Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

Search

31st Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2005

Program by Day for Saturday, May 28, 2005


Manage My Personal Schedule

 

Special Event #2
Society for the Quantitative Analyses of Behavior
Saturday, May 28, 2005
7:00 AM–11:20 AM
International South (2nd floor)
Chair: William M. Baum (University of California, Davis)
Attendees to SQAB events must register for the SQAB conference in addition to the ABA convention. Visit http://sqab.psychology.org/ for more information.
 
 
Special Event #3
Newcomers' Session
Saturday, May 28, 2005
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Private Dining Room 1 (3rd floor)
Chair: John L. Michael (Western Michigan University)
 
W. Scott Wood (Drake University)
 

An overview of ABA, its history, structures and functions as an international locus of the field of behavior analysis. Awards, special interest groups and other features will also be addressed. Drs. Michael and Wood, two of ABAs original members, will review the origin and organization of ABA as well as describe the principles of behavior analysis that form the scientific foundation of the field.

 
 
Special Event #4
International Development Brunch
Saturday, May 28, 2005
10:00 AM–11:30 AM
Continental A (1st floor)
Chair: Ned Carter (The Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions)
 
Maurice Feldman (Brock University)
 

The international brunch is scheduled on the first day of the convention to welcome the international members and review the international development of behavior analysis.

 
 
Special Event #5
Opening Event: Society for the Advancement of Behavior Analysis Awards
Saturday, May 28, 2005
11:30 AM–1:00 PM
International North (2nd floor)
Chair: Jay Moore (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee)
 
2004 International Grant Awards
Abstract: Joseph J. Pear, Ph.D. (University of Manitoba, Canada) Yanqing Guo (Institute of Mental Health, Peking University, People’s Republic of China) Paolo Moderato, Ph.D. (University of Parma, Italy)
 
JAY MOORE (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee)
 
 
Award for Distinguished Service to Behavior Analysis: Jon S. Bailey, Ph.D. (Florida State University)
Abstract: In this presentation I would like to pay tribute to those mentors, colleagues, and students who have inspired me and shaped my behavior over the past 44-years. Lee Meyerson, Jack Michael, and Mont Wolf all played an important role in my early years and my psychology graduate students and Florida colleagues have continued to provide me with a steady stream of challenges, learning opportunities, and reinforcers that have enriched my life in so many ways.
 
JON S. BAILEY (Florida State University)
 
Dr. Jon S. Bailey received his Ph.D. in 1970 from the University of Kansas where he worked with Lonnie Philips and Mont Wolf on the original Achievement Place Project. He took his first and only academic position in the Psychology Department at Florida State University that same year. Jon founded the Florida Association for Behavior Analysis and started Behavior Management Consultants, Inc. with Maxin Reiss and Mary Burch in 1980. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society. He has served on the Executive Councils of the Association for Behavior Analysis, FABA, and Division 25 of APA. Dr. Bailey is the past-Editor of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and is co-author of Research Methods in Applied Behavior Analysis, How Dogs Learn, and Ethics for Behavior Analysts with Mary Burch. Dr. Bailey is a licensed psychologist and a Certified Behavior Analyst in the State of Florida, has served on the Florida Behavior Management Peer Review Committee as well as an Expert Witness for the U.S. Department of Justice. Most recently Dr. Bailey created the Master’s program in applied behavior analysis at the FSU Panama City Campus. Dr. Bailey will give a presentation titled Time Flies:
 
Award for International Dissemination of Behavior Analysis: R. Douglas Greer, Ph.D. (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: Behavior analysts remain a happy few, as Skinner said in earlier days of ABA. We are even a few more, as we strive to become truly international. There are, however, two distinctive foci that have developed in our science and these, I argue, are natural, but important distinctions, in our scientific inquires and applications. The two are not basic versus applied, or differences in foci across geographical-cultural boundaries; these are simply artificial divisions. The two behavior analyses are (a) a science of the environmental controls of existing operants and (b) a science of the environmental sources for the formation of operants and higher order operants. The sources for behaving well and acquiring repertoires require distinctions in practice and application. International collaborations gave rise to exciting new findings in the latter effort.
 
R. DOUGLAS GREER (Teachers College, Columbia University)
 
Dr. R. Douglas Greer (Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1969; M.A. and BME Florida State University; CABAS® Board Certification as Senior Behavior Analyst and Senior Research Scientist) is Professor of Education and Psychology at the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and Teachers College of Columbia University where he heads the M.A. and Ph.D. programs in behavior analysis and the education of students with/without disabilities. He has served on the editorial boards of ten journals, published over 100 research and theoretical articles in more than 20 journals and is the author of seven books in behavior analysis. Greer has sponsored 110 doctoral dissertations (80% have been published in refereed journals), taught over 2,000 teachers and professors, originated the CABAS® model of schooling in the USA, Ireland, Italy, England, and founded the Fred S. Keller School. He has done experimental research in schools with students, teachers, parents, and supervisors as well as pediatric patients in medical settings. He is a recipient of the Fred S. Keller Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education from the American Psychology Association and has served as guest professor at universities in Spain, Wales, England, Ireland, USA, and Nigeria. Dr. Greer will give a presentation titled Análisis del Comportamiento y Análisis de la Conducta: Two Different Behavior Analyses:
 
Award for Public Service in Behavior Analysis: Robert F. Mager, Ph.D. (Mager Associates)
Abstract: During his presentation, Dr. Mager describes aspects of his early research on detection and elimination of instructional obstacles to learning. Specifically, he describes a method he developed for detecting and recording student-generated learning sequences, as well as application of that information to a real-world problem. This, and subsequent work, led to the Criterion-Referenced Instruction model, with which he and his colleagues are able to achieve a high rate of success in enabling students to reach pre-specified performance levels. Because of the universality of the laws of behavior, this model is effective in every culture in which it is being applied.
 
ROBERT F. MAGER (Mager Associates)
 
Dr. Mager received his B.A. and M.A. degrees in Psychology from Ohio University and his Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology from the State University of Iowa. He has held teaching posts in psychology and human relations at colleges and universities, and served as research scientist for the Human Resources Research Office. He established behavioral research laboratories for Varian Associates and Xerox Corporation, was Technical Director of the Learning Systems Institute in Paris, France, and Director of module development for Project PLAN, American Institutes for Research. One of his significant contributions is his Criterion-Referenced Instruction (CRI) methodology, applied world-wide to support education and human resource professionals through his successful instructor development programs, including: Criterion-Referenced Instruction (with Peter Pipe), Instructional Module Development, and The Training Director Workshop. Author of numerous books, technical papers, and articles, Dr. Mager is widely known for his book Preparing Instructional Objectives. Other Mager books include Developing Attitude Toward Learning, Analyzing Performance Problems (with Peter Pipe), Goal Analysis, Measuring Instructional Results, Making Instruction Work, Measuring Instructional Results, Troubleshooting the Troubleshooting Course, The How to Write a Book Book, and What Every Manager Should Know About Training. The procedures described in his books provide the bases for many of the courses in instructional design taught in colleges and universities today. Dr. Mager will give a presentation titled On Elimination of Learning Obstacles.
 
Award for Impact of Science on Application: Howard Rachlin, Ph.D. (State University of New York at Stony Brook)
Abstract: From the teleological viewpoint self-control consists of the building of high-valued patterns out of discrete acts that may be individually very low in value (just as a highly valued melody may be built up out of individual notes low in value). Each of an alcoholic’s drink-refusals, for example, may individually be extremely low in value relative to its individual alternative (having a drink) yet a consistent pattern of drink refusals (sobriety in the long run) may be more valuable than consistent drinking (alcoholism). The problem of self-control is to restructure alternatives so that a person chooses among relatively long-term patterns of acts rather than among relatively short-term acts. Aiding in this effort is the coherence of patterns once they are formed and the cost of breaking them up. The advantage of the teleological viewpoint is that it is thoroughly behavioral in the sense that it deals only with the whole organism; it allows you to go from simple laboratory situations to complex real-world situations without the hypothesizing of internal events such as internal operants, reinforcers or discriminative stimuli.
 
HOWARD RACHLIN (State University of New York, Stony Brook)
 
Dr. Howard Rachlin obtained a Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering degree from Cooper Union in New York City, where he learned to treat all scientific and practical questions as if they had answers in the back of the book rather than as invitations to self-expression, an M.A. in psychology from The New School of Social Research in New York City, where he learned that the whole may be greater than the sum of its parts, and a Ph.D. from Harvard University where B. F. Skinner and Richard Herrnstein taught him how to be a behaviorist. He is currently an emeritus Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He has published more than 100 articles, written six books including Behavior and Mind (Oxford University Press, 1994) and The Science of Self-Control (Harvard University Press, 2000), and edited two others. Although he has retired from teaching, he is actively engaged in research on self-control and social cooperation in humans and nonhumans. Dr. Rachlin will give a presentation titled Teleological Behaviorism and Self-Control:
 
Award for Enduring Programmatic Contributions in Behavior Analysis: The New England Center for Children
Abstract: The New England Center for Children (www.necc.org), founded in 1975, is a private, non-profit organization providing a full range of educational, residential and treatment programs for more than 250 children with autism and related disabilities based on the principles of behavior analysis. Our mission has three components: 1. To maximize the independence of every student as measured by rates of skill acquisition, performance on assessments, reduction of aberrant behaviors, and transitions to less restrictive environments. 2. To share our work through research, professional development, consultation and dissemination of curriculum. We have published more than 150 research articles, operate six partner classrooms in area public schools, and consult with more than 30 others. Over the last 10 years, 550 of our employees have earned their master’s degree at one of three on-site graduate programs offered at NECC. 3. To secure the financial future of the organization through prudent fiscal management, professional fundraising, tax-exempt financing, and development of diverse income streams. Our repertoire, which emphasizes skill acquisition, errorless teaching techniques, and function-based treatment, was shaped by our close collaboration with senior behavior analysts including Paul Touchette, Murray Sidman, Gina Green, Richard Foxx, Brian Iwata, and Bill Dube. Mr. Strully and Ms. Foster will give a presentation titled Science and Autism: Translating Research into Practice: The New England Center for Children attributes its success in the treatment of children with autism to a reliance on the experimental and applied research generated by our colleagues. NECC has a rich behavioral heritage beginning with Paul Touchette and Murray Sidman, who encouraged us to sustain a rigorous adherence to the methodology of ABA. Although this rigor is difficult to maintain, we continuously strive to avoid the temptation to drift away from the fundamentals of data based decision-making. At NECC the influence of both experimental and applied research translates across clinical treatment, staff development and organizational management. Autism responds to sophisticated scientific interventions, not politically correct bromides. If we abandon the methodology of our science, we condemn our children to an uncertain future. We believe success is measured not only by outcome but also by replication of proven methods across public and private settings, and by worldwi...
 
VINCENT STRULLY (New England Center for Children), Katherine E. Foster (New England Center for Children)
 
As Founder and Executive Director of The New England Center for Children, Mr. Strully directs all aspects of clinical and financial administration, program development, fundraising, facility design, and strategic planning. Mr. Strully has 32 years of experience working with children with autism and challenging behaviors. He received a B.A. from Hamilton College. In 1973, he was one of six founding teachers for an experimental program at the Spaulding Youth Center in Tilton, NH.In 1974, Mr. Strully and colleagues developed the first NECC program without the use of any endowed funds. The school was established from scratch in an empty building on the grounds of Taunton State Hospital. The second NECC school was founded in Framingham, MA in 1980. The two schools merged in 1987. Today NECC serves 225 children and young adults, and employs more than 600 people with an annual budget of $30 million.
 
 
 
Paper Session #6
Behavior Analysis, Evolution, and Evolutionary Psychology
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
Astoria (3rd floor)
Area: TPC
Chair: Paul Thomas Andronis (Northern Michigan University)
 
Contingencies, Canalization, and Creativity
Domain: Theory
PAUL THOMAS ANDRONIS (Northern Michigan University)
 
Abstract: The biological concept of “canalization” has been invoked variously to explain the relative stability of phenotypic expression in the face of highly variable environments, the robustness of adaptive traits under changing selective conditions, the means by which innate behaviors come under control of relevant environmental challenges, and so on. It is generally considered to describe a form of constraint on the range of reactions for gene expression, as the metaphorical name implies. To some, the concept also implies a mechanism that directs selection along certain trajectories, in essence, formally rendering some selective outcomes as “preadaptations” for subsequent events. The present paper explores the relevance of this concept to the ontogenic selection of operant behavior by contingencies of reinforcement, and addresses the formal tension between, on the one hand, the putatively conservative forces of canalization and, on the other, the synthetic or creative outcomes of particular reinforcement histories. Canalization will be defined in relation to contingencies of reinforcement and programming variables. The paper will conclude with an examination of the concept’s potential for shedding light on certain problems specific to behavior, including the apparent uniformity of psychiatric “symptoms,” the reliable patterns of deficits observed in developmental disorders, as well as unidentified sources of creative behavior, whether problematic as psychotic symptoms, or desirable as outcomes of programmatic curriculi.
 
Evolutionary Psychology and Behavior Analysis
Domain: Theory
MASAYA SATO (Teikyo University)
 
Abstract: The author compared evolutionary psychology with behavior analysis, and found the following five differences. (1) Evolutionary psychologists only attend to one kind of selection by consequence; natural selection, while behavior analysts attend to three kinds of selection by consequence. (2) Evolutionary psychologists use deduction, while behavior analysts use induction. (3) Evolutionary psychologists concentrate on correlational analysis, while behavior analysts concentrate on causal analysis. (4) Evolutionary psychologists frequently use questionnaire, while behavior analysts seldom use it. (4) Theories in evolutionary psychology are not falsifiable, while theories in behavior analysis are falsifiable. (5) The goal of evolutionary psychology is mainly the interpretation of behavior, while the goal of behavior analysis is prediction, control, and interpretation of behavior.
 
 
 
Paper Session #7
Expanding the Horizons of Research and Application
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
Waldorf (3rd floor)
Area: TPC
Chair: Dennis McDougall (University of Hawaii)
 
Introducing Two New ABA Research Designs: The Distributed Criterion and Range-Bound Changing Criterion Designs
Domain: Applied Research
DENNIS MCDOUGALL (University of Hawaii)
 
Abstract: Few new applied behavior analysis (ABA) research designs have emerged since the fertile period, four decades ago, when ABA design innovations flourished. Moreover, Kazdin (1982) concluded, “Few variations of the changing criterion design have been developed” (p. 159). Consequently, the purpose of this presentation is to describe and illustrate two very recent and novel ABA research designs. The first design, the distributed criterion design, is a variation of the changing criterion design and incorporates elements of the classic multiple baseline and reversal. The second design, the range-bound changing criterion design - a simple extenision of the classic changing criterion design - uses both an upper and lower criterion for each stepwise intervention phase of a study. McDougall (2004a; 2004b) utilized these novel designs for the first time in intervention studies that combined goal setting and behavioral self-management components to: (a) increase the duration of daily exercise, reduce body weight, and improve post-exercise pulse rate of an overweight adult; and (b) increase the research productivity of a professor. The presenter will provide guidelines for effective use of these two new ABA research designs.
 
Breaking the Harness: How Behavioral Research Can Release Itself from the Confounding Variable of Funding
Domain: Theory
AARON A. JONES (www.BehaviorMachine.com)
 
Abstract: Science is the process of applying rigorous controls to the act of discovery to ensure that the knowledge produced is as close to a true description of natural phenomena as a human can make. Experimentation cleans up human understanding, removing assumptions, inferences, bias, hunches and personal agendas, but a vital component of the process remains in the realm of subjective experience. In developing experimental questions, researchers make assumptions about nature and inferences from previous research. They act on biases that skew their approach, develop hunches about how things work and operate from agendas aimed at answering questions asked by those who fund the research. Would this be true if scientists provided their own funding? Unfortunately, behavioral researchers remain dependent on government funding, and practitioners rely on insurance companies, because they are too involved in conducting research or providing services to explore other options. The end product of scientific labor, then, is publication, which is valuable, but limited in its ability to sustain further work. This paper contends that journal publications are only a first step in disseminating the results of experimentation. The next step is developing applications useful to consumers, which, if successful, can turn science into a self-sustaining endeavor.
 
 
 
Paper Session #8
Managing Children’s Problem Behavior: Approaches and Solutions
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
Lake Huron (8th floor)
Area: CSE
Chair: Anthony C. Stover (Behavior Analysis & Therapy, Inc.)
 
Assessing the Impact of a Family Process Group on Rural African American Adolescents’ Competence and Behavior Problems Using Latent Growth Curve Analysis
Domain: Basic Research
IVORY TOLDSON (Southern University and A&M College), Rahsheda Perine (Southern University and A&M College), Murelle Harrison (Southern University and A&M College)
 
Abstract: Authors investigated the long term effects of a family process group on social and cognitive competence and aggressive and deviant behavior among rural African American adolescents. Data were gathered from a 5-year study of 465 rural African American families. Participants were randomly assigned to either a 6-week family process group or an experimental control group, and assessed at three time points: pretest, posttest, and long-term follow-up. Behavior problems among adolescents were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist and competence was measured with the Harter Competence Scale. Self-report data from primary caregivers, used to test moderating variables, included a measure of depression, financial status, coping and interaction with the child. Using factorial-level, latent growth curve modeling and covariance structure analysis, a latent change model was evaluated for adolescent competence and problem behaviors. Findings indicated that the family process groups had mild moderating effects on adolescent competence and behavior. In addition, analysis of covariant structures suggested that maternal depressive symptoms and financial problems indirectly arbitrate high-risk behavior among rural adolescents. The results have implications for parent training, family therapy and risk behavior prevention programs among rural African American families.
 
Behavior Analysis of Juvenile Delinquency in Taiwan
Domain: Applied Research
CARY S. SMITH (Mississippi State University), Li-Ching Hung (Mississippi State University)
 
Abstract: Chinese civilization has had, for most of its long history, relatively low rates of juvenile delinquency with Confucian philosophy receiving the credit. Filial Piety, possibly the strongest and best known Confucian principle, centers on how children must honor his/her parents and how engaging in any criminal activity would cause one's family members to feel great shame. This idea, once a corner stone for Chinese society, has lost much of its moral strength due to Taiwan becoming more and more Americanized. One result of this societal change is an ever increasing crime rate, with juveniles committing approximately 10% of all crimes. In order to better understand the causes, as well as allowing for the formulation of an effective intervention, 120 male adolescents housed in Taiwan's sole juvenile correctional facility were given questionnaires designed by the authors. The assessment instrument contained 50 items, and the results it provided were fascinating.
 
 
 
Special Event #9
SQAB 2005 Tutorial: Simulation of Quantitative Models of Behavior
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
International South (2nd floor)
Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Frances K. McSweeney (Washington State University)
Presenting Authors: : RUSSELL CHURCH (Brown University)
Abstract: Quantitative models of behavior have been developed that may be compared to observations of behavior. Simulated data comes from the interaction of a procedure and the quantitative model; observed data comes from the interaction of a procedure and an animal. The evaluation of a simulation is based on a comparison of the observed and simulated data, and on the simplicity and generality of the model. This talk will focus on how to simulate data, and why it is useful to do so.
 
RUSSELL CHURCH (Brown University)
 
 
Invited Symposium #10
A Tribute to Ogden Lindsley: Precision Teaching for Fluency and Celeration
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Stevens 1 (Lower Level)
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
CE Instructor: Kent Johnson, Ph.D.
Abstract: This symposium will pay tributes to the late, great Ogden R. Lindsley by focusing upon several key aspects of his work. Carl Binder will discuss the importance of frequency as the basic datum for science and education. Michael Fabrizio and Alison Moors will focus upon the standard celeration chart as the basic tool for Precision Teaching. Kent Johnson and his colleagues will discuss the application of Precision Teaching as the core methodology at Morningside Academy, and share lots of charted student data. And Elizabeth Haughton will present mottos that Lindsley lived by when educating teachers and offer her own history as an example of how he changed many teacher's work-lives.
 
Rate of Response: A Legacy for Teachers and Students from Skinner Through Lindsley
CARL V. BINDER (Binder-Riha Associates)
Abstract: Skinner identified rate of response and the cumulative response recorder as his two most important contributions. Indeed, most groundbreaking advances in the history of science have emerged with innovations in measurement. Lindsley inherited from Skinner the use of response rate, which he termed “frequency,” and extended the principle of standard graphic display, derived from Skinner’s cumulative response recording with its standard step sizes and paper speeds, with the Standard Celeration Chart. Lindsley’s chart gives us a uniquely powerful means of representing and quantifying learning with a standard graphic display and standard units of measurement (celeration values). Precision Teaching, much like Skinner’s science of behavior, has often been misunderstood as a collection of procedures and discoveries. Indeed, like Skinner’s science, Lindsley’s technology of teaching is, at its core, a measurement innovation of unsurpassed sensitivity. By replacing the ubiquitous use of percent correct, a dimensionless quantity, with count per minute measures of correct and incorrect responding and celeration as a measure of learning, Precision Teaching provides a radically more sensitive means of making instructional decisions. This presentation illustrates the power and sensitivity of response rate measures for instructional decision-making while demonstrating the remarkable insensitivity of percentage correct.
Carl Binder entered Behavior Analysis as a graduate student at Harvard with B.F. Skinner who introduced him to B.H. Barrett. Between 1973 and 1982 he was Associate Director in Barrett’s Behavior Prosthesis Laboratory, conducting laboratory research, managing a research classroom for students with developmental disabilities, training M.Ed. students in Precision Teaching at local colleges and consulting to dozens of schools and agencies throughout New England and North America. He was fortunate to meet and learn from colleagues that included Ogden Lindsley, Eric and Elizabeth Haughton, Hank Pennypacker, and Jay Birnbrauer, each of whom influenced him deeply. Introduced to standard celeration charting and Precision Teaching by Barrett, mentored by Lindsley and Haughton, and influenced by hundreds of charts from many learner populations, he committed in 1976 to development and dissemination of frequency-based instruction. With Lindsley’s encouragement he moved from education to corporate performance improvement in 1982 and has made his living there, introducing the FluencyBuilding(TM) training and coaching methodology, standard celeration charting, and accomplishment-based performance improvement methods into corporations. He maintains involvement with and writing about children’s education, his choice for the area of our work with the greatest potential for cultural impact. Download his articles and presentations at www.Binder-Riha.com/publications.htm.
 
The Contributions of the Standard Celeration Chart to Intervention Programming: Moving Data from Post Hoc Rationale to Elegant Measurement, Assessment, and Evaluation
MICHAEL FABRIZIO (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Alison L. Moors (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: Because of its mathematical properties, its physical properties, and its widely adopted graphic conventions, the Standard Celeration Chart (SCC) offers many advantages over non-standard graphs for its use in behavior analytic instructional programming. Through the quick, easy, and simultaneous analysis of all three features of charted human performance data—frequency, celeration, and bounce—clinicians’ behavior may be controlled readily by the performance data of the children whose programs they supervise. Thus, rather than serving as a post hoc rationale for clinical action, children’s data can guide intervention and serve as a source of discriminative control over the behavior of those who work with them. This paper will discuss the features of the SCC that contribute to its unique power in informing data-based decision making in intervention programs.
Michael Fabrizio received his Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology and Master’s Degree in Educational Psychology/Applied Behavior Analysis from West Virginia University. He is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst and doctoral student in Special Education at the University of Washington where he is specializing in behavior analysis, autism, instructional design, and technical communication. Michael has worked with children with autism and other special needs throughout his career, serving as a Senior Educational Specialist for the West Virginia Autism Training Center at Marshall University, a Clinical Specialist for the Spectrum Center for Educational and Behavioral Development in Berkeley, California, Head Teacher for Morningside Academy in Seattle, Washington, and Lead Trainer for Morningside Academy’s Public School Improvement Project. Michael currently resides in Seattle, Washington, where he is a full partner in Fabrizio/Moors Consulting, an educational and behavioral consulting private practice specializing in fluency-based instruction for learners with autism. Michael has presented his applied research work with children with disabilities at a range of state, regional, and national professional conferences including the Autism Society of America, the West Coast Special Education Conference, the Association for Behavior Analysis, the Association for the Severely Handicapped, the Association for Science in Autism Treatment, and the International Precision Teaching Conference. He has published his work in the Behavior Analysis Digest, the Journal of Precision Teaching and Celeration, and the European Journal of Behavior Analysis. He received the 2000 New Contributions Award presented by the Standard Celeration Society, serves as a contributing editor for the Journal of Precision Teaching and Celeration, teaches as an adjunct faculty member in the Department of Behavior Analysis at the University of North Texas, and serves as a member of the Organization for Autism Research’s Scientific Advisory Council.
 
Precision Teaching at Morningside Academy, Morningside Teachers' Academy, and Headsprout Early Reading
KENT JOHNSON (Morningside Academy), Abigail B. Calkin (Morningside Academy), Kristine F. Melroe (Morningside Academy), Elizabeth M. Street (Central Washington University), T. V. Joe Layng (Headsprout)
Abstract: Kent Johnson will discuss Precision Teaching as the core methodology at Morningside Academy and how it integrates with the Morningside Model of Generative Instruction. Abigail Calkin, Kris Melroe, and Elizabeth Street will present charted data from students at Morningside Academy, and 2 schools in the Bureau of Indian Affairs national school district that are in partnerships with Morningside Academy: Pierre Learning Center in South Dakota, and Riverside Indian School in Oklahoma. Joe Layng will present data showing how rate and celeration determine success or additional instruction and practice in the internet-based interactive early reading instructional program, Headsprout Early Reading.
Dr. Kent Johnson founded Morningside Academy in Seattle, Washington in 1980, and currently serves as its Executive Director. Morningside is a laboratory school for elementary and middle school children and youth. Morningside investigates effective curriculum materials and teaching methods, and has provided training and consulting in instruction to over 80 schools and agencies throughout the USA and Canada since 1991. Dr. Johnson has served in all the positions at Morningside, including classroom teacher for 10 years, financial manager, administrator, teacher trainer, school psychologist and school consultant. He has published several seminal papers, chapters and a book about The Morningside Model of Generative Instruction: A general framework for teaching, and a blend of research-based curriculum and teaching methods. Prior to founding Morningside, Dr. Johnson was professor at Central Washington University, director of staff training at the Fernald School in Massachusetts, and instructional designer at Northeastern University in Boston. He received his M.S. (1974) and Ph.D. (1977) in psychology at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst under the mentorship of Drs. Beth Sulzer-Azaroff, Ellen Reese, and John Donahue. He received his B.S. in psychology and sociology from Georgetown University (1973), under the mentorship of Dr. J Gilmour Sherman. He also counts Drs. Fred Keller, Charles Ferster, B. F. Skinner, Susan Markle, John Dewey, Robert Gagne, Siegfried Engelmann, Ogden Lindsey, Israel Goldiamond, Arthur Whimbey, and colleague Joe Layng as major influences on his work. Dr. Johnson is also co-founder of Headsprout, Inc., a Seattle-based company funded by investors to develop web-based, interactive, cartoon-driven instructional programs in reading and other foundation skills. Dr. Johnson enjoys reading philosophy, mysteries, ancient history, psychology, and books about teaching and children. He also enjoys rock, electronic downbeat and ambient music; and talking about politics and public policy.
 
Science and the Big Heart
ELIZABETH HAUGHTON (Haughton Learning Center)
Abstract: The measurement and decision making tools I learned from Dr. Ogden Lindsey changed my professional life. Learning to pinpoint precise outcomes, collect frequency based measures, record data on a Standard Celeration Chart and use data to make decisions has greatly benefited my students. The Child Knows Best and Care Enough To Chart are two of Og’s slogans that gave me guidance when working with challenging learning situations. Here are some of the things I learned by using Og’s measurement technology (then provide descriptions and examples).
Elizabeth Haughton has been an educator for over 35 years, serving students in general education classrooms in public schools, as well as students with special needs at Haughton Learning Center, which she founded in Napa California and serves as its Director. Elizabeth is also a special education consultant to schools and agencies, a professional teacher trainer, and author of several Precision Teaching and fluency-building instructional programs, including phonological coding, rapid automatic naming, mathematics tool skills, and handwriting.
 
 
Symposium #11
Academics in the Real World: A Programmatic Interface Between a University-Based Program and a Large Residential Training Facility for Persons with Mental Retardation
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Stevens 2 (Lower Level)
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Richard G. Smith (University of North Texas)
Abstract: The Behavior Analysis Resource Center is a collaborative program between the Department of Behavior Analysis at the University of North Texas and the Denton State School, a large, residential facility serving persons with developmental disabilities. The interface between these entities presents a range of opportunities and challenges for faculty, students, and service recipients. Meeting the requirements of service provision to a caseload of residents with behavior disorders often conflicts with the traditional goals of academia: teaching and training of students and the conduct of research. This symposium describes the development and current status of a program that strives to balance these responsibilities, providing examples of successes, some challenges, and strategies for the future.
 
Behavior Analysis Resource Center: Training and Education
RICHARD G. SMITH (University of North Texas), Carla M. Smith (University of North Texas), Heather A. Moore (University of North Texas), Caroline Cason Stevens (University of North Texas), Amanda McAllister (University of North Texas), Curtis J. Harris (University of North Texas)
Abstract: In addition to its service and research responsibilities, the Behavior Analysis Resource Center offers opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students to acquire skills in a variety of areas related to the application of behavioral principles in applied settings. Undergraduate students participate in BARC activities either through structured classes or through specially-arranged projects that address their particular interests. Graduate students who wish to participate in BARC’s comprehensive training program progress through a systematic series of training experiences, culminating in supervision of services for a caseload of consumers and completion of a research-based thesis. The various options and opportunities afforded students, as well as the systems that permit and support these options and opportunities, will be discussed.
 
Behavior Analysis Resource Center: Caseload Services
KATY ATCHESON (University of North Texas), Roxanne L. Wolf (University of North Texas), Richard G. Smith (University of North Texas), Amanda McAllister (University of North Texas), Caroline Cason Stevens (University of North Texas), Heather A. Moore (University of North Texas), Curtis J. Harris (University of North Texas), Bryan Shelton (University of North Texas)
Abstract: The role of a behavior analyst managing a caseload for individuals with developmental disabilities includes responsibilities that extend beyond standard psychological/behavioral services. There are many critical services that are provided to consumers, which include assessment, writing and implementing behavior intervention programs, obtaining behavior intervention and human rights committee approvals for the behavior intervention plan, training staff to implement the intervention program, as well as maintenance of staff performance. Additional duties include participation in the interdisciplinary process as pertains to the reduction of problem behaviors, as well as the creation and maintenance of adaptive behaviors. In addition to administrative duties, direct observation of and interaction with residents helps to keep the behavior analyst in contact with important contingencies in clients’ lives. The BARC trains students to provide these services via a system of escalating responsibilities that permits student acquisition of caseload management skills while maintaining a high quality of service provision.
 
Behavior Analysis Resource Center: Specialty Assessment and Treatment Team
AMANDA J. MCALLISTER (University of North Texas), Richard G. Smith (University of North Texas), Katy Atcheson (University of North Texas), Roxanne L. Wolf (University of North Texas), Donnie M. Staff (University of North Texas), Stephen F. Walker (University of North Texas), Michelle S. Greenspan (University of North Texas), Carla M. Smith (University of North Texas)
Abstract: The Behavior Analysis Resource Center offers an array of behavioral services to consumers at a residential facility for adults with developmental disabilities, including a specialty assessment and treatment team. Individuals with maladaptive behaviors at the facility are referred to this team for one of two types of services; assessment or both assessment and treatment for problem behaviors. For individuals with less severe maladaptive behaviors, the team conducts assessments to identify variable(s) maintaining these behaviors and provides treatment recommendations to the interdisciplinary team. For individuals who exhibit maladaptive behaviors of increased severity or high frequency, the team provides extensive assessment of the maladaptive behaviors, as well as the development and evaluation of an intensive behavior management program, as well as caregiver training and follow-up. The organizational processes, benefits and limitations, and case studies illustrating the services offered by the specialty assessment and treatment team will be discussed.
 
Behavior Analysis Resource Center: A Research Overview
CAROLINE CASON STEVENS (University of North Texas), Richard G. Smith (University of North Texas), Amanda J. McAllister (University of North Texas), Heather A. Moore (University of North Texas), Stephen F. Walker (University of North Texas), Bryan S. Lovelace (University of North Texas), Jessica L. Doucette (University of North Texas)
Abstract: The Behavior Analysis Resource Center provides resources for the conduct of a range of research projects. This branch of the BARC permits students to acquire skills to conduct systematic investigations of human behavior in natural and analog settings. BARC attempts to accommodate student interests by providing a research environment and support for investigations that span both basic and applied interests, including studies in anecdotal, descriptive, and experimental analyses, treatments for behavior disorders, preference, habituation, and self-control. The challenges of conducting these activities in the context of an applied service setting, as well as illustrative examples of recent research activities, will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #12
Applied Behavior Analysis in the Treatment of Acquired Brain Injury
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Williford A (3rd floor)
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Michael P. Mozzoni (Timber Ridge Group, Inc.)
Discussant: John M. Guercio (Southern Illinois University)
CE Instructor: Michael P. Mozzoni, Ph.D.
Abstract: This symposium presents methodological data on both children and adults with acquired brain injury treated in 3 post-acute rehabilitation centers. The first study examines the effect of contrived reinforcement contingencies on the short-term recall performance of adults suffering from mnemonic deficits secondary to brain injuries. The second study presents data from fluency based training utilizing relational frame theory in teaching orientation skills in adults. The third study presents fluency based data in the training of children with ABI in an academic setting. Each of these studies offers practical solutions to persistent problems of motivation and skill acquisition.
 
Effects of Contrived Reinforcement Contingencies on Independent Recall Performance of Adults with Acquired Brain Injuries (ABI)
MOLLIE MILLS SHEPPARD (Gulf Coast NeuroRehabilitation Center)
Abstract: Traumatic and acquired brain injuries are often accompanied by deficits in short term and/or long term recall abilities. External memory aids have been researched and their effectiveness documented with developmental disabilities and dementia, but research on improving the mnemonic performance of individuals with brain injuries is lacking. This study examines the effect of contrived reinforcement contingencies on the short-term recall performance of adults suffering from mnemonic deficits secondary to brain injuries. It was found that contrived reinforcement can be a useful tool in training individuals with ABIs to improve independent recall performance.
 
Using Fluency Based Training and Relational Framing to Teach Orientation Skills to Individuals with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)
JAMES L. SOLDNER (UTHCT NeuroRestorative Service), Jeffrey B. Smith (Timber Ridge Ranch)
Abstract: Using a non-current multiple baseline design, fluency based training and relational frame theory technology were utilized in the current study as the primary tools teaching acquisition of orientation skills. Participants in this study were adults with ABI and orientation deficits in the following areas; person, place, or time. Baseline rates of performance were gathered upon admittance to two neurorehabilitation facilities. Subjects were selected to participate based on their inability to identify basic orientation information in their present environment. Fluency training consisted of determining rates of accuracy and speed of fluency coupled with functionally determined stimulus relations to teach transformation of stimulus function within the context of orientation skill acquisition. Preliminary results indicated that fluency training and RFT technology increased accuracy and fluency rates of performance to orientation to produce derived stimulus relations for orientation related information among participants.
 
The Effect of Fluency Training on Math and Reading Skills In Neuropsychiatric Children: A Multiple Baseline Design
MICHAEL P. MOZZONI (Timber Ridge Group, Inc.), Stephanie Hartnedy (University of Arkansas School of Medicine), Yousef Fahoum (University of Arkansas School of Medicine)
Abstract: Fluency (fast and accurate responding) has been found to facilitate the retention, maintenance, endurance, and application of learned skills. Fluency training has been employed effectively in academic, vocational, industrial and rehabilitative settings. Using a multiple baseline design, this study expanded previous applications by targeting academic deficits of children with neurological and psychiatric diagnoses in a residential treatment facility. Total response rates were measured in 60-second timed probes. Academic tool skills increased and error rates decreased for all participants after implementation of fluency training. Implications for improving attention to task and targeting minimum competency skills are discussed, as is determining the role practice plays in increasing fluency rate.
 
 
Symposium #13
Applying Behavior Analysis to Parent Training: Some Recent Findings
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Continental A (1st floor)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Atli F. Magnusson (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Patrick C. Friman (Father Flanagan's Girls and Boys' Town)
CE Instructor: Atli F. Magnusson, M.A.
Abstract: The three papers in this symposium look at parent training and parent implementation in the acquisition of new skills, and the assessment and treatment of challenging behaviors. The first paper compares parents’ performance on teaching simple discrete trials and an activity of daily living to their young child with autism, before and after participating in group training. The training consisted of didactic presentation, role-play, and ongoing review and feedback using videotaped sample exercises assigned as homework. The second paper evaluates the effects of parents conducting functional analyses and treating of food selectivity exhibited by their children. In this study, the authors looked at procedural integrity and treatment effect, as well as generalization and maintenance of treatment. The third paper is on the development of a systematic method for assessing variables associated with parental non-adherence to a treatment protocol, after the parent and child had been discharged from a hospital, in the treatment of pediatric feeding disorders.
 
Videotaped Assessment and Feedback in a Parent Education Group
SUSAN N. LANGER (New England Center for Children), William L. Holcomb (New England Center for Children), June M. Sanchez (New England Center for Children), Ellyn M. South (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Videotaped samples of 20 parents were used to assess their performance on teaching simple discrete trials and an activity of daily living to their young children with autism. Prior to the class, a pretest was conducted in which the parents were videotaped implementing the two acquisition programs. The parents then participated in a 5-week group training consisting of didactic presentation, role-play, and ongoing review and feedback using videotape samples of exercises assigned as homework. A videotaped posttest was then conducted. Dependent measures included the presence/absence of targeted teaching behaviors (i.e., environmental arrangement, correct prompting strategy, and contingent delivery of reinforcement). Data indicate that parents’ teaching performance on the 2 tasks improved after the combination of didactic, role-play, and videotape feedback portions of the training. Interobserver agreement data were collected on 40% of the videotape samples and ranged from 90% to 100%. Discussion centers around the analysis of the impact of the different training components and implications for future research.
 
Effects of Parents as Therapists During Functional Analyses
ADEL C. NAJDOWSKI (University of Nevada, Reno), Kara A. Reagon (Utah State University), Becky Penrod (University of Nevada, Reno), Thomas S. Higbee (Utah State University)
Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of parents conducting functional analyses and treatment of food selectivity exhibited by their children. Experiment 1 evaluated the effects of mothers conducting functional analyses of inappropriate mealtime behaviors. Experiment 2 evaluated the effects of mothers implementing differential reinforcement and escape extinction to treat inappropriate mealtime behaviors, and whether increases in food consumption generalized to untrained foods. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that inappropriate mealtime behaviors were maintained by negative reinforcement, and that mothers conducted functional analyses with high percentages of procedural integrity. Results of Experiment 2 demonstrated that accepting and swallowing nonpreferred foods increased during treatment and generalization probes and that mothers conducted treatment procedures with high percentages of procedural integrity. Results were maintained at a 12-week follow-up.
 
A Systematic Method for Assessing Parental Non-Adherence Following an Intensive Feeding Program: The Parent Adherence Checklist
CHARLES S. GULOTTA (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Tina Sidener (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Peter Girolami (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Kellie A. Hilker (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Ping Wang (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: A number of behavioral procedures have been shown to be efficacious in treating children with pediatric feeding disorders. For those children treated intensively in a hospital setting, training parents to implement the treatment effectively is an integral part of the feeding program. In the current study parent integrity measures were examined at the end of parent training for children admitted for an intensive 8-week treatment and at several points of follow-up. Prior to discharge, parents were trained to implement procedures with 80% or higher procedural integrity. At follow-up, parents’ adherence ranged from as low as 50% to as high as 100% protocol adherence. The purpose of the current study was to develop a systematic method for assessing variables associated with parental non-adherence to a treatment protocol, after the parent and child had been discharged from the hospital. This assessment, based on Allen and Warzak’s (2000) categories of non-adherence, examines variables relevant to establishing operations, response acquisition, consequent events, and stimulus generalization. Results will be discussed in terms of identifying barriers to treatment adherence.
 
 
Symposium #14
Int'l Symposium - Basic and Applied Research on Verbal Behavior and Emergent Relations
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Stevens 3 (Lower Level)
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Caio F. Miguel (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Carol Pilgrim (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
CE Instructor: Caio F. Miguel, Ph.D.
Abstract: Although verbal behavior and stimulus equivalence have evolved as separate areas within behavior analysis, attempts have been made to combine research traditions from these two areas in order to explain emergent (verbal) relations. In the study by Miguel, Petursdottir, Carr, & Michael a category-sort test with pictures was used to assess emergent conditional relations. These relations were indirectly taught via the independent manipulation of children’s tact and receptive discrimination repertoires. Perez-Gonzales, Asenjo, and Williams evaluated a teaching procedure to produce the emergence of “opposite” intraverbal relations by a boy with autism. The procedure involved multiple exemplar training of the intraverbal relations until the novel behavior was observed. Finally, Rosales and Rehfeldt, used a stimulus equivalence procedure involving the relation among pictures, their dictated names and their corresponding text to teach adults with developmental disabilities to use written words to mand for items required to complete a chain.
 
The Role of Verbal Behavior in Stimulus Categorization by Preschool Children
CAIO F. MIGUEL (New England Center for Children), Anna I. Petursdottir (Western Michigan University), James E. Carr (Western Michigan University), John L. Michael (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children would categorize unfamiliar pictures when taught the listener and speaker behaviors separately. A category-sort test was used to assess emergent conditional relations. Category-sort trials consisted of looking at (Test 1) or tacting (Test 2) a sample and selecting the remaining comparisons. In Experiment 1, four children (3-5 yrs.) were taught to tact the category (i.e., north and south) of pictures of six U.S. state maps, and were assessed to see whether they would (1) categorize and (2) select them when hearing their category names (listener behavior). Two of the children categorized the pictures during Test 1 after pairwise tact training. The other two categorized after receiving additional tact training with all pictures grouped together. However, one of them only categorized during Test 2. When children failed to categorize, they also performed poorly on stimulus selection. In Experiment 2, four children (3-5 yrs.) were taught to select pictures when hearing their category names and were assessed to see whether they would (1) categorize and (2) tact them (speaker behavior). One child categorized the pictures during Test 1, and two during Test 2. The other child required additional training with all pictures grouped together. When participants failed to categorize, they also failed to tact the pictures accurately. Taken together, results from Experiment 1 and 2 show that both speaker and listener behaviors have to be present for categorization to occur. Thus, naming seemed to play an important, role in the development of categorizations.
 
Teaching and Emergence of Antonyms in One Child Diagnosed with Autism
LUIS ANTONIO PEREZ-GONZALEZ (University of Oviedo, Spain), Lorena Garcia-Asenjo Asenjo (University of Oviedo, Spain), Gladys Williams (Applied Behavioral Consultant Services, NY)
Abstract: Children with autism and special needs have difficulties to learn antonyms. Often, antonyms are learned during intraverbal training. A type of intraverbal of this sort consists of saying the opposite of a word. Intraverbals of this type are related to one another given that one intraverbal response (i.e., “Hot” in response to “Name the opposite of cold”) may serve as the stimulus for the other intraverbal response (i.e., “Cold” in response to “Name the opposite of hot”) and vice versa. Moreover, the contextual cue “Name …” is the same in the two intraverbals. The purpose of the present research was to explore the emergence of intraverbals of this type. One child with autism learned pairs of intraverbals with different stimuli. Thereafter, he was tested for the emergence of the intraverbals with the elements in the reverse stimulus-response functions. The child did not show the emergence of the intraverbals with the first pairs of intraverbals. Then, we directly taught the inversed relation. After successive cycles of probing and teaching successive pairs of intraverbals the child showed the emergence. Thereafter, he continued to show the emergence with novel pairs of stimuli. These results suggest that repeating cycles of probing and teaching may play an important role in the emergence of intraverbals with the same contextual cue as the taught ones and the elements in the reversed stimulus-response function. Moreover, the procedure serves to promote emergent skills in children with autism.
 
Contriving Transitive Conditioned Establishing Operations to Establish Derived Manding Skills in Adults with Severe Developmental Disabilities
ROCIO ROSALES (Southern Illinois University), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate derived manding skills and derived relations in three adults with severe developmental disabilities by contriving transitive conditioned establishing operations. The researchers evaluated whether a history of reinforced relational responding would result in derived mands for items needed to complete a chained task. Participants were first trained to mand for preferred items using pictures. Participants were then trained to request for items needed to complete a chained task by using pictures. Afterwards, they were taught conditional discriminations between pictures and their dictated names and dictated names and their corresponding text. Finally, the researchers evaluated mands for preferred items using the corresponding text. Preliminary results suggest that this procedure is sufficient for demonstrating derived mands in adults with severe language impairments and developmental disabilities.
 
 
Paper Session #15
Effects of Drugs of Abuse on Timing and Choice
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Lake Ontario (8th floor)
Area: BPH
Chair: Lori Lieving (University of Texas - Houston Health Sciences Center)
 
Effects of Marijuana on the Direction and Variability of Temporal Discrimination in Humans
Domain: Basic Research
LORI LIEVING (University of Texas - Houston Health Science Center), Scott D. Lane (University of Texas - Houston Health Science Center), Don R. Cherek (University of Texas - Houston Health Science Center), Oleg Tcheremissine (University of Texas - Houston Health Science Center), Sylvain Nouvion (University of Texas - Houston Health Science Center)
 
Abstract: Marijuana has been reported to alter the discrimination of time, although the manner in which temporal discrimination is disturbed has not been well characterized. The present study used a psychophysical approach to examine the effects of marijuana on temporal discrimination in humans. Subjects responded under a discrete-trial procedure in which they were required to push one of two buttons depending on the duration of a conditional stimulus (a blue square on a computer monitor). Correct choices (“C” button after a 2-s stimulus; “A” button after a 4-s stimulus) resulted in an increase in session earnings of $0.12. Intermediate durations (probe stimuli between 2 and 4 s) were also presented. Psychophysical functions relating the probability of judging a duration as “long” (4 s) as a function of actual stimulus durations were characterized by measures of central tendency (point of subjective equality, PSE) and variability (Weber fraction, WF). Smoked marijuana (1.1% and 3.89% THC) produced an increase in the PSE (i.e., a bias to judge intervals as short) and the high dose often increased the WF (i.e., increased variability in temporal discriminations).
 
Simultaneous Effects of d-Amphetamine on Choice and Timing in Pigeons
Domain: Basic Research
CHRISTINE E. HUGHES (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), Raymond C. Pitts (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), Randolph C. Grace (University of Canterbury, New Zealand), Anthony P. McLean (University of Canterbury, New Zealand)
 
Abstract: Effects of d-amphetamine on choice and timing were examined in a concurrent-chains with peak-trials procedure. Four pigeons responded under a concurrent-chains schedule with variable-interval (VI) initial links and fixed-interval (FI) 10-s and 20-s terminal links. Approximately 25% of the terminal links were peak trials; trials were 80 s in length and no reinforcer was delivered during the trial. During the initial link, over 3/4 of each pigeon’s responding occurred on the key associated with the FI 10-s schedule. During the peak trials, the peak of the distribution of responses was close to the schedule value. Once performance was stable, a range of doses of d-amphetamine was administered prior to selected sessions. As the dose of d-amphetamine increased, the distribution of responses during the peak trials shifted leftward slightly, especially in the FI 20-s terminal link. The shifts in the response distributions during the peak trials occurred without a substantial change in the initial-link responding. After the dose-effect curve was determined, the terminal-link schedules were changed to FI 20 s and FI 40 s, and the dose-effect curve was redetermined. These data are relevant to theories about choice and timing and to interpretations of drug effects under procedures that involve reinforcement delay.
 
Rapid Acquisition of Preference in Concurrent Chains: Effects of d-Amphetamine on Control by Reinforcement Delay
Domain: Basic Research
RAYMOND C. PITTS (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), We-Min Ta (University of Canterbury, New Zealand), Christine E. Hughes (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), Anthony P. McLean (University of Canterbury, New Zealand), Randolph C. Grace (University of Canterbury, New Zealand)
 
Abstract: Effects of d-amphetamine on choice were examined using a rapid-acquisition procedure similar to that previously described by Grace, Bragason, and McLean (2003). Four pigeons responded under a concurrent-chains schedule with variable-interval (VI) initial links and fixed-interval (FI) terminal links; one terminal-link schedule always was an FI 8 s and the alternative schedule was either an FI 4 s or an FI 16 s (determined pseudorandomly). Under this procedure, the pigeons acquired a preference based upon reinforcement delay within each session. After stable acquisition was obtained, effects of several doses of d-amphetamine were tested. The primary effect of this drug was to attenuate preference for the more immediate reinforcer. That is, d-amphetamine decreased estimates of the sensitivity to reinforcement delay. These data are consistent with previous findings suggesting that stimulant drugs increase self-control choices by attenuating sensitivity to reinforcement delay.
 
 
 
Paper Session #16
Effects of Pre-Reading and Reading Interventions
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Williford C (3rd floor)
Area: EDC
Chair: Tina Vazin (Alabama State University)
 
Effects of Parent Literacy Training on Preschoolers Literacy Skills
Domain: Applied Research
TINA VAZIN (Alabama State University)
 
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if a parent training session designed to teach parents the importance of early literacy skills and strategies to use to make reading enjoyable for children would increase children’s early literacy skills. Twenty parents of four-year-old Head Start children participated in a 2 ½ -hour workshop that included information on the importance of early literacy skills, reading strategies to use with preschoolers and role-playing. Parents kept a record of the books they read each day to their children for 2 weeks following the workshop. The literacy skills of the children were tested prior to the workshop and two weeks after the workshop.
 
Effects of an Early Reading Intervention on the Phoneme-Segmentation and Nonsense-Word Fluency of At-Risk Students
Domain: Service Delivery
SHOBANA MUSTI-RAO (The Ohio State University), Gwendolyn Cartledge (The Ohio State University)
 
Abstract: We used a prevention-based early reading intervention program to provide explicit, intensive, and systematic instruction to a group of first graders identified as at-risk for reading failure and a student with disabilities in an urban school. Phonemic awareness (PA) and letter-sound correspondence skills were our primary dependent variables. Students’ oral reading fluency skills were measured, especially to monitor any gains as a result of developing skills in PA and alphabetic principle. A multiple-baseline across subjects design was used to study the effects of the intervention on the students’ reading skills. Key components of the instructional approach will be discussed. Data collected using an on-going progress monitoring method helped in analyzing the students’ progress in phoneme-segmentation (PSF) and nonsense word fluency (NWF). All target students made substantial gains in PSF and NWF. Findings relative to (1) benchmark performances of target and non-target students, (2) teacher perceptions of instructional effects, and (3) follow-up data of some target students in the beginning of second grade will be presented. Implication for future research and practice for teachers and reading specialists will be discussed.
 
Peer-Mediated Repeated Reading: A Fluency-Building Strategy
Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA L. YURICK (The Ohio State University), Porsha Robinson (The Ohio State University), Gwendolyn Cartledge (The Ohio State University), Ya-yu Lo (The Ohio State University), Trisha Evans (The Ohio State University)
 
Abstract: We conducted three experiments examining the effects of peer-mediated repeated readings on students’ oral reading fluency and comprehension. The intervention consisted of students reading in pairs, alternating paragraphs, for 10 minutes. Students used a scripted correction procedure when errors occurred. Students then participated in a 1-minute timed trial, which was scored for number of words read and number of errors. Comprehension was assessed when students reached the fluency criteria (180 WPM and 10 or fewer errors). Dependent variables were number of words read in 1 minute, reading accuracy, and correct comprehension responses. Experiments 2 and 3 extended the findings of Experiment 1 (5th grade) by implementing the procedure with students in different grade levels (3rd and 4th grade), in different formats (total class and pull-out), and including generalization data. Results indicated that peer-mediated repeated reading improved students’ oral reading rate, reading accuracy, and comprehension.
 
 
 
Symposium #17
CE Offered: BACB
Even More Evidence Against the Overjustification Effect: A Behavioral Analytic Analysis of the Effects of Reinforcement on Intrinsically Motivated Behavior
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Williford B (3rd floor)
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Rebecca A. Barenz (Columbus Organization)
Discussant: Stephen Ray Flora (Youngstown State University)
CE Instructor: Charna Mintz, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium will include three papers regarding the experimental analysis of the effects of reinforcement on intrinsically motivated behavior. Moreover, results will be discussed with respect to future research and implications for practice.

 
The Effects of Expected and Unexpected Reinforcers on Play Behavior: A Behavior Analytic Analysis of the Overjustification Effect
BECKY PENROD (University of Nevada, Reno), Charna Mintz (Columbus Organization), Michele D. Wallace (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of extrinsic reinforcement on intrinsically reinforced behaviors in relation to the overjustification effect. We evaluated the effects of expected and unexpected reinforcers on play behavior. After baseline, reinforcer were delivered based on an increase in play behavior, subsequently extinction was implemented. Results demonstrated that reinforcement (regardless of expectation) increased play behavior and following the implementation of extinction play behavior remained high. Thus these results do not suport the overjustification effect. Results will be discused with respect to future research and with respect to the implications for clinical practice.
 
A Behavior Analytic Analysis of the Effects of Reinforcement on Intrinsically Motivated Academic Performance
CHARNA MINTZ (Columbus Organization), Michele D. Wallace (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of extrinsic reinforcement on intrinsically reinforced behaviors in relation to the overjustification effect. We evaluated the effects of expected and unexpected reinforcers on performance during academic activities. After baseline levels were established, reinforcement was provided for increases in academic performance, subsequently extinction was implemented and levels of academic performance were measured. Results indicate that providing reinforcement (regardless of expectations) increases academic performance and that when extinction is implemented performance maintains. Thus, the results do not support the overjustification effect with respect to academic settings. These results will be discussed with respect to future research and clinical practice.
 
Effect of Reinforcement Schedules on Intrinsic Motivation and the Overjustification Effect
SCOTT W. HARRINGTON (University of Nevada, Reno), Michele D. Wallace (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: This investigation evaluated the effects of different reinforcement schedules (fixed and variable) on intrinsically motivated playground behavior. After baseline levels of playground behavior were established, reinforcement was delivered based on either a fixed or variable ratio 4 schedule. After increases in playground behavior were observed, extinction was implemented. Following extinction, playground behavior maintained at high levels, thus not demonstrating the overjustification effect. Moreover, followup data were obtained at a 2-week followup, were in participants still engaged in higher levels of playground behavior than during baseline. Implications with respect to the suggestion that rewards harm intrinsically motivated behavior will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #18
Implementing Empirically Supported Treatments with Novel Populations: Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Private Dining Room 1 (3rd floor)
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Scott T. Gaynor (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: There is a strong empirical database supporting the use of behavior therapy techniques with adults suffering with depressive symptoms. There is far less efficacy data with children and adolescents, groups for whom the rates of depression are on the rise. Eckshtain and Gaynor will present single-subject data (from 6 children) on the efficacy of Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training with added parent training for children with depressive symptoms. Harris and Gaynor will then present single-subject data (from 5-6 teens) who received Values-based Behavioral Activation for depressive symptoms. The growing prevalence of depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, and impaired psychosocial functioning on college campuses has recently received national (including Congressional) attention. Clore and Gaynor present data from an idiographic assessment technique for identifying fluency with positive and negative self-talk. They then present results of a study comparing the effects of teaching college students with depressive symptoms and low self-esteem skills for disputing negative self-talk (n=9) or increasing positive self-talk (n=9). Finally, Dore et al. present psychosocial and academic outcome data from a study comparing Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (n=10) to a control condition (n=10) for college students who are at risk for becoming or are currently academically probated.
 
Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training for Children Displaying Depressive Symptoms
DIKLA ECKSHTAIN (Western Michigan University), Scott T. Gaynor (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training (PASCET) involves teaching children strategies to improve skills deficits (primary control) and to better cope with adversity (secondary control). The coping strategies address both private and public behaviors of the child. The present study evaluated the efficacy of PASCET plus parent training sessions. Treatment was administered twice a week and included up to 13 individual sessions and 7 sessions with the parents. Six children (average age 10 yrs, 5 females and 1 male), who met inclusion criterion based on a standardized measure of depression, were enrolled. Time-series and pre-, mid-, and post-treatment assessments suggested substantial decreases in depressive symptoms according to both parent and child report. Global measures of social skills, family functioning, and child behavior, were less consistent. Parents reported high satisfaction with the treatment. Results provide support for the efficacy of PASCET and preliminary support for the inclusion of parents to promote generalization and practice of skills that directly improve parent-child relationships and indirectly decrease depressive symptoms.
 
Values-based Behavioral Activation for Adolescents with Depressive Symptoms
AMANDA M. HARRIS (Western Michigan University), Scott T. Gaynor (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Studies investigating cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) have reported it to be more effective than control conditions in the treatment of adolescent depression. However, there is a continuing debate about whether the cognitive components of CBT are actually necessary for producing therapeutic change. Behavioral activation therapy, a treatment that focuses on reducing avoidance and bringing individuals into contact with important sources of reinforcement, has shown encouraging results with depressed adults (see Jacobson et al., 1996). The present study is an investigation of a values-based behavioral activation therapy for adolescents experiencing symptoms of depression. Adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 who met inclusion criteria based on an elevated score on a standardized measure of depression were offered 12 sessions of behavioral activation. Repeated measures of depression, cognitive distortions, and active versus disengaged coping were taken at several pretreatment assessment sessions, prior to each treatment session, at the end of the treatment, and at follow-up. Preliminary data indicate that the adolescents demonstrated a decrease in depressive symptoms while showing an increase in values-focused behaviors and active coping. These results may help extend the efficacy of behavioral activation to depressed adolescents, while also providing additional data relevant to the question of whether activation is sufficient to produce change.
 
Fluency Versus Thought Record Training with College Students Reporting Low Self-Esteem
JAY CLORE (Western Michigan University), Scott T. Gaynor (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: In precision teaching, fluency is defined as fast, well-practiced, and accurate performance. According to cognitive theory, the self-tacts (self-thoughts) of depressed individuals are automatic, but distorted, suggesting a type of fluency in negative, but not adaptive, self-tacting. This notion was tested using a self-thought fluency assessment. Participants wrote as many positive or negative self-thoughts as s/he could in one minute intervals. For non-distressed college students (n=60) the ratio of positive to negative thoughts was 1.5:1, while for distressed college students reporting low self-esteem (n=18) the ratio was less than 1:1. The distressed students were then randomized to 3 training sessions in either (a) evaluating and disputing negative self-thoughts using the thought record, a hallmark technique used in cognitive-behavior therapy or (b) developing fluency with positive self-thoughts using daily 1-min timings with increasing numbers of positive self-thoughts. Both groups showed significant improvements in self-esteem, distess, and depression. The Fluency group showed a significant increase in positive self-thoughts compared to those in the Thought Record condition, while negative self-thoughts slightly decreased across groups. Statistical trends suggested that positive thoughts became more believable and negative thoughts less believable across treatments. Fluency training appears as effective as the technique drawn from the empirically supported cognitive-behavior therapy.
 
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Academically Struggling College Students
DAWN J. DORE (Western Michigan University), R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University), Amy E. Naugle (Western Michigan University), Scott T. Gaynor (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The transition to college is often rich with stress from social, academic and emotional sources. Difficulty managing these stressors is evident in student reports of depression, anxiety and isolation. As emotional factors are correlated with poorer academic performance, it is hypothesized that the academic struggles of some college students may reflect psychological distress. As such, interventions for this population may need to target distress rather than exclusively targeting academic skills. Data from a previous study by Wilson et al (2001) using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) showed promising results with this population. The current study uses a similar protocol and attempts to extend the previous research by utilizing a larger treatment sample (N=10) and a control group (N=10). Participants (20% male; mean age 19.3 years) completed three assessment batteries including measures of academic skills and psychological symptoms. GPA was compared at post-treatment and one semester follow-up. Results suggest modest differences between groups, primarily on measures of motivation. The need for improved treatment integrity measures as well as suggestions about the focus and components of treatment for academically struggling college students will be discussed.
 
 
Paper Session #19
Instructional Practices for Undergraduate Teaching
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Private Dining Room 2 (3rd floor)
Area: EDC
Chair: Janet Ellis (University of North Texas)
 
Differential Effects of Cooperative Learning Contingencies on the Exam Scores of High-, Average-, and Low-Performing Undergraduates
Domain: Applied Research
ERIN E. CARROLL (University of Tennessee), Briana L. Hautau (University of Tennessee), Robert Lee Williams (University of Tennessee)
 
Abstract: Students (N = 365) in different sections of a large human-development course participated in the study. Their scores on computer-scored multiple-choice exams across three units in the course served as the dependent measure. The independent variable consisted of two cooperative-learning contingencies attached to exam performance, with the first contingency awarding all the bonus credit on a group basis and the second contingency awarding part of the credit on a group basis and part on an individual basis. Each of the contingencies was applied in a repeated-measures design, with baseline, treatment, and reversal phases. The effects of the combined group and individual contingency tended to be more favorable than the group contingency alone for all performance groups, particularly for high achievers. Under the group contingency, high performers’ scores decreased in the treatment phase; whereas under the group plus individual contingency, high performers’ scores remained high (largely attributable to greater individual accountability). Analysis of student responses to an open-ended survey following the cooperative-learning experience revealed that high performers attached greater importance to the bonus credit and perceived themselves more as group leaders under the combined group and individual contingency than under the group contingency (inter-rater agreement for the qualitative classifications was 94%).
 
Effects of Balancing Trials, Using Antecedent Prompts and Request-Contingent Feedback on Complex Task Retention
Domain: Applied Research
JANET ELLIS (University of North Texas), Sandy Magee (University of North Texas)
 
Abstract: The current investigation is a follow-up to a previously reported study indicating error-correction consequences increased errors and decreased retention rates as compared to trial-and-error. Questions raised included effects of: a) balancing total number of reinforced trials across groups, b) using antecedent (vs. postcedent) prompts, and c) delivering error-correction feedback contingent on trainee request rather than errors. Participants are undergraduate behavior analysis majors learning a very complex Japanese word/phrase receptive identification task. Data collection is currently underway and results will be compared to previous findings (listed above). [86]
 
 
 
Paper Session #20
Issues in OBM Service Delivery
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Joliet (3rd floor)
Area: OBM
Chair: Charles R. Crowell (University of Notre Dame)
 
Do Companies Really Know Who Their High Performers Are?
Domain: Service Delivery
CHARLES R. CROWELL (University of Notre Dame)
 
Abstract: A project will be described in which we asked independent subsidiaries of a multinational company to select samples of both “high” and “average” sales performers using traditional criteria related to manager evaluations and percentages of sales goals achieved. Trained observers accompanied the selected sales people into the field for the purpose of recording target behaviors and outcomes occurring in their interactions with customers. Key behaviors of both sales people and customers were targeted. Throughout this process, observers were blind to the subsidiary’s classifications of the sales people with whom they worked. After the process was completed, observers were asked to classify each sales person with whom they worked in terms of whether that person exhibited predominately a “product-oriented” or “customer-oriented” behavioral profile in their interactions with customers. Specific criteria and examples were provided so that observers were able to make these classifications with a high degree of reported confidence. Results indicated that customer-oriented sales people elicited more positive customer behaviors and outcomes during sales interactions than did those who were product-oriented. Contrary to what might be expected, however, there was low agreement between the respective classifications of sales people as “high” or “average” and as customer- or product-oriented. Repeating this process across several subsidiaries, the same general pattern of findings was obtained, with classification agreement scores ranging from 30% to 50%. These findings indicated that significant numbers of those who adopted a highly successful behavioral profile in sales interactions were not being recognized by their organization as high performers, and vice versa.
 
Getting Results in Today's Business
Domain: Applied Research
JUDY JOHNSON (Continuous Learning Group)
 
Abstract: As we apply behavior analysis to the business world, we are constantly challenged to translate the laws of behavior into easy, quick, interesting fixes for day-to-day business problems. Through all of our efforts, behavior has become a common word in business- espoused by all the major consulting firms. Organizations are becoming more familiar with technical terms such as antecedents, consequences, shaping and reinforcement. The challenge that remains ahead of us is helping clients demonstrate hard results. In a recent initiatives applying behavior analysis to three different organizations, business leaders demonstrated significant correlations between changes in critical path behaviors and the associated business results. The methodology, as well as the results will be discussed.
 
Inside the IRS:It's Not Just the Tax Code; It's the Missing Instructional Design
Domain: Applied Research
MARILYN B. GILBERT (Performance Engineering Group)
 
Abstract: This paper will describe the current training given to tax collectors, and show how a skillful performance analyst could save the government $ millions by developing four products: 1. A Table of Contents for the 40,000 pages of reference materials, based on standards of usability and performance analysis. 2. A set of procedures for handling prototype incoming telephone calls. 3. Simulated prototype calls for training and practice. 4. A set of job aids to reference such details as addresses of service centers and limits for POAs, lawyers, and other tax preparers. The purpose of this paper is to encourage skilled performance analysts to apply their talents to government agencies.
 
 
 
Symposium #21
Performance Engineering to Achieve Sustained Consumer Health
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Marquette (3rd floor)
Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Guy S. Bruce (APEX Consulting)
Discussant: John Austin (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: Guy S. Bruce, Ed.D.
Abstract: Performance Engineering is the application of Behavior Analysis to improve human performance so that individuals & organizations can achieve valuable outcomes with an acceptable return on investment. This session will describe the application of performance engineering to improve the health of people with retardation. The process of performance engineering includes pinpointing performance problems worth solving, analyzing their causes, recommending worthwhile solutions, solving the problem, and evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of the solutions.
 
Applied Behavior Analysis from the Perspective of the Contractor
JAMES KEEFE (Warren Achievement, Inc.)
Abstract: This presentation will offer the contractor’s perspective on the use of behavior analytic services by community agency to implement a special project to improve the diet and exercise habits of people with developmental disabilities. It will discuss the problems and benefits.
 
Performance Engineering: Application of Behavior Analysis to Solve Human Performance Problems
GUY S. BRUCE (APEX Consulting)
Abstract: Performance Engineering is the application of Behavior Analysis to improve human performance so that individuals & organizations can achieve valuable outcomes with an acceptable return on investment. This paper will provide an overview of the performance engineering process for solving human performance problems. The process of performance engineering includes pinpointing performance problems worth solving, analyzing their causes, recommending worthwhile solutions, solving the problem, and evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of the solutions.
 
Performance Engineering to Achieve Sustained Consumer Health
GUY S. BRUCE (APEX Consulting), John W. Eshleman (APEX Consulting)
Abstract: This presentation will describe the application of performance engineering to help people with retardation achieve sustained health. We will describe how the PARSE process (Pinpoint, Analyze, Recommend, Solve, and Evaluate) was used to produce changes in eating and exercise and the resultant changes in consumer health measures.
 
 
Panel #22
Professional Development Series: Internship Programs in Behavior Analysis
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Private Dining Room 3 (3rd floor)
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jennifer Mays (The Institute for Effective Education)
KEITH D. ALLEN (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
DANIEL GOULD (New England Center for Children)
MICHAEL L. HANDWERK (Father Flanagan's Boys' Home)
SUNGWOO KAHNG (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Most job indexes predict that the behavioral services field will continue to grow over the next ten years. While this is great news for those working in the field, it suggests a growing challenge to students about to graduate and enter the job market. Specifically, it suggests that the plague of graduates with top-notch educations and little-to-no practical experience will continue to spread. In order to help slow this epidemic and to educate ABA’s student members on the opportunities that are available to them while working towards their degrees, this panel discussion will highlight the internship programs available at four superb service locations: the Kennedy Krieger Institute, Girls and Boys Town, the New England Center for Children, and the Munroe-Meyer Institute. This is a student committee sponsored event.
 
 
Symposium #23
Recent Advances in the Analysis of Gambling Behavior
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Boulevard B (2nd floor)
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Charles A. Lyons (Eastern Oregon University)
Discussant: Charles A. Lyons (Eastern Oregon University)
Abstract: This symposium will address how issues related to verbal behavior and the matching law affect gambling behavior.
 
Verbal Repertoires That Predict Gambling Behavior: The Illusion of Control
W. SCOTT WOOD (Drake University), Maria M. Clapham (Drake University)
Abstract: Research has demonstrated the presence of several erroneous beliefs and misunderstandings about the nature of games of chance among gamblers. Research also suggests that one particular erroneous belief, the illusion of control, is perhaps the strongest trait predictor of gambling. In this investigation, there is a specific focus on the predictability of gambling behavior based on an individual's belief, as expressed on a trait assessment instrument, about his/her ability to predict or control the outcome of games of chance. The strength of this variable is assessed and correlated with the frequency and amount of gambling behavior in sample populations of college students, adults and in-treatment problem gamblers.
 
A Single-Subject Approach to Investigating Payback Probability and Win Rate
ANDREW E BRANDT (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Weatherly and Brandt (2004), using both within-subject and between-groups design experiments investigated the effects of payback probability (PP) and credit value on the behavior of non-pathological gamblers (as determined by the South Oaks Gambling Screen) while playing a computer-based simulated slot machine. PP is the net outcome of games of chance and is represented as the ratio between the total credits won divided by the total number of credits bet (across some number of trials). The authors report the manipulation of PP had no statistically significant effect on any measure of gambling behavior. The following experiments sought to extend these findings. The goal of Experiment 1 was to replicate the findings of Weatherly and Brandt (2004) using a single-subject design. In Experiment 1, three participants were exposed to four levels of PP (0.5, 0.75, 0.95, and 1.10) twice, while playing a computer-based simulated slot machine. Experiment 2 was designed to investigate the effects of win rate (WR) on measures of gambling. WR refers to the density of winning trials that occur throughout a set of gambling trials, and can be represented as the ratio between the total number of winning trials and the total number of losing trials. Using a single-subject design, three participants experienced three levels of WR (0.5, 0.15, and 0.25) twice, while playing a computer-based simulated slot machine. Self-report measures were obtained regarding the participant’s strategies and perceptions of the task in both experiments. Preliminary results suggest that humans may be sensitive to PP. In addition, all participants have reported forming rules that dictated the manner in which they played the slot simulation. Such rule generation may play a crucial role in understanding the effects of PP and WR.
 
Foraging for a Win: Melioration or Optimal Foraging?
JUSTIN ALBRECHTSEN (University of Northern Iowa), Dustin Daugherty (University of Northern Iowa), Otto H. Maclin (University of Northern Iowa)
Abstract: Optimal foraging involves prey selection where the organism maximizes the overall amount of reinforcement derived from the foraging. On the other hand, melioration involves the decrease in reinforcement relative to local rates of reinforcement rather than overall reinforcement. The research presented here examines optimal foraging and melioration in slot machine gambling using a dual monitor preference paradigm. Participants will have access to two slot machines controlled by one computer using a progressive ratio schedule. In a second study a change over delay was added. Results are discussed in terms of the contingencies set in a casino environment.
 
 
Symposium #24
Service Delivery Models for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and their Families: Providing Services Across Home, Community and School Settings
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Stevens 5 (Lower Level)
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Linda S. Meyer (Alpine Learning Group)
Discussant: Linda S. Meyer (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: There is much agreement among educators, families and clinicians that services provided within the framework of applied behavior analysis is beneficial in addressing the needs of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, there are many questions regarding the relative benefit or effectiveness of various service delivery models. Decisions regarding the selection of service are often bound by the limitations set by the public school district and the financial resources of the family. The purpose of this symposium is to provide a description of 3 different service delivery models for children with ASD and their families. The unique aspect of this symposium is that all three models provide services to children and their families in the home/community. As well, each model is affiliated with a center-based program or collaborates with the child’s public school program. Thus, the service providers all face individualized challenges particular to their service delivery model with regard to curriculum development, behavior assessment and treatment, programming for generalization, parent participation, staffing needs and the like. Educators and clinicians will benefit from the discussion regarding the strengths and needs of each model and the problem solving process involved in ameliorating their own challenges.
 
ABA Outreach Services for Children with Autism: A Presentation of a Comprehensive and Effective Service Model
JUDITH L. PALAZZO (Connecticut Center for Child Development, Inc.), Erik A. Mayville (Connecticut Center for Child Development, Inc.)
Abstract: The Connecticut Center for Child Development Outreach Program model, providing home-based programs and consultative services for children with autism and their families, will be presented. A complete description of the model and its services for children with autism including intake assessment procedures, staffing, program development, and training will be outlined. Common problems concerning this type of model including difficulties with hiring, training and maintaining staff, training parents, and establishing and maintaining a cohesive educational team will be addressed. A sample of a consumer satisfaction survey will be presented.
 
Some Unique Challenges Providing Services Across Home and School Settings
ESTRELLA EDITH WELLS (ESU Burlington County Special Services), Rebecca L. Null (ESU Burlington County Special Services)
Abstract: There are a great many clinical challenges involved in providing home-based consultation services for individuals with autism and their families. Parent training and the creation of specific programming to promote generalization are just two of the familiar challenges facing clinicians and special educators. This presentation will include an overview and description of a county public school agency that currently provides home programming to approximately 48 developmentally delayed children. Therapeutic services in the home include academic programming, functional skill-building relevant to the home and community, pre-vocational and vocational skill development, behavior interventions, behavior management techniques, as well as the generalization of learned skills across environments. Somewhat unique to this agency is that the number of instructional hours can vary from 4-15 hours per week with only limited involvement by certain primary school service providers. This presentation will describe how services can be arranged to coordinate the home and school programs through observations, meetings, and monthly clinics. Student progress will be reviewed and tracked through the implementation of a specific form and parent training protocol designed to encourage effective generalization of skills.
 
Home Consultation Services for Families of the Ivymount Autism Program: An Extension of the Center-Based Program Addressing Behavior, Skill Acquisition and Generalization
LISA MARIE ANGELLO (The May Institute), Carrie Clark (Ivymount Autism Program), Tamara J. Marder (Ivymount Autism Program), Susan E. Holt (Ivymount Autism Program)
Abstract: Many families of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders struggle with creating greater independence for their child at home, increasing much needed self-care skills, or managing challenging behavior. Additionally, generalization of skills mastered in the classroom to the home/community is often limited. Home Consultation Services were designed to provide individualized support to families of a center-based autism program. Consultation is family-directed and all services are designed to be conducted in a collaborative manner to work toward the ultimate goal of facilitating independence for students across settings. Three types of consultation services are available and include a) Individualized Consultation, b) the Proactive Generalization Program, and 3) the Workshop Program. Services are based on the most contemporary “best practice” approaches to assessment, education and treatment and are delivered through a behavioral model of consultation. The presentation will focus on program development, a description of the service delivery model as well as each type of service available, and report data regarding demand, service utilization, parent participation, and parent satisfaction.
 
 
Symposium #25
Teaching Social Behavior: Historical Setbacks and Current Progress
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Continental C (1st floor)
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jonathan J. Tarbox (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Social behavior is of central importance to psychology in general and continues to be one of the more challenging aspects of behavioral intervention for children with autism. This symposium will present a variety of behavior analytic work in the area of social behavior. The session will begin with a historical/conceptual analysis of the lack of work in the area of social behavior in the field of behavior analysis. The two subsequent papers will present recent work in the development of teaching programs for establishing social behavior in children with autism. The symposium will conclude with a presentation on a novel method of measuring and analyzing social interactions.
 
Why Behavior Analysis Has Ignored Complex Human Behavior
JONATHAN J. TARBOX (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The field of behavior analysis currently has very little to say regarding complex human behavior. Criticisms from both within and outside of the behavior analytic community rightly point to a grievous lack of development in behavioral work in complex human behavior. Human activities such as thinking, imagining, perspective taking, and complex social interactions have often received either cursory treatments consisting of nonhuman analogues or are ignored entirely. Consequently, psychological work in these areas is dominated almost entirely by cognitive psychology. It is time for the behavior analytic field to meet Skinner’s early 20th century goal of extending our science of psychology to complex human behavior, including that involved in social interaction. This paper will trace the historical and philosophical roots of our field’s inability and unwillingness to address complex human behavior, will outline some encouraging developments in recent decades, and will suggest potential directions for future work in this area.
 
Teaching Complex Social Behavior: The CARD Social Curriculum
LISA BROWNFIELD (Center for Autism and Related Disorders), Jonathan J. Tarbox (University of Nevada, Reno), Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders)
Abstract: The remediation of social impairment in autism remains one of the most challenging efforts in early intervention. While a variety of interventions have been successful in teaching specific social skills such as social greetings or turn-taking in play, instruction in more subtle and complex social skills, such as engaging in socially appropriate deception, has proven difficult. In an effort to address the breadth of human social behavior, we have identified a variety of social behaviors, based on developmental norms, as targets for teaching complex social behavior, and structured a curriculum into three core areas. The current presentation identifies and describes specific skill targets. Teaching methods will also be described within the context of a case presentation, demonstrating the training, acquisition, and generalization of new social skills.
 
Teaching Social Interaction/Play Skills to Children with Autism
MARY ANN POWERS (STARS School)
Abstract: Teaching social and play skills to children with autism has often been accomplished by using peer models. Generalization and maintenance of skills learned often times are dependent upon the continued presence and intervention of the peer models. Two case studies will focus on teaching children with autism to play and socially interact without the use of peer models. The first case study will focus on teaching interactive toy play to young children with autism (ages 5-7 years). The second case study will focus on teaching other children with autism (ages 8-10 years) conflict resolution and/or problem solving during social interactions.
 
We All Know It When We See It, but What is Appropriate Child Social Behavior?
KENNETH MACALEESE (University of Nevada, Reno), Patrick M. Ghezzi (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Teaching appropriate child social behavior may one of the most difficult tasks parents, teachers, and other service providers are faced with in teaching children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. The present talk will begin with a brief history of the origins of how social behavior has been defined, analyzed, and treated. Criticisms of the analyses of child social behavior will be offered leading to a review of one method of analyzing child social behavior developed by Bijou, Ghezzi, and colleagues (1986, 1987, 1988, 1991) which focuses on the referential interaction as the unit of analysis.
 
 
Symposium #26
Theoretical Perspectives on ACT with Asperger's Syndrome and Mental Retardation Populations
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Stevens 4 (Lower Level)
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Catherine H. Adams (University of Mississippi)
Discussant: John J. Pokrzywinski (Arlington Development Center)
Abstract: Developmental disabilities can be difficult conditions to which to provide psychological services. Therapy with these individuals typically focuses on increasing their ability to function in society and improving their quality of life. Recent work in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy has focused on contributing to the services provided to this population. The purpose of this collection of presentations is to discuss treatment from an ACT perspective with two relevant conditions: Asperger’s Syndrome and Mental Retardation.
 
Asperger’s Disorder: An ACT Perspective
CHRISTOPHER MCCURRY (University of Washington)
Abstract: Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in the number of young people diagnosed along the Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) spectrum. As such, individuals with Asperger’s Disorder are coming to the attention of educators and clinicians. Common presenting problems include peer social difficulties, conflicts with adults stemming from a variety of issues (e.g., inflexibility), academic failure, as well as anger, depression and anxiety. This paper will suggest three areas in which Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) can provide a useful model for both conceptualizing and treating the unique pattern of behaviors displayed by children and young adults diagnosed with Asperger’s Disorder: function over form, precision and scope, and literality.
 
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Asperger’s Syndrome: A Case Conceptualization
JONATHAN WEINSTEIN (University of Mississippi), Kelly G. Wilson (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: Children with Asperger’s Syndrome are widely viewed as having deficits in the areas of social functioning and communication. Experiences of repeated failure in these areas can result in the development of symptoms commonly associated with mood and anxiety disorders. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy can provide a helpful context from which to conduct the remediation of social, communication, and academic skills deficits. Two cases involving academic and social skill deficits will be presented.
 
Using ACT with Mentally Retarded Individuals
CATHERINE H. ADAMS (University of Mississippi), Laura Ely (University of Mississippi), Kelly G. Wilson (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: In the past, Mental Retardation has been a difficult condition to treat. Although there is no method by which to relieve the condition or its symptoms, many therapies focus on skills training, improving quality of life, and increased functioning for these individuals (AAMR, 2002). Recent efforts in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy have focused on work with this population. Some therapists have found difficulty in this work due to the abstract metaphors and concepts used in typical ACT treatment. From these difficulties has arisen creativity in making ACT applicable to this population. For example, an ACT-oriented horticultural therapy group is currently developing with a group of individuals diagnosed with Mental Retardation. The group will focus on using the act of gardening as a metaphor for the act of life living. This presentation will discuss both theoretical perspectives from an ACT viewpoint and creative alterations to typically used ACT components.
 
 
Symposium #27
Treatment Outcome for Children with Autism: Longitudinal Treatment Comparisons, Cost-Benefit Analyses, and Measurement Issues
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Continental B (1st floor)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Gerald E. Harris (University of Houston, Texas Young Autism Project)
Discussant: Gerald E. Harris (University of Houston, Texas Young Autism Project)
CE Instructo