functional Communication Training Packages.
RENEE KOEHLER VAN NORMAN (University of Nevada, Las Vegas), Stephanie M. Peterson (Idaho State University), Nancy A. Neef (The Ohio State University), Traci M. Cihon (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Although a viable treatment option for escape-maintained problem behavior, functional communication training treatment packages are not without limitations. One such limitation with FCT is an initial increase in break requests, resulting in continuous access to reinforcement (Marcus & Vollmer, 1995). An additional limitation may surface in the form of extinction bursts when implementers attempt to gradually introduce additional task demands over time (also known as stimulus or demand fading; e.g., Zarcone, Iwata, Smith, Mazaleski, & Lerman, 1994). This study investigated the effects of combining two interventions (FCT and DRA with increasing work requirements) within a 3-choice scenario in an attempt to address these limitations. Concurrent schedules of reinforcement with differing levels of quality and duration were applied to each response alternative: mands for break, mands for work, and problem behavior. Then, the effects of systematically increased demands were evaluated while the concurrent schedules of reinforcement remained in place. The results will be discussed in relation to the matching law and choice making.
An Applied Evaluation of Resurgence: Functional Communication Training (FCT) and Treatment Relapse.
VALERIE M. VOLKERT (Louisiana State University), Nathan Call (Louisiana State University), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Nicole M. Trosclair-Lasserre (Louisiana State University)
Abstract: Extinction is a very important component of functional communication training (FCT). Thus, the potential undesirable effects of extinction must be considered before this type of treatment is implemented. Resurgence, the recurrence of previously reinforced behavior when another behavior is placed on extinction, is a possible undesirable effect of extinction. Resurgence may account for some instances of treatment relapse in situations where problem behavior recovers following implementation of extinction-based treatments such as FCT. Despite the potential relevance of resurgence to understanding why problem behavior may re-emerge, few applied studies have examined resurgence effects. The current study attempted to determine whether resurgence of problem behavior occurred when a newly trained alternative behavior was placed on extinction or contacted a thin schedule of reinforcement and if the resurgence effect could be repeated within an individual. The present investigation also attempted to replicate and extend the results of Experiments 2 and 4 in Lieving and Lattal (2003) by examining resurgence with human participants who engage in aberrant behavior. Results showed that, in some cases problem behavior recovered when the alternative behavior was placed on extinction or intermittent schedules of reinforcement. Interoberserver agreement coefficients exceeded 80% or 90% for all participants.
Paper Session #59a
International Paper Session - Developmental Disabilities: Health & Well-being
Saturday, May 27, 2006
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
International Ballroom North
Area: DDA
Chair: Charles C. Wills (Protestant Guild for Human Services)
The Comparison of Individual vs Group Contingencies in Increasing Student Exercise Participation in Residences
Domain: Service Delivery
CHARLES C. WILLS (Protestant Guild for Human Services)
Abstract: The rise in unhealthy eating habits and reduced attention to exercise has reached critical proportions in the United Stated. Within a population of cognitively challenged students, the medical and behavioral concerns are significant factors in the development of an effective regime. More challenging is the actual assurance that an incorporated plan will reach a successful outcome. Residences seek means to support students in successfully integrating good habits for life. Seven residential programs participated in the study. This study examines a comparison of individual versus molar contingencies for increasing the frequency and duration of an exercise component in a residential setting. Using a changing criteria design across individuals and settings, a determination as to the most successful intervention was explored. In addition, a multiple baseline design will be used across settings, to examine the effect of public posting and individual visual and verbal feedback. Baseline measures show less than 2 of 7 students participating for less than 10 minutes. Our goal is to increase the frequency and duration of exercise through control of the independent variable.
Effects of Antecedent Prompt and Test on Teaching Simulated Menstrual Care Skills to Females with Disabilities.
Domain: Service Delivery
GONUL KIRCAALI-IFTAR (Anadolu University), Gulhan Ersoy (Public School), Elif Tekin-Iftar (Anadolu University)
Abstract: Although menstrual care is among the most important skill areas for females with intellectual disabilities to facilitate their independence, there is limited research examining this issue. The main purpose of the study was to analyze the acquisition and maintenance effects of antecedent prompt and test procedure on teaching changing sanitary napkins on a doll to three young females with mild intellectual disabilities. Generalization through multiple exemplar approach and social validity were also examined. A multiple probe design across subjects was used in the study which consisted of baseline, intervention, probe, maintenance, and generalization sessions. Result showed that all subjects were able to acquire and maintain the skills taught to them, and generalize the acquired skills to various examples. Furthermore, the parents of the subjects were very pleased with the study in general. The results are discussed and recommendations regarding future research and practice will be shared with the audience.
Results of an Interagency Project to Improve Quality of Life
Domain: Service Delivery
CAPS HOLBURN (New York State Institute for Basic Research), Christine Cea (New York State Institute for Basic Research)
Abstract: We held focus groups to identify ideas for improving quality of life for people living in group residences on Staten Island. Four-hundred eighty five comments from consumers, family members, direct-support staff, middle managers, and agency directors (n=119) were classified into themes and shared across groups. Overall, the comments pertained more to fundamental issues rather than the more progressive aspirations that dominate the developmental services field today. data are presented by themes and groups and reveal interesting patterns of convergence and divergence. Outcomes to date of this ongoing collaboration include, (a) formation of a self-advocacy group, (b) certificate training programs for direct support and middle managers, (c) coordination of local social activities, (d) a best practices conference, and (e) adaptation of various practices across agencies.
Invited Paper Session #60
CE Offered: None

Generalizing Beyond Our Experience: Lessons from Neural Networks

Saturday, May 27, 2006
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Centennial Ballroom I
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
CE Instructor: John W. Donahoe, M.S.
Chair: John W. Donahoe (University of Massachusetts, Amherst)
JEFFREY L. ELMAN (University of California, San Diego)
Dr. Jeffrey L. Elman joined the University of California, San Diego Linguistics Department in 1977 after receiving his Ph.D. from University of Austin at Texas. In 1986, Elman helped found the Department of Cognitive Science, where he served as Chair from 1994 to 1998. Elman is currently Chancellor’s Associates Distinguished Professor of Cognitive Science, Associate Dean the Division of Social Sciences at UCSD, and Founding Co-Director of the Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind. Elman is one of the pioneers in the field of artificial neural networks. His early model of speech perception, the TRACE model, remains one of the major theories in the field. In 1990 he developed the Simple Recurrent Network architecture (the so-called “Elman net”) which is today widely used in cognitive science to understand behaviors that unfold over time. His recent book, Rethinking Innateness: A Connectionist Perspective on Development (with Bates, Johnson, Karmiloff-Smith, Parisi, Plunkett, 1996), introduces a new theoretical framework for understanding the nature/nurture debate. Currently, Elman’s research focus is on language processing, development, and computational models of cognition. In 2001, New Bulgar