Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

34th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2008

Program by Day for Tuesday, May 27, 2008

Manage My Personal Schedule


Business Meeting #494
Behavior Analyst Certification Board: Introduction & Application
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Williford C
Chair: Christine L. Ratcliff (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Presenting Authors:
This meeting will cover important components of the BACB, including information on Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) and Board Certified Associate Behavior Analyst (BCABA) credentials; eligibility requirements; approved course sequences; examination administration; and applying for examination. The presentation will also offer information regarding BACB growth and development, as well as future initiatives planned by the BACB. Time will be provided for participant questions and discussion with the presenter. This meeting is intended for individuals who want basic information on the BACB or are planning to become certified.
Business Meeting #495
Chicago Association for Behavior Analysis
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Williford A
Chair: Charles T. Merbitz (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Presenting Authors:
CABA welcomes all members and persons desiring to join CABA to the CABA Business Meeting. We will review activities of 2007 and plans for 2008.
Business Meeting #496
Health, Sport and Fitness SIG Meeting
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Chair: Michael A. Kirkpatrick (Wheeling Jesuit University)
Presenting Authors:
To welcome conference attendees interested in behavior analysis and health, sport, and fitness, and to conduct the business of the special interest group. Anyone interested in this area should attend. Organizing collaborations and projects may be part of the agenda.
Business Meeting #497
Nevada Association for Behavior Analysis
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Chair: Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno)
Presenting Authors:
This meeting is open to all past, present and prospective members of the Nevada Association for Behavior Analysis (NABA). We shall look back on our NABA '07 conference, review NABA's current status, and plan for NABA's future.
Paper Session #498
International Paper Session - Behavior Analysis and Sports
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Williford B
Area: EDC
Chair: Josh Holt (University of Southampton and Southampton Football Club Academy)
Building Fluency of the Non-Dominant Foot in English Academy Soccer Players and the Application to Game Play.
Domain: Applied Research
JOSH HOLT (University of Southampton and Southampton Football), Gary Kinchin (University of Southampton), Gill Clarke (University of Southampton), Phillip Ward (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Participants in this study were six 11- to 12-year-old male soccer players and members of a professional football club academy in England. The effects of fluency building practice, self-monitoring and goal setting on the development of three techniques (passin turning and juggling) with the non-dominant foot (NDF) and the subsequengeneralisation to game play was assessed. Fluency building involved five 30-sec time trials per session and was conducted on the three techniques in turn using an adapted multiple baseline design. For passing, the intervention comprised three phases: (a) fluency building practice, (b) practice with self-monitoring and (c) with goal setting. The dependent variables in the game were sending the ball, turning with the ball and receiving the ball in the air with the NDF. Results show that self monitoring, recording and charting made a substantive improvement to passing fluency while the effects of goal setting was less clear due to the lack of a significant consequence for goal attainment. Four out of six players performed more sends in the game with their NDF and accuracy improved following fluency practice supported by contingent coach praise. Fluency building had a limited effect on selection and execution of NDF turns and no effect on aerial control.
The Effects of Goal Setting, Individual and Group Contingencies on Learning and Effort in Practice by Young, Talented Soccer Players.
Domain: Applied Research
JOSH HOLT (University of Southampton and Southampton Football), Gill Clarke (University of Southampton), Gary Kinchin (University of Southampton), Phillip Ward (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Participants in this study were six 11- to 12-year-old male soccer players and members of a professional football club academy in England. The effects of fluency building practice, self-monitoring and goal setting on the development of three techniques (passing, turning and juggling) with the non-dominant foot (NDF) and the subsequent generalisation to game play was assessed. Fluency building involved five 30-sec time trials per session and was conducted on the three techniques in turn using an adapted multiple baseline design. For passing, the intervention comprised three phases: (a) fluency building practice, (b) practice with self-monitoring and (c) with goal setting. The dependent variables in the game were sending the ball, turning with the ball and receiving the ball in the air with the NDF. Results show that self monitoring, recording and charting made a substantive improvement to passing fluency while the effects of goal setting was less clear due to the lack of a significant consequence for goal attainment. Four out of six players performed more sends in the game with their NDF and accuracy improved following fluency practice supported by contingent coach praise. Fluency building had a limited effect on selection and execution of NDF turns and no effect on aerial control.
Invited Tutorial #499
CE Offered: BACB
Tutorial: A Molar View of Behavior
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Grand Ballroom
Area: TPC; Domain: Theory
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: William M. Baum, Ph.D.
Chair: Sam Leigland (Gonzaga University)
Presenting Author: WILLIAM M. BAUM (University of California, Davis)

Two propositions about behavior seem uncontroversial: (a) all behavior takes time; and (b) all behavior entails choice. The first, because it implies that duration is universal, suggests that all behavior is measurable on the scale of time. The second, which arises from the recognition that every situation allows the occurrence of more than one activity, suggests that all behavior may be viewed as the allocation of time among activities. Every activity is composed of parts that are other activities of lesser time scale and is also a part of an activity on a more extended time scale. The parts of every allocation function together to produce results which accompany or are correlated with the activity. Every activity-part produces such results and contributes to the whole results, which may be greater than the sum of the part-results. The time allocations inherent in activities are shaped by phylogenetically important events (PIEs), both as results and as inducers of behavior. An activity is defined by its results, the job it gets done. Results at different time scales sometimes conflict with one another, in the sense that local results may be higher or lower in value than extended results. These conflicts lead either to impulsiveness or self-control, depending on whether the resolution favors local or extended control. This molar view allows us to re-cast many familiar concepts, such as reinforcement, punishment, stimulus control, and verbal behavior.

WILLIAM M. BAUM (University of California, Davis)
Dr. William M. Baum received his A.B. in psychology from Harvard College in 1961. Originally a biology major, he switched into psychology after taking courses from B. F. Skinner and R. J. Herrnstein in his freshman and sophomore years. He returned to Harvard University for graduate study in 1962, where he was supervised by Herrnstein and received his Ph.D. in 1966. He spent the year 1965-66 at Cambridge University, studying ethology at the Sub-Department of Animal Behavior. From 1966 to 1975, he held appointments as post-doctoral fellow, research associate, and assistant professor at Harvard University. He spent two years at the NIH Laboratory for Brain, Evolution, and Behavior, and then accepted an appointment in psychology at University of New Hampshire in 1977. He retired from there in 1999. He currently has an appointment as Associate Researcher at University of California – Davis and lives in San Francisco. His research concerns choice, molar behavior-environment relations, foraging, and behaviorism. He is the author of a book, Understanding Behaviorism: Behavior, Culture, and Evolution.
Paper Session #500
Verbal Behavior and Instruction
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Stevens 4
Area: VRB
Chair: Melinda Sota (Florida State University and Headsprout)
Class Participation in Large Undergraduate Courses.
Domain: Applied Research
ROBERT LEE WILLIAMS (University of Tennessee), Katherine R. Krohn (University of Tennessee), Lisa N. Foster (University of Tennessee, Knoxville)
Abstract: The study determined if self-recording of one’s comments in class versus self-recording plus receiving a small amount of course credit for commenting in class (up to two comments per class session) would have a differential effect on the number of students who participated in class discussion. Students recorded on a 3 by 5 note card each comment they made in class immediately after making the comment. They put their names and dates on the cards and submitted them to the instructor at the conclusion of each class session. Two external observers also recorded student comments on selected days during the course and their records were compared to student records. The study was conducted in six large sections (n = approximately 55 students per section) of an undergraduate human development course, which had the same content, format for class discussion, and assessment procedures in all sections. Students had a copy of the instructor notes prior to class and were encouraged to ask questions about those notes during class. Plus, the instructor asked numerous questions to probe students’ level of understanding of the instructor notes. The treatment conditions were sequenced within the framework of a reversal design.
Approaches to Vocabulary Acquisition: Issues in Instructional Design and Assessment.
Domain: Applied Research
MELINDA SOTA (Florida State University and Headsprout)
Abstract: Vocabulary is an essential component of comprehension tasks involving new words. To understand the meaning of a word is to respond to that word across multiple stimulus contexts in ways that match those of the verbal community. Instructional procedures designed to teach vocabulary must produce changes in an individual’s verbal repertoire that indicate the meaning of a word has been learned. Research into how children acquire vocabulary words in the natural environment and the laboratory may suggest new procedures for teaching vocabulary. This presentation will review some of the literature in the area of vocabulary learning. What it means to understand the meaning of a word and implications for assessment will be discussed. Where possible, behavior analytic interpretations of the literature will be provided. Finally, procedures from the behavior analytic laboratory and instructional design that may be used to create new approaches to vocabulary instruction will be examined.
Paper Session #501
Social Skills Groups, Instruction and Peer Tutoring
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Area: AUT
Chair: Nancy Wagner (ABA Academy)
Social Skills Groups for Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Domain: Applied Research
Abstract: Children with the diagnosis of an Autism Spectrum Disorder have difficulty spontaneously developing social skills in the natural environment. This deficit greatly affects their ability to develop relationships and learn from their peers, thus impacting the long term outcomes for social success. Curriculums targeting specific skills have proven to be effective in ameliorating these deficits with preschool children. The language delays associated with ASD create additional challenges for the clinician, but working with small groups of children and targeting specific skills through games and play can create a fun and effective learning environment. This presentation provides practical ideas for implementation of social skills groups for preschool children with significant language and social skills deficits. Specific games and ideas are covered as well as lessons learned from working with this population. Emphasis is placed on ensuring skills taught in a center based program generalize to the natural environment. Including siblings provides natural models and enhances generalization of these skills to the child’s social environments. Pretest, post-test, a multiple baseline and take home data sheet samples provide information necessary to target and analyze progress.
A Model for Delivering Effective Social Skills Instruction in Schools.
Domain: Applied Research
KRISTA SMABY (Las Lomitas Elementary School District), Grace Medina Chow (Las Lomitas Elementary School District)
Abstract: Qualitative impairments in social interaction are a defining characteristic of autism. Educators in public schools face the formidable task of delivering effective social skills instruction to their students with limited time and resources. This paper will discuss a delivery model that has been successfully implemented in a public school district. Data on the progress of the students towards their individual goals will be presented. Program design, curriculum development and data collection methods will also be addressed.
The Role of Peer Tutoring on the Acquisition of Verbal Operants.
Domain: Applied Research
Abstract: I present an experiment with 2 children with developmental disabilities that identify how peer tutoring with typically developing peers can function as a procedure to teach children to emit verbal operants with peers in play settings using a multiple baseline design. The dependent variable consisted of the number of verbal operants emitted between peers in play settings (90-100% interobserver agreement).The results showed a change in level of the emission of verbal operants in comparing baseline to treatment sessions across both participants across all operants. Furthermore the results show a generalization of the emission of verbal operants to non-experimental peers.
Paper Session #503
International Paper Session - Emotion, Self-esteem and Phobic Responses
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Stevens 3
Area: AUT
Chair: Jennifer Sweeney (Kent State University)
Enhancing Language Acquisition Skills for Students across Multiple Disabilities: A Comparison of Two Instructional Strategies.
Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER SWEENEY (Kent State University), Julie Goldyn (Kent State University), Brian Friedt (Kent State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide participants with information about teaching language skills, specifically emotion identification, to children with disabilities. This paper will include: (a) a brief review of the literature focusing on the language acquisition skills of individuals instructed with discrete trial training; (b) a discussion about teaching language skills with multiple or single exemplars; (c) presentation of a case study; and (d) recommendations for consulting with parents, educators, and school-based personnel about enhancing functional communication. The case study will describe an alternating treatment design employed with students of various ages and disabilities. Participants were taught to identify emotions with discrete trial methodology involving one exemplar in the first treatment and multiple exemplars in the second treatment. Differences in the language acquisition rate, generalization across people and stimuli, and maintenance of skills will be addressed. Participants will gain knowledge and skills related to designing, implementing, and monitoring strategies to develop and enhance functional communication in applied settings for individuals with autism.
Self-Understanding in Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome.
Domain: Applied Research
XIUCHANG HUANG (Duquesne University), John J. Wheeler (Tennessee Technological University)
Abstract: Self-system measurement in adolescents with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome has not been explored as widely as that in typically developing peers. The purpose of this study is to extend previous research and measure self-understanding, an important component of self-system, in adolescents with HFA and AS. Thirty adolescents with HFA or AS will participate in this study. Three measures will be used to assess self-understanding in these adolescents. These measures include the Self-Esteem Questionnaire (DuBois et al., 1996), the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (or Piers-Harris 2, Piers et al., 2002), and the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire for Adolescents, Revised (or OSIQ-R, Offer et al., 1984). Data will be collected and analyzed using these measures respectively. Measure results and discussions will be provided as well.
Decreasing the Phobic Response to Haircutting in an 8-Year-Old Boy with Autism.
Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH BENEDETTO-NASHO (Step By Step Learning Group), Michael Grabham (Step By Step Learning Group), Kevin S. Cauley (Step By Step Learning Group)
Abstract: A Specific Phobia (300.29) is a striking and persistent fear of specific objects or situations. Exposure to the phobic stimulus almost invariably provokes an immediate anxiety or fear response (DSM-IV-TR, 2000). More than 6 million adults are reported to suffer from some form of Specific Phobia. Less is known about the incidence rate in childhood. Moreover, there is a paucity of research regarding the effective treatment of fears in individuals with developmental disabilities. No research was found regarding the treatment of Tonsurephobia, the fear of haircuts, in children with ASD. In this study, a combined approach of multi-component conditioning, shaping and contact desensitization was used to decrease the phobic response of an 8-year-old boy with ASD. A nine week, nine step task analysis was used with positive reinforcement provided for voluntary completion of each cumulative sequence of steps as weeks progressed. After nine weeks, a successful haircut was accomplished with the phobic response being significantly reduced. These results suggest that through a multi-component approach to intervention children with ASD can learn that haircutting does not have to be aversive despite in many cases, an extremely strong history of fear, panic and mistrust.
Symposium #504
CE Offered: BACB
Comparing Methods to Improve the Intraverbal Repertoire in Children with Autism
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Stevens 2
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Tamara S. Kasper (The Center for Autism Treatment)
Discussant: Tamara S. Kasper (The Center for Autism Treatment)
CE Instructor: Tamara S. Kasper, M.S.

These studies compare the relative effectiveness of different procedures to improve the intraverbal repertoire in children with autism. The first study, Multiple Intraverbal Responses: Quick Transfer from Tact-Intraverbal versus Repeated Tacting, compares two methods for establishing multiple responses to an intraverbal category by feature or function. This single subject study utilized an alternating treatment design to evaluate the relative effectiveness of immediate transfer from tact to intraverbal category versus repeated and changing tacting when provided category in establishing multiple and varied responses. The second study, Increasing Multiple Responses to Intraverbal Categories, further explored the relative effectiveness of teaching tacting of category when presented with a picture as a prerequisite to multi-response intraverbal by class. This single subject study also utilized an alternating treatment design to determine if teaching the tact of class would result in more rapid acquisition of skills or enhance variety. The last study, A Comparison of Sign and Echoic Prompts on the Acquisition of Intraverbal Fill-Ins evaluated the relative effectiveness of two procedures to establish intraverbal fill-ins in a child with autism.

Multiple Intraverbal Responses: Quick Transfer from Tact-Intraverbal versus Repeated Tacting.
KIMBERLY A. DECK (The Center for Autism Treatment), Marisa E. McKee (The Center for Autism Treatment), Tamara S. Kasper (The Center for Autism Treatment)
Abstract: Multiple Intraverbal Responses: Quick Transfer from Tact-Intraverbal versus Repeated Tacting compares two methods for establishing multiple responses to an intraverbal category by feature or function to a no treatment condition. This single subject study utilized an alternating treatment design to evaluate the relative effectiveness of two methods to develop intraverbal categories by function and feature that have multiple potential responses. The first condition: immediate transfer from tact to intraverbal category involved use of tact stimuli that shared the same function or feature followed by an immediate transfer of stimulus control from the tact stimuli to the intraverbal. The second condition utilized tacting of multiple and varied items in a field that shared a common function or feature when told the function or feature with a twice weekly probes of the pure intraverbal to assess acquisition of multiple responses. Preliminary results reveal that the quick transfer is more effective in terms of rate of acquisition than repeated tacting or no treatment conditions.
Increasing Multiple Responses to Intraverbal Categories.
JESSICA FLYNN (The Center for Autism Treatment), Lauren Vukovic (The Center for Autism Treatment), Marisa E. McKee (The Center for Autism Treatment), Tamara S. Kasper (The Center for Autism Treatment)
Abstract: The study, Increasing Multiple Responses to Intraverbal Categories, explored the relative effectiveness of teaching tacting of category when presented with a picture as a prerequisite to multi-response intraverbal by class. This single subject study utilized an alternating treatment design to determine if teaching the tact of class would result in more rapid acquisition of skills or enhance variety in multiple responses to an intraverbal category than if the procedure is conducted without the tact of category response. Results were further compared to items that received no instruction.
A Comparison of Sign and Echoic Prompts on the Acquisition of Intraverbal Fill-Ins.
KELLEE WOOD RICH (Central Texas Autism Center), Jessica Hetlinger Franco (University of Texas, Austin)
Abstract: In this study, we examined the acquisition rates of an 8-year-old child with autism for intraverbal responses regarding the functions of objects. The child demonstrated a history of high acquisition rates of receptive and tact responses regarding the functions using pictures of objects, but difficulty acquiring intraverbal responses. Visual presentation of a manual sign of the correct response as a prompt during intraverbal training was compared to a baseline condition using only verbal echoic prompts. The child demonstrated higher rates of acquisition in the sign rehearsal conditions
Symposium #505
CE Offered: BACB
Establishing Social Initiation: There Is More than One Way to Start a Conversation
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Continental C
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Joseph M. Vedora (BEACON Services)
Discussant: Gordon A. DeFalco (Evergreen Center)
CE Instructor: Robert K. Ross, M.S.

The initiation of social interaction is a critical skill for developing relationships and successful community participation. The failure to easily acquire or readily demonstrate this skill or impairments in development of such skills is one of the diagnostic characteristics of children with developmental disabilities and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This symposium will review three empirical studies designed to promote social initiation and sustained interaction in public school classrooms and residential settings. Each study used a different procedure to support the establishment of initiation and maintain social interactions. A common component of each of the three studies was the use of modeling procedures to establish initiation and an evaluation of the effects on peers. Additionally, the data from the three studies suggest that the acquisition of social behavior is not necessarily correlated with demonstration of social skill.

Use of a Conversation Box to Increase Social/Verbal Interaction in Children with Autism.
AMY MUEHLBERGER (BEACON Services), Amie Heagle (BEACON Services), Ann Filer (BEACON Services), Robert K. Ross (BEACON Services)
Abstract: The spontaneous production of social language is a challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Ricks & Wing, 1975). Visual supports have been shown to facilitate language production in children with ASD (Sarokoff, Taylor, & Poulson, 2001). The current study assessed the effects of a conversation box to support production of social language, as well as, responses (question asking and answering) to the social bids in 2 children with ASD. When criterion for learning was met, generalization of social verbal interaction was assessed with untrained topics of conversation, novel peers, and other settings. The results indicated that both prompted and unprompted speech increased, as well as, generalized to novel contexts when specific strategies were used. This study supports the use of an easily implemented strategy that proved to be a rapid and effective procedure for teaching complex verbal skills, such as conversational speech.
Improving Social Skills for Children with PDD and Their Typical Peers in a Reverse Integration Preschool Setting.
KIM KLEMEK (BEACON Services), Christina Stuart (Weymouth Public Schools), Joseph M. Vedora (BEACON Services)
Abstract: A common approach for improving social skills for children with PDD is to increase their opportunities to interact with typically developing peers. In public schools, this frequently entails integrating children with PDD into general education settings or including typical peers in special education settings. In the present study, several interventions designed to promote socials skills in three children with PDD were evaluated. During Experiment 1, a reversal design was used to compare the effects of the presence of typical peers in the classroom with and without contingent reinforcement. In Experiment 2, a multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of a social skills training program for children with PDD. Results of Experiment 1 suggested that reinforcement alone was not sufficient to improve social skills for the students with PDD. Results of Experiment 2 indicated that the treatment package resulted in increased initiating and responding by the children with PDD. Implications for providing social skills training for children with PDD within an integrated setting are discussed.
The Effectiveness of PECS versus Vocal Mand Training to Increase Functional Communication Initiations.
AMBER LAVALLEE (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: In this study students were taught to request preferred items using one of two communication procedures. The two procedures taught were the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and vocal mand training. This study first compared the acquisition rate of PECS and vocal mand training, then it assessed whether training in the use of PECS or vocal mand training would result in more spontaneous vocal responses (initiations) in non-training conditions subsequent to formal instruction. Three students participated, two were diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder and one student diagnosed with autism. All three were enrolled in a residential school for students with developmental disabilities. Participants were taught to mand for two preferred items using PECS and to mand for the remaining two preferred items using vocal mand training. Spontaneous speech probes were conducted weekly to assess which communication modality resulted in more spontaneous vocal responses. Results showed that all participants acquired Phase one of PECS with 80% independence within six sessions and did not acquire vocal manding. Increases in vocal responses were minimal, but higher for items trained with PECS.
Symposium #506
CE Offered: BACB
Use of Behavioral Interventions to Promote High Levels of Staff Performance
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Continental A
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Stacey Buchanan Williams (Melmark New England)
Discussant: Florence D. DiGennaro Reed (Melmark New England)
CE Instructor: Florence D. DiGennaro Reed, Ph.D.

Previous research suggests that there is a relation between accurate treatment implementation and student performance. As a result, the identification of behavioral techniques that promote accurate treatment implementation in clinical settings is of critical importance. The purpose of the present symposium is to share findings from three studies that examined ways to improve staff performance and teaching skills through the application of behavioral interventions used with staff.

Intervention Package for Increasing Implementation of Student Programming.
Abstract: The effect of an intervention package that included public posting and a group contingency on the percentage of academic programs implemented in an early childhood classroom within a private school setting was evaluated. The classroom contained 6 students diagnosed with autism and 3 to 4 teachers. An ABAB design was used for this study. During baseline, teachers generally showed variable implementation of students’ programs (M = 56%). During intervention, lists of each student’s academic programs were posted in the classroom and teachers were required to mark those programs that were completed on a daily basis. If all academic programs were completed, teachers were able to take students outside to the playground. If all academic programs for all students were not completed, the classroom schedule remained intact. During intervention the percentage of programs that were implemented increased to a mean of 92%. Results indicate that teachers implemented a higher percentage of student academic programs per day with the intervention package.
Use of Behavioral Principles to Increase Employee Initiation of Problem Solving Strategies.
MAGGIE ROSS (Melmark New England), Jamie Fanelli (Melmark New England), Amy Badalucca (Melmark New England)
Abstract: The effects of verbal praise and written performance feedback on the frequency of employee problem-solving in a school for children with severe and challenging behaviors was examined. Problem-solving was operationally defined as the employee’s oral communication to the classroom teacher of a potential resolution to a current difficulty and immediate implementation of the resolution. During baseline, the frequency of problem-solving averaged 0.7 per day across all classroom staff. Upon introduction of verbal praise and written feedback, the mean frequency increased to 3.2 per day. Results indicate that the packaged intervention was effective at increasing the frequency with which employees addressed a problem by identifying a solution and implementing the solution during a difficult situation.
Increasing Staff Performance through Public Posting.
KRISTIN J. COLBERT (Melmark New England), Brian C. Liu-Constant (Melmark New England)
Abstract: The effects of public posting on the number of student programs run each day were analyzed across three staff in a school setting using a reversal design. Baseline data indicated a range of 8-12 programs run per day for each staff. Line graphs of each staff person’s frequency of programs implemented per day were then posted in the classroom. Results indicate a near doubling of the number of programs each staff ran on a daily basis. Each staff ran an average of 13 programs per day during baseline and increased to a mean of 21 during treatment. Return to baseline led to a decrease in the number of programs run and a near return to baseline levels with a mean of 15 programs run per day. The use of public posting maintained performance above baseline levels. Reliability was taken across 30% of programs run and resulted in 85% interobserver agreement.
Symposium #507
CE Offered: BACB
Using Visual Strategies to Promote the Acquisition of Communication and Social Skills of Children with Autism
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
International South
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Debra Berry Malmberg (Claremont McKenna College)
Discussant: Debra Berry Malmberg (Claremont McKenna College)
CE Instructor: Debra Berry Malmberg, Ph.D.

Interventions for communication development are of critical importance for children with autism due to their characteristic deficits in language. To date, the only AAC intervention that has been empirically investigated with persons with autism is the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) (Charlop-Christy, Carpenter, Le, LeBlanc, & Kellet, 2002). The research presented in this symposium addresses further advances in AAC research. The first presentation examines the degree to which children with autism generalize PECS use to natural settings, including a playroom, their home, and the community. The second presentation extends previous research by assessing the relationship between PECS training and increases in verbalizations across generalized settings. The final presentation extends the research on designing an augmentative and alternative communication intervention by incorporating visually-based strategies and addressing the socio-communicative deficits in persons with autism. The communication intervention uses recent advancements in technology and assesses impact on acquisition rates, social acceptance, and generalization across environments.

Is the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) Functional? An Assessment of PECS Generalization.
ALISSA GREENBERG (Claremont Graduate University), Melaura Andree Eri Tomaino (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: One communication intervention, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS), has gained widespread use when teaching communication to nonverbal children with autism (Charlop-Christy, Carpenter, Le, LeBlanc, & Kellet, 2002). Although previous studies have attempted to assess generalization of PECS use (e.g., Bock, Stoner, Beck, Hanley, & Prochnow, 2005; Chambers & Rehfeldt, 2003), rigorous assessments of generalization are needed to determine if PECS is functional. Functionality is achieved when children are spontaneously using the target skills in naturally occurring settings and situations (Horner & Budd, 1985). The current study examined PECS use in four settings: a therapy room, a playroom, children’s homes, and in the community. Results indicated that all of the participants acquired the use of PECS and that the children used PECS to communicate across all settings. These findings contribute to the growing literature assessing the effectiveness of PECS. Not only can nonverbal children with autism readily acquire PECS use, but more importantly, PECS can be used as a functional means of communication across multiple environments and people.
The Effects of PECS Training on Language Acquisition for Children with Autism.
MELAURA ANDREE ERI TOMAINO (Claremont Graduate University), Alissa Greenberg (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: One hallmark feature of autism is delayed speech and language skills (Charlop & Haymes, 1994). Due to such a delay, it is important to systematically teach children with autism pre-communicative skills that may lead to the acquisition of speech and language. Previous research has demonstrated that acquiring the use of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) skills not only gives children an effective means of communication, but also leads to concomitant increases in verbal speech (e.g. Charlop-Christy, Carpenter, Le, LeBlanc, & Kellet, 2002; Ganz & Simpson, 2004)). The current study extended previous research by using a rigorous assessment of children’s verbalizations outside of the PECS training sessions (during play sessions at the behavioral treatment center and at children’s homes). Results indicated that participants’ verbalizations increased in these generalized environments after the completion of PECS training. Results are discussed in terms of the continued need to investigate the effectiveness of PECS and the effects of PECS training on important ancillary behaviors such as speech.
Designing AAC Interventions Based on the Strengths of Children with Autism.
GINA T. CHANG (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: Though the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) interventions are common in practice, implementation of interventions with children with autism have received relatively little research (Mirenda, 2003). Review of the literature indicates that persons with autism demonstrate relative strengths in visually-based interventions (Charlop-Christy & Jones, 2006) and, in accordance with the diagnosis, demonstrate qualitative impairments in socio-communicative skills (APA, 2000). This study extends the research on designing an augmentative and alternative communication intervention that also incorporates visually-based strategies and addresses the socio-communicative deficits in persons with autism. This study assessed the efficacy of an AAC intervention specifically based on the strengths and needs of persons with autism. Furthermore, the study assessed the use of current technological advances in regards to rate of acquisition, social acceptance, and generalization of use across environments.
Symposium #508
CE Offered: BACB
The Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.: Description of Service Model and Programs of Research
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Continental B
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Jonathan J. Tarbox, Ph.D.

The Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc. (CARD) is an organization which provides comprehensive behavior analytic services to individuals with diagnoses on the autism spectrum. The purpose of this symposium is to describe our general service model for early intensive behavioral intervention, describe our intervention programs targeted at teaching higher order skills such as those deemed executive functioning and social cognition, describe our Specialized Outpatient Services program, and describe our ongoing programs of research. The international reach of CARD services and ongoing career development opportunities will be discussed.

Comprehensive Behavioral Services for Children with Autism: Introductory Program Description for the Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.
JACKIE HARDENBERGH (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: The Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc. is a global organization which provides comprehensive behavioral services for children with autism. This presentation provides an overview of the CARD treatment model and describes the primary components of a comprehensive ABA program for children with autism. Goals of assessment and intervention, as well as teaching strategies such as discrete trial training, natural environment training, and fluency training, will be described and discussed.
Teaching Higher Order Skills to Children with Autism: “Executive Function” and “Social Cognition”.
SIENNA GREENER-WOOTEN (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention programs are commonly accused of teaching only basic skills and/or producing only “rote” or “memorized” performances, and therefore neglecting higher order human abilities. “Social cognition” and “executive function” are two higher order areas of functioning that research has demonstrated are often lacking in individuals with autism. “Social cognition” is said to be the ability to understand the mental states of others, which in behavioral parlance, amounts to responding to the private events of others. “Executive functions” are said to be the brain functions which control goal-directed behavior. From a behavioral perspective, goal-directed behavior is nothing more or less than behavior and can therefore be taught like any other. In this presentation, we describe a behavioral curriculum for teaching the skills labeled as “social cognition” and “executive functioning” by the general community. In both cases, intervention involves analyzing supposed mental functions into observable behavior/environment relations and then using proven behavioral procedures, such as prompting, reinforcement, prompt-fading, discrimination training, and multiple exemplar training, to establish generalized operant repertoires. Put simply, we describe how to use proven behavioral teaching procedures to teach “executive function” and “social cognition” to children with autism.
The CARD Specialized Outpatient Services Treatment Program.
RACHEL S. F. TARBOX (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Katharine Gutshall (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: This presentation will provide a description of CARD Specialized Outpatient Services (SOS). CARD SOS provides a suite of services targeted at making rapid and meaningful changes in high-priority behaviors. CARD SOS provides assessment and treatment of severe behavior disorders, assessment and treatment of pediatric feeding disorders, and facilitation of compliance with medical procedures, such as pill-swallowing. CARD SOS services are provided on a home-based, school-based, and outpatient basis, depending on the unique needs of each individual client for as long as necessary. Services include direct intervention, teacher and caregiver training, and planning for generalization and maintenance. CARD SOS serves individuals with and without developmental disabilities.
Research at the Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.
JONATHAN J. TARBOX (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Fernando Guerrero (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Dennis Dixon (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Amy Kenzer (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Melissa L. Olive (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: CARD is committed to science as the only useful approach to evaluating treatment for autism. Our mission is to conduct empirical research on the assessment and treatment of autism and to disseminate our research findings and derived technology through publication and education of professionals and the public. The primary goal of our research is to produce information that will increase the number of individuals who recover from autism. This presentation will describe our general programs of research, provide sample data in several areas, and describe career development opportunities for behavior analysts at CARD.
Symposium #509
CE Offered: BACB
Evaluations of Treatments for Food Selectivity
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Boulevard B
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Discussant: Meeta R. Patel (Clinic 4 Kidz)
CE Instructor: Adel C. Najdowski, Ph.D.

The papers in this symposium cover a number of interesting topics related to behavior analytic intervention for food selectivity. The first presentation will show data comparing the use of simultaneous versus sequential presentation in the treatment of food selectivity and their effects on generalization and maintenance. From this presentation, attendees will learn which intervention appeared most promising. The second presentation will show results of a component analysis of differential reinforcement and nonremoval of the spoon when used in isolation and combined during a treatment involving a paired-choice presentation of foods. From this presentation, attendees will learn about a possible intervention that can be used for children wherein choices may facilitate compliance and what components of the intervention appeared to be most necessary for the participant in this evaluation. The third presentation will show data from a case study wherein a childs progression through treatment is outlined. Interventions evaluated include differential reinforcement, escape extinction, demand fading, and high-probability/low-probability. From this presentation, attendees will see the progression of treatment of food selectivity in the real world and be supplied with one example of the clinical obstacles and considerations that are commonly encountered.

A Comparison of Simultaneous versus Sequential Presentation of Novel Foods in the Treatment of Food Selectivity.
BECKY PENROD (California State University, Sacramento), Kate H. Perry (California State University, Sacramento), Lisa Byrne (California State University, Sacramento)
Abstract: Simultaneous presentation of a highly preferred food and a non-preferred food has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for food selectivity in several empirical studies (e.g., Ahearn, 2003; Buckley & Newchok, 2005; Kern & Marder, 1996; Piazza et al., 2002; & Mueller et al., 2004). The above-mentioned studies suggest that the acquisition of food consumption occurs more rapidly when non-preferred foods are presented simultaneously with high-preferred foods, as opposed to when high-preferred foods are delivered as a consequence for acceptance or consumption of non-preferred foods (i.e., sequential presentation). However, it is not possible to determine which presentation method is superior, given that studies utilizing simultaneous presentation have not assessed maintenance of food consumption in the absence of the high preferred food. This study addresses the limitations of previous research by conducting a comparison of sequential and simultaneous food presentation in the treatment of food selectivity and assessing generalization and maintenance of food consumption under a lean schedule of reinforcement (sequential condition) and in the absence of the high- preferred food (simultaneous condition). Results indicate that sequential presentation is the preferred method for two participants; a nonremoval of the spoon procedure was required for both participants.
Utilizing Paired-Choice Presentation to Increase Food Consumption.
KATHARINE GUTSHALL (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Taira Lanagan (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), John Galle (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: The treatment of feeding disorders can take various forms. For instance the use of differential reinforcement, escape extinction, and antecedent manipulations have all been shown to improve food acceptance (Piazza et al, 2003, Patel et al, 2002, Cooper et al, 1995). If one were to conceptualize the acceptance of food as a task for the child, research suggests that the choice of tasks would result in higher compliance (Bambara et al., 1994). In the current investigation, a component analysis was conducted for a child who displayed food selectivity. During all sessions, a paired-choice presentation was utilized in which the child could pick the food to be consumed. The effects of differential reinforcement and escape extinction were seen in isolation and combined. Reliability data were collected for all treatment assessment and averaged above 80%. The case study is shown in its entirety to emphasize the fact that although first efforts may not be successful, feeding disorders can be treated through various interventions at an outpatient facility.
Treatment of a Feeding Disorder in the Real World: A Case Study.
KATHARINE GUTSHALL (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Taira Lanagan (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Feeding disorders are characterized by eating or drinking an inadequate amount of food or liquid (Cooper, et al., 1995). These disorders can take the form of partial or total food refusal and food selectivity by type, texture or presentation. Feeding disorders are commonly accompanied by gagging, vomiting, and inappropriate mealtime behaviors. Numerous studies have demonstrated various techniques to eliminate/minimize pediatric feeding disorders (Gulotta, et al., 2005, Reed, et al., 2004, Dawson, et al., 2003, Piazza, et al., 2003). As informative as peer-reviewed articles are, they can often lead the service provider to believe that successful treatment is found on the first attempt. In the current investigation, a child’s entire progress is shown. Treatment evaluations include differential reinforcement, escape extinction, demand fading, and high-probability/low-probability evaluations. Reliability data were collected for all treatment assessment and averaged above 80%. The case study is shown in its entirety to emphasize the fact that although first efforts may not be successful, feeding disorders can be treated through various interventions at an outpatient facility.
Symposium #510
CE Offered: BACB
Applied Behavior Analysis in Therapeutic Contexts: Treating Children with Psychiatric Disorders
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Boulevard A
Area: CBM/CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
CE Instructor: Jeannie A. Golden, Ph.D.

Many children in the child welfare system develop the symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, bipolar disorder and reactive attachment disorder due to early abuse/neglect, multiple placements and multiple caregivers. Often, the treatment focus follows the medical model with the assumption that behavioral symptoms are the result of underlying psychopathology. Behavior analysts are in a unique position to provide more comprehensive diagnosis that includes observations of behavior in a variety of settings to determine the effect of various stimulus conditions and setting events, functional assessments to determine the causes and maintainers of various behavioral symptoms, and careful analysis of learning histories to determine the efficacy of various reinforcers and punishers. Behavior analysts are also able to provide assessment-driven treatment approaches, to design therapeutic environments that support the learning of appropriate replacement behaviors and to facilitate typical development rather than psychopathology. However, the system within which they work is set up to provide therapy or counseling to these children which sometimes is at odds with what behavior analysts do. This symposium will address the issue of how behavior analysts can work within the existing system to provide for these childrens needs.

Behavior Analysts and Counseling: Why are We Not There and How Can We Get There?
LINDA S. HEITZMAN-POWELL (University of Kansas), Rachel L. White (University of Kansas), Nanette L. Perrin (Early Childhood Autism Program, Community Living Opportunities, Inc.)
Abstract: Even with a rich history demonstrating how complex behaviors are acquired, traditional psychological domains are still not well represented in behavior analytic literature (Dougher & Hackbert, 2000). Several authors have provided descriptions of psychological terms and how those terms could be explained behaviorally. However, few authors have attempted to explain the therapy process from a behavior analytic perspective. This paper will define the process by which traditional counseling occurs followed by ways in which the characteristics and processes of traditional counseling can be explained based on the principles of behavior and by using behavior analytic terms. In order to provide a framework from which the traditional therapy approach can be viewed in behavioral terms, this paper will provide (1) an exploration of those disorders (or “clusters of behavior”) that typically bring individuals to “counseling”, (2) the components involved in a traditional therapy encounter, and (3) how the terms and techniques that appear to account for intervention effectiveness can be discussed using behavior analytic terms. Finally, this paper will present some traditional counseling programs that adhere to, or are based in, behavioral psychology and will offer some suggestions for areas of future research
Trauma and Psychotherapy: Implications from a Behavior Analysis Perspective.
WALTER WITTY PRATHER (Agency for Persons with Disabilities)
Abstract: Attachment theory provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding trauma and the treatment of abuse in children. This article examines attachment theory and traditional models of family therapy from the perspective of behavior analysis, and provides a rationale for a behavioral treatment approach for abused children and their foster or adoptive parents. A research model has been developed based on the integration of Attachment Theory and the Attachment Based Family Therapy model with basic concepts and principles of behavior analysis. The purpose of this model is to provide a context to examine how abuse and neglect, separation or loss, family therapy, parent-child relationships, and secure attachments may be integrated to predict positive outcomes in families with adoptive and foster children, and the relevant but implicit behavioral principles operating in the attachment rebuilding process. Questions are raised which suggest that family-therapy-based models compete with the acquisition of new functional behaviors, and provide the environment for learned dysfunctional habits that are then reinforced in therapy. Conclusions are reached that “familial environments” in which perception and previous learning guide parent and child interaction are more important than therapy, and implications for behavioral and cognitive interventions are suggested.
Differentiating Behavioral and Traditional Case Formulations for Children with Severe Behavioral and Emotional Problems.
JEANNIE A. GOLDEN (East Carolina University), Ennio C. Cipani (National University)
Abstract: It appears to be the conventional wisdom of today that sending children with severe problem behaviors to “counseling” or “therapy” is the best method for changing these behaviors. This belief predominates despite a lack of empirical evidence demonstrating that severe behavior problems of children are effectively treated with such an approach. By analyzing the nature of the “counseling” or “therapy” interventions and what we now know about client behavior, we can determine why such approaches may be so ineffective for many children with problem behaviors. Behaviorists know that what works is to alter the maintaining contingency. In a functional behavioral treatment, the function of the presenting problem needs to be disabled, while an alternate function (that is more acceptable) needs to be enabled (Cipani & Schock, 2007). To determine how such consequences should be altered, a behavioral case formulation, relying heavily on ascertaining the social and environmental function of the presenting problems is needed. In this presentation, a behavioral case formulation is contrasted with traditional mental health formulations about children presenting severe behavior problems. A real life case example illustrates the utility of a behavioral case formulation and its direct relationship to treatment.
Teaching Task Analysis and Sequencing Skills to a Young Adolescent Boy with Multiple Psychiatric Diagnoses.
SHANNON PATON (East Carolina University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to increase self-initiation and completion of snack-making and chores exhibited by an adolescent boy, Marcus, diagnosed with ADHD, ODD and borderline intellectual functioning. When Marcus perceived that something should have been done for him by his mom, and it was not, Marcus responded in anger (arguing, kicking things, walking away, and pouting/ignoring mom). During baseline, the researcher recorded the number of prompts needed for correct task completion. Then Marcus participated in a four phase intervention in which he had to complete each task within the allotted number of prompts for each step to earn his monetary reinforcement. The research design used was a multiple baseline across tasks with changing criterion. Following intervention, the number of prompts required for Marcus to correctly complete each task decreased tremendously. Through a behavioral intervention using sequencing, active prompting, and positive reinforcement, Marcus was taught to correctly complete multi-step tasks meeting or exceeding an expected standard. Marcus’ mom reported to the researcher during follow up that snack and chore time are much better because now she doesn’t consistently argue and fight with Marcus, and he is more willing to take responsibility for performing tasks himself.
Panel #511
International Panel - Therapeutic Relationship in Emerging Approaches to Clinical Behavior Analysis
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Boulevard C
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Heather M. Pierson (University of Nevada, Reno)
GARETH I. HOLMAN (University of Washington)
JONATHAN W. KANTER (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee)
EMILY KENNISON SANDOZ (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: Behavior analysts have not traditionally been major proponents of the emphasis on the therapeutic relationship. Therapeutic relationship remains, however, the single largest factor in predicting therapeutic outcomes regardless of therapeutic orientation. This panel will consider emerging approaches within clinical behavior analysis that may be better suited to provide a conceptual analysis of how relating to clients can foster preferred outcomes.
Symposium #512
CE Offered: BACB
The Evolution of the Behavior Analysis Services Program: Data on Services, Training Components, and Related Measures
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Area: CSE/OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Kimberly Crosland (University of South Florida)
CE Instructor: Kimberly Crosland, Ph.D.

Floridas Behavior Analysis Services Program (BASP) is a statewide program for dependent children and their caregivers. This symposium will discuss the overall components of the BASP program, the structure of the program, and data on parent training and related measures. Two presentations will focus on organizational components of the program to include behavior analyst time allocation, overall service allocation, historical data, and expansion efforts. New training initiatives will also be discussed along with data to support program continuation. The remaining two presentations will describe results from caregivers who attended a group class and also received in-home coaching. Related measures, including stress and depression, were also collected from caregivers. Results indicated that caregivers improved significantly on posttests and also showed increases in positive interactions and tool use after training and in-home coaching. Data collected on child behavior showed decreases in junk/annoying age typical behavior and more serious behaviors after both classroom training and in-home coaching. Average stress measures on the Parenting Stress Index decreased by one standard deviation while depression levels decreased slightly.

A Day in the Life of a BASP Behavior Analyst!
STACIE NEFF (University of South Florida), David Geller (University of South Florida)
Abstract: The Behavior Analysis Services Program is most widely known for its parent training component for caregivers of children in Florida’s foster care system. While this remains the central focus, or backbone of the program, BASP is constantly evolving to meet the needs of its consumers. This presentation will discuss the general roles of both the Behavior Analyst and the Senior Behavior Analyst and how the specifics of those positions may differ across the state depending on the needs of local communities. We will also present data on time allocation for behavior analyst positions as well as present various methods and examples of data collection throughout BASP. Finally, we will discuss new training initiatives including the training of master’s level practicum students and how their involvement (e.g., training, research and data collection) has allowed BASP to expand its service delivery.
Parent Training with the Tools for Positive Behavior Change: The Effects of Group Training and In-Home Coaching.
KIMBERLY CROSLAND (University of South Florida), Amanda Keating (University of South Florida), Jessica Thompson (University of South Florida), Eva S. Boyer (University of South Florida), Kimberly V. Weiss (University of South Florida), Betsy M. Zamora (University of South Florida), Kimberly Webb (University of South Florida)
Abstract: The majority of parent training studies have evaluated either a group training curriculum or some form of individual behavioral training, while few studies have specifically compared the effects of group training versus individual training with the same curriculum. Using a cross-over design, the current study evaluated the effects of in-class training alone versus in-class training plus in-home training and attempted to determine when the in-home training is more effective (i.e., during or after the in-class training). Parents attending the positive behavior change program were randomly selected for each group. Reliability measures were collected on approximately 50% of the pre- and posttest scores and 25% of the home observations and were consistently above 80% interval agreement. Results showed that all parents improved significantly on the posttests (pretest average = 28% and posttest average = 85%) regardless of group placement. Parents were videotaped at home with their own children during baseline, after the completion of the class, and after completion of the in-home training. Parent’s frequency of positive interactions increased after the classroom training while increases in tool use and decreases in child behavior were only observed after the coaching component was added.
Evaluating Alternative Valuable Outcome Measures: Parental Stress and Depression.
AMANDA KEATING (University of South Florida), Kimberly Crosland (University of South Florida), Bryon Robert Neff (University of South Florida), Glen Dunlap (University of South Florida)
Abstract: The majority of parent training studies have evaluated skills acquisition of the parent while few studies have specifically taken direct observation measures of child behavior change. Even fewer evaluate the changes in auxiliary parental factors such as stress, depression, and locus of control. Using an AB design with repeated measures, this study evaluated the effects of the Tools for Positive Behavior Change on both child and parent behavior. Parents from Hillsborough County attending the positive behavior change program were taken from a community sample and in-home observation measures were conducted during baseline, training, and post training. Results showed that parent’s pre-test tool role-play scores averaged 23% during baseline and increased to 86% post-training. Direct observation measures also showed improvements in specific child behaviors including tantrums, noncompliance, and aggression. Indicators of parental stress and depression both decreased more than one standard deviation. Locus of control measures showed parents in the class reported a greater sense of having control over environmental events after training.
How Consumer Driven Allocation of Services Effects BASP Direction and Expansion.
BRYON ROBERT NEFF (University of South Florida), Michael Stoutimore (Intermountain Centers for Human Development), Catherine E. Williams (Behavior Analysis Services Program)
Abstract: This presentation will include both an historical account and a retrospective analysis of the past ten years of the BASP. Data sets from the mid-1990s pilot program will be shared with an emphasis on those that were instrumental in obtaining legislative support for statewide expansion. Although the program continues to be “behaviorally” sound, it does not mean we haven’t had our share of hurdles, sacrifices, and compromises. These will be discussed as well as our lessons learned during Florida’s privatization of the child welfare system and our participation in the competitive game of “who gets the funding.” Finally, we will show examples of data that are currently being collected to support program continuation and to help evaluate directions for future expansion.
Paper Session #513
International Paper Session - Genetic and Medical Research in Developmental Disabilities
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Stevens 1
Area: DDA
Chair: John C. Neill (Long Island University)
Systematic Application of Harrisonian Behaviorism to Neurobehavioral Impairments.
Domain: Applied Research
JOHN C. NEILL (Long Island University)
Abstract: Neill and Harrison's (1987) auditory discrimination procedures were systematically applied to the comparative analysis of stimulus control in rats and humans following seizures early in development. This auditory discrimination methodology was successful in detecting substantial impairments in stimulus control that were not apparent to the casual observer. In both animal models, and in developmentally disabled humans, increases in stimulus control changed the probability of abnormal brain activity and these brain changes were a prerequisite for improvements in behavior. Like ships passing in the dark of night, the effects of neurological events, and the interacting effects of the environment on brain, may be missed unless central nervous system factors are incorporated into the functional analysis. The analysis of brain-behavior-environment relations is a productive area for behaviorists, whose skills and knowledge are needed greatly in clinical and basic behavioral neuroscience.
Preliminary Examination of Gene-Behavior-Environment Relations; Challenging Behavior in Fragile X Syndrome.
Domain: Applied Research
PAUL D. LANGTHORNE (Tizard Centre, University of Kent), Peter McGill (Tizard Centre, University of Kent)
Abstract: Various topographies of challenging behavior are associated with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Only a small handful of studies have gone beyond form to address the function served by such behaviors. The current study adopted indirect functional assessment methods (using the QABF) to examine the function served by challenging behaviors displayed by individuals with FXS in comparison to controls. Implications for the concept of the 'behavioral phenotype' are discussed.
Where’s the Data? Developing an Evidenced-Based Approach to Psychotropic Medication Treatment.
Domain: Applied Research
GREGORY S. HANDEL (The Halcyon Center/Groden Network)
Abstract: Only in the past 25 years have aberrant behaviors exhibited by individuals with developmental disabilities been considered as possible symptoms of psychiatric disorders. However, more often than not, the treating psychiatrist relies solely on the subjective report of primary support providers to make judgments as to what medication to prescribe and whether subsequent adjustments in the medication regime are necessary. This presentation will propose an evidenced-based system for treating individuals dually diagnosed with psychotropic medication. Symptoms used in the current edition of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) present an opportunity for the behavior analyst to use the monitoring of overt behaviors with a single subject research design to be the primary treatment decision-making tool when using psychotropic medication. More specifically the presentation will also discuss: (a)The importance of operational definitions of symptoms that closely match DSM-IV criteria; (b) how behavioral technology, including a functional analysis, can be useful in preventing misdiagnosis and over medication; (c)_ how various data collection techniques and single-subject designs can be used as methods of measuring and evaluating medications’ efficacy; and (d) the use of behavioral treatment to supplement medication. Data from several case studies will be presented.
Symposium #514
CE Offered: BACB
Rethinking Early Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Critical Role of Parents as Therapists
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Area: DEV/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (The New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Christine Reeve, Ph.D.

This collection of papers highlights the vital role of parental involvement in the early intervention autism treatment team. Emphasis is placed on collaboration between parents and professionals to maximize on treatment gains through naturally occurring developmental processes across settings.

The Starting Right Program: Providing Parent and Family Support to Enhance the Quality of Early Intervention Services for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
CHRISTINE REEVE (Mailman Segal Institute), Heather O'Brien (Mailman Segal Institute)
Abstract: With the increasing number of children being diagnosed with autism and with children being diagnosed earlier and earlier, the need for effective programs for children younger than 3 is greatly increasing. These services need to be designed to increase skills of the children, prepare the children for school-based instruction in the future, and improve parents’ skills in teaching and supporting new skills in their children to assure generalization and maintenance of these skills. Starting Right is a pilot program designed for children under 3 years of age with autism and related disabilities. Children enter the program at the earliest identification, and parents and children attend class together 2 to 3 days per week for 4 hours per day. Didactic parent training and parent support groups are also offered to families of the children enrolled. This presentation will highlight the practices of the program, the strategies implemented, and follow the progress of the children from entry to exit in regards to educational functioning.
Social Referencing as a Learned Process.
TARA M. SHEEHAN (Nova Southeastern University), Martha Pelaez (Florida International University), Jacob L. Gewirtz (Florida International University)
Abstract: This paper will provide a brief review of social referencing from the developmental and behavior analytic literatures. The typical development of social referencing behavior in infants will be examined, highlighting the pivotal role of parents in the process. The role of social referencing in the development of social behavior, including joint attention and social reciprocity, will be explored. Deficits in social referencing behavior in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will be identified and suggestions for autism intervention and treatment will be provided.
Training Parents to Evoke and Reinforce Social Referencing Behavior in their Young Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
TARA M. SHEEHAN (Nova Southeastern University), Hernan Dennis Ruf (Nova Southeastern University), Heather O'Brien (Mailman Segal Institute), Liliana Dietsch-Vazquez (Nova Southeastern University), Melissa DeVincentis (Nova Southeastern University)
Abstract: Social referencing is a pivotal skill for social interaction. Social referencing is the ability to use other people’s emotional reactions as a critical reference point for subsequent behavioral responses. Typically, social referencing is utilized to respond to confusing, unexpected or ambiguous stimuli. Social referencing behavior has been reliably observed in infants 12 months of age using the visual cliff experimental procedure. However, children identified as having autism spectrum disorder often do not learn to use social referencing to manage uncertainty. Instead, children identified as having autism spectrum disorder learn to avoid or attempt to control uncertain and confusing situations. This presentation will outline a parent training procedure based on pivotal response training designed to teach parents to evoke and reinforce social referencing behavior when interacting in play activities with their young child with autism spectrum disorder. Data on both parent and child behavior will be presented and the effectiveness of utilizing parents to teach social referencing to their child with autism spectrum disorder will be discussed.
Adult Child Interaction Therapy Using Video: A Preliminary Intervention Program for Pre-School Children with Autism.
DONIA FAHIM (University of London)
Abstract: A positive partnership with parents and effective multidisciplinary work are vital elements to teaching children with Autism. Adult Child Interaction Therapy (ACIT), a therapy tool which has been designed to teach parents how to positively pair with their children, has been used for several years with positive outcomes. The main principle of ACIT is to develop a partnership with parents, enhancing their understanding of their child with the therapist's theoretical and clinical expertise, whilst teaching the parents objectives that can be worked on with positive outcomes. Its most unique feature is the use of video to analyse in minute detail the transitory nature of communication. From the video analysis, aims can be identified and they can be objectively measured and observed. Following the four week ACIT block, the parent-child dyad is enrolled into a more intensive early intervention program. The dyad is then reassessed 10 weeks later and progress made by both the adult and the child are identified and measured. This paper discusses the importance of parental involvement and interaction, the importance of using video and how ACIT has been successfully used with parents from a variety of socio-economic spheres and with different abilities prior to them beginning structured language intervention.
Symposium #515
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Stimulus Equivalence: Research to Practic
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Area: EAB/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Renee C. Mansfield (The New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Martha Hübner ( University of São Paulo, Brazil)
CE Instructor: Renee C. Mansfield, M.A.

This symposium will address different programmatic questions in stimulus control research. One question is whether matching-to-sample is the only procedure that can be used to train conditional relations and to test for the emergence of equivalence relations. The first paper provides an alternative to matching-to-sample procedures with arbitrary stimuli and typical adults as well as procedures using more contextually relevant stimuli with a student with learning delays. The second paper investigates if establishing equivalent stimulus classes among words that have the same grammatical function in written Portuguese would facilitate ordinal function transfer through the equivalence classes, according to written Portuguese grammatical rules involving words ordinance. A third paper will discuss the process of transforming findings from stimulus equivalence research into applied protocols that can be used to successfully teach children with special needs.

Establishing Conditional and Emergent Relations with Compound Stimulus.
PAULA RIBEIRO BRAGA-KENYON (The New England Center for Children), Regina Carroll (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire), Kylie Roberts (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: A common procedure used to establish conditional discrimination relations and to test for the emergence of equivalence relations is the matching-to-sample procedure. Past studies looked at establishing emergent conditional relations using a go/no-go procedure with compound stimuli. Debert, Matos and McIlvane (2007) investigated the emergency of conditional relations among compound stimuli when responses emitted in the presence of certain compound stimuli (A1B1, A2B2, A3B3, B1C1, B2C2 and B3C3) were reinforced; and responses emitted in the presence of others (A1B2, A1B3, A2B1, A2B3, A3B1, A3B2, B1C2, B1C3, B2C1, B2C3, B3C1 and B3C2) were not. All participants showed emergent relations. The current study included an experiment that attempted to replicate Debert et at (2007)’s finding; an experiment that added differential reinforcement to no responses during no-go trials; and an experiment in which training procedures were manipulated in order to facilitate the acquisition of the training relations by a population with special needs.
Ordinal Function Transfer through Equivalence Classes in Deaf Adults.
ANA CAROLINA SELLA (Federal University of São Carlos), A. Celso Goyos (Federal University of São Carlos)
Abstract: The present study investigated if establishing equivalence classes among words that share grammatical function in Portuguese, would facilitate ordinal function transfer. A 24-year-old deaf male took part in this study. Reading a list of words containing the stimuli used during the study was a pre-requisite for participation. A matching-to-sample procedure was used to establish three stimulus classes: subject (class 1), verb (class 2) and complement (class 3), each one containing 4 members (A, B, C, D). For each class, the relations AC, BC and DC were trained, and the relations CA, CB, CD, AB, BA, AD, DA, BD, and DB were tested. After equivalence was demonstrated within the members of each class, a sequencing test was presented in which the participant failed on placing words from each class in the correct grammatical order. The participant was then taught to place the words in order, using one exemplar of each class (A1-A2-A3). The remaining sequences were tested. The participant showed transfer of ordinal function for the sequences B1-B2-B3; D1-D2-D3; B1-C2-D3; and C1-A2-B3. The procedure was effective to promote ordinal function transfer in some of the sequences. Replication and generality of procedures will be discussed.
Translating Research Into Practice: Taking a Step Towards Developing Teaching Technology.
MARIA ANDRADE (The New England Center for Children), Renee C. Mansfield (The New England Center for Children), Beth O. Bellone (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Applying effective interventions based on research is a goal for many clinicians and teachers in community based educational programs for children with autism. Translating the information described in research articles into practical interventions to be used by a number of teachers requires identification of key variables which may lead to successful program implementation. These variables will be reviewed as they apply to the implementation of a school wide curriculum developed from components of the stimulus equivalence research. Lesson plans and student data will be presented.
Symposium #516
Experimental Analyses of Gambling Behavior
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Chicago & Alton
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Nicholas Mui (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Charles A. Lyons (Eastern Oregon University)
Abstract: Gambling is becoming a more socially relevant issue, and there is an increasing need for the research and analysis of gambling behavior. Basic experimental research may provide us with information about the variables that maintain gambling behavior. This symposium is intended to discuss some basic research concerning variables that might influence the choices individuals make when presented with the opportunity to gamble. This symposium will include presentations on several topics: a probabilistic choice procedure that produces tokens which were then used for gambling; an examination of the relationship between age, delay discounting, and gambling; and a procedure that utilized delay discounting with real rewards and delays.
Gambling with Earned Tokens: An Alternative to Staking Participants with House Money.
ANDREW E BRANDT (Western Michigan University), Cynthia J. Pietras (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Behavior analytic investigations of gambling often use casino-style games (blackjack, roulette, craps, slot machines, etc.) or computer simulations of those games. In these investigations, participants gamble with tokens given to them by the researcher at the onset of the experiment or session. Regardless of whether the tokens were or were not exchangeable for something of value following the experiment, due to ethical considerations the participants did not typically place anything of personal value at risk in order to initially acquire the tokens. The present study investigated gambling behavior using an apparatus that required participants to earn tokens before they could place a bet on a game of chance. This procedure required participants to repeatedly choose between a guaranteed token production option and betting on a game of chance. Participants could chose the guaranteed token production option on any trial, but could only chose the gambling option when they had enough tokens to place a bet. The value of the token production contingency was manipulated across conditions while the cost and percentage payback of the gambling option was held constant.
Delay Discounting and Age as Predictors of Gambling.
JOANNA MARIE MARINO (University of North Dakota), Brendan Slagle (University of North Dakota), F. Richard Ferraro (University of North Dakota), Jeffrey N. Weatherly (University of North Dakota)
Abstract: Research has demonstrated that pathological gamblers discount delayed monetary consequences more steeply than non-gamblers. However, research has not documented whether individuals who discount differently actually gamble differently. Pathological gambling is also associated with age, with young individuals being most prone to being diagnosed. Again, however, it has not been demonstrated that people gamble differently as they age. The present study recruited 40 individuals between the ages of 21 and 90 years. Participants completed a delay discounting task and then were given the opportunity to gamble money they had been staked on a slot machine. Results questioned the idea that discounting or age was predictive of how individuals gamble. The present results suggest that mediating factors may account for the associations found in gambling literature.
Examining Delay Discounting of Hypothetical and Real Money in Recreational Gambling.
NICHOLAS MUI (Southern Illinois University), James W. Jackson (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Gambling is becoming a more socially relevant issue with approximately 1-3% of the U.S. population being diagnosed as pathological gamblers. In past research, gamblers have been shown to discount delayed rewards more steeply than immediate rewards, and discounting procedures may have utility in helping us understand gambling behavior. However, there has been little research to demonstrate differences between hypothetical discounting procedures and actual delay discounting when individuals experienced the delays associated with a chosen reward. The current study examined the discounting behavior of undergraduate students at a large Midwestern university when they were exposed to hypothetical delay discounting procedures and real delay discounting procedures. Participants were first exposed to a hypothetical delay discounting procedure. Then, participants were exposed to a real delay discounting procedure where they chose between two delay options and had to experience an actual delay before receiving points which were exchanged for money at the end of the session. Several participants earned casino chips corresponding to the amounts earned during the real delay discounting procedure and had the opportunity to engage in gambling games such as roulette and slots to earn more money. The results and implications will be discussed.
Symposium #517
Extending the Applications of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP)
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Regan M. Slater (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: Use of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) has flourished since its development as the first behavioral measure of relational responding. Variations in format, method, and analytic strategy have supported rapid development and adaptation of the procedure. The papers in this symposium consider implications for future applications of the procedure.
Modifying the IRAP: Exploration of the Training Potential of a Testing Procedure.
ROBERT C. MARTIN (University of Mississippi), Regan M. Slater (University of Mississippi), Rachel Lewis (University of Mississippi), Chad E. Drake (Veterans Affairs Hospital, Togus, Maine), Kate Kellum (University of Mississippi), Kelly G. Wilson (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: This study utilized an IRAP modified to more closely resemble a Matching-to-Sample procedure.
Evaluation of Values and IRAP.
MONICA HERNANDEZ-LOPEZ (Universidad de Valladolid, Spain), Carmen Luciano Soriano (Universidad de Almería, Spain), Francisco Jose Ruiz-Jimenez (Universidad de Almería, Spain), Sonsoles Valdivia-Salas (Universidad de Almería, Spain)
Abstract: Measures concerning how one is evaluated himself as well as how one evaluates his verbal regulation are usually taken by questionnaires or by the person reports to others. However, this information is biased by the social audience. The present study aims to evaluate values and verbal regulation comparing typical questionnaires and performance using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP).
Stimulus Selection Procedures in the IRAP.
GEORGE A. BALL (University of Mississippi), Georgia K. Fyke (University of Mississippi), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Mississippi), Chad E. Drake (Veterans Affairs Hospital, Togus, Maine), Kelly G. Wilson (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: Traditionally the IRAP has relied on stimuli chosen by the experimenter based on either his own experience and reaction to particular words or their use in similar preparations. Recently, researchers have begun using stimuli selected for their ratings by individual participants or for their average ratings in a large sample from the population of interest. The current study aims to examine the effects of idiographic versus nomothetic approaches to stimulus selection on IRAP performance in a self-evaluative IRAP.
Testing an Adaptation of the IRAP: Validation of a New Procedure for Assessing Implicit Relations.
MICHAEL LEVIN (University of Nevada, Reno), Steven C. Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno), Thomas J. Waltz (University of Nevada, Reno), Roger Vilardaga (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Although the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) provides some advantages over other implicit assessment tools, there are difficulties in demonstrating stable findings at an individual level. This may arise partially because consistent and inconsistent trial types are presented in blocks. Since much of the variance is accounted for by trial types, regardless of specific words tested, this buries the key information in a comparison not focused on individual items. Also, inevitable practice effects become more problematic because only inter-block data are useful for assessment purposes. The current paper will present a modified version of the IRAP in which consistent and inconsistent trials are mixed within each block by using the contextual cues of “Truth” and “Lie” and the procedure is simplified by presenting the relational cue rather than having participants select it. This allows individual items to be continuously assessed, without waiting for blocks of trials, thus reducing the impact of practice and trial block effects and separating them from the key source of assessment information. We will examine whether these modifications result in more robust measures of implicit relations at the level of the individual using a series of categories including positively and negatively valenced words.
Symposium #518
The Varied Behavioral Effects of Conditioned Reinforcers Intermittently Paired with Unconditioned Reinforcers
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: April M. Becker (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Marc N. Branch (University of Florida)
Abstract: One important characteristic of conditioned reinforcers is that once they are established they can be scheduled without disrupting ongoing behavior, thus making possible the intermittent delivery of the unconditioned reinforcers. Furthermore, it is commonly thought that better maintenance of behavior is achieved if the conditioned reinforcement is intermittently paired with the unconditioned reinforcement (e.g., Zimmerman, 1950). However, this is not always the case. This symposium will present some experimental research showing some of the conditions in which the presentation of intermittently paired conditioned reinforcers will disrupt performance as well as some of the conditions in which presentation of intermittently paired conditioned reinforcers will enhance performance. The first presentation shows the disruption of a continuously reinforced response by omitting the delivery of the unconditioned reinforcer 50% of the time after the deliver of the conditioned reinforcer. The second presentation shows the disruption of an FR-2 performance by adding the presentation of a conditioned reinforcer following the first response of the FR-2. The third presentation shows the disruption and enhancement of performance by presenting conditioned reinforcers with different discriminative functions.
The Effects of Intermittently Omitting Unconditioned Reinforcers on Behavior Maintained by Continuous Presentation of Conditioned and Unconditioned Reinforcers.
JESUS ROSALES-RUIZ (University of North Texas), Pam Wennmacher (University of North Texas)
Abstract: In the clicker training community it is a common practice to deliver a click (conditioned Sr+) and a treat (unconditioned SR+) after every correct behavior. At the same time, some advocate the delivery of several clicks before a treat is delivered. There is much controversy over whether there is a difference in the effects of these two procedures. Recent research, however, has shown that the ratio has an effect on both the topography and frequency of behavior (Dunham, et. al., and Wennmacher, et. al., ABA 2005; Kaulafat, ABA 2006). The present study shows an additional analysis of the number of cue presentations required for the dog to perform the behavior during the intermittent pairing of the conditioned and unconditioned reinforcement. Two dogs learned to bow and spin on cue using a continuous presentation of conditioned and unconditioned reinforcers. Then the unconditioned reinforcer was intermittently presented. These two conditions alternated in an ABAB reversal design fashion. The results show that in addition to disrupting the accuracy of responding, the dogs required considerably more repetitions of the cue before the behavior was eventually performed and were more likely to leave the session.
The Detrimental Effects of Adding a Conditioned Reinforcer to the First Response of a FR-2 Performance.
KATHRYN L. KALAFUT (University of North Texas), Erica Feuerbacher (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract: In the clicker training community it is a common practice to deliver a click (conditioned Sr+) and a treat (unconditioned Sr+) after every correct behavior. At the same time, some advocate the delivery of several clicks before a treat is delivered. This later practice is supported by research on partial reinforcement. Recent research, however, has shown that delivering a click without a treat has detrimental effects on both the topography and frequency of behavior (Dunham, et. al., and Wennmacher, et. al., 2005). The present research investigated the effects of delivering a click without at treat using a free operant preparation. After a baseline was established using a FR-2 schedule (clicking and treating after every 2 correct responses), each of the dog’s correct responses was followed by a click, but a treat was only given after two correct responses were completed. These two conditions were studied using an ABAB design. Results showed that the delivery of the conditioned reinforcer followed by the unconditioned reinforcer after the completion of the FR-2 allowed for undisrupted behavior, while the presentation of the conditioned reinforcer after the first response of the FR-2 disrupted and slowed the FR-2 performance.
The Disruption and Enhancement of Performance by Conditioned Reinforcers with Different Discriminative Functions.
ERICA FEUERBACHER (University of North Texas), Kathryn L. Kalafut (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Our previous research showed that delivering a click without a backup reinforcer disrupted the behavior in a free operant preparation with a domestic dog. Using the same preparation in which the dog was required to touch two targets on an FR-2 schedule of reinforcement, we evaluated the effects of delivering a novel stimulus(e.g. “bien”) initially paired the click which in turn was paired with food. After touching the first target the experimenter said “bien”; when the dog then touched the second target, the dog received a click and treat. In this preparation, behavior was maintained at levels equivalent to those when a straight FR-2, without an intermediate stimulus, was used. We then investigated whether we could build second order schedules with the intermediate stimulus “bien”. Our results showed that, after a short adjustment period, an FR-2 FR-2 schedule could be shaped and maintained using “bien” as the consequence for the first FR-2, and a click-treat as the consequence for the completion of the FR-2 FR-2 schedule. These results indicate that using stimuli not directly paired with food is an effective way to maintain and enhance the performance of behavior chains.
Paper Session #519
Computer Technology Meets Behavioral Technology: Applications to University Instruction
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Williford C
Area: EDC
Chair: Roger D. Ray ((AI)2, Inc.; Rollins College)
MediaMatrix Presenter: An Internet-Based System for Incorporating Cascading-Complexity in Individual Student Interactions with Multimedia Classroom Presentations.
Domain: Applied Research
ROGER D. RAY ((AI)2, Inc.; Rollins College), Ana Carolina Maia (Rollins College), Amanda E. Frank (Rollins College), Jennifer S. Queen (Rollins College )
Abstract: A new software system, called MediaMatrix Presenter, is introduced that allows for cascading levels of difficulty/complexity in presentation content and types of associated question-based response demands on students within and across any given class period(s). The system allows in-class use of multimedia presentations designed to approximate individualized adaptive instructional strategies described by Ray and Belden’s (2007) expert-system electronic text and tutoring system called MediaMatrix. MediaMatrix Presenter incorporates wireless internet classroom services to manage multiple instructor, course, section, and student records that store individualized data on each student's responses to presentation questions. During presentations class-summaries for each question provide aggregated data immediately following each individual question. Daily summary scores for each student across all questions for a given presentation are also accessible. Question types accommodated by the system include multiple choice selection, sentences with a single fill-blank typed production, selection-based paired-associates of verbal/graphic stimuli, and "multi-blank" associates involving production of four freely typed answers to a single verbal or graphic prompting stimulus. The system presents class feedback of all submitted answers, including those generated by free-typing. Both quantitative and qualitative evaluations of MediaMatrix Presenter's use in two sections of a "media-based" Introduction to Psychology course are reported.
Critical Components of the Personalized System of Instruction and Their Effects on Performance and Learning Outcomes for Graduate Level Students.
Domain: Applied Research
GRANT GAUTREAUX (Nicholls State University)
Abstract: The personalized system of instruction described by Fred S. Keller in 1968 has been well documented in the applied literature. Subsequently, variations of the system abound across a multitude of settings. These variations are sometimes the results of content specific parameters and limitation of resources in institutions of higher education. Progressively, the age of technology has afforded many instructional designers opportunities to create instructional opportunities in both synchronous and asynchronous arrangements. Three experiments are presented to that tested critical components of the system and their effects on performance and learning outcomes for graduate level students. One of those components, the use of proctoring can be somewhat problematic regarding training and availability of reliable proctors. Results are discussed in terms of the performance of internal proctors regarding quiz scores and writer repertoires.
The Effects of One-Attempt versus Three-Attempt On-Line Quizzes on Undergraduate Students’ In-Class Quiz Performance.
Domain: Applied Research
CUONG (KEN) LUU (The Ohio State University), Angella Harjani Singh (The Ohio State University), Moira Konrad (The Ohio State University), Madoka Itoi (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: This study compared the effects of two different on-line quiz formats on undergraduate students’ in-class quiz performances in an introductory special education course. Given that students are required to learn a substantial amount of information within a limited time in a college level course, providing structured opportunities for students to actively respond to that information may facilitate their studying and learning. This study utilized Internet technology in the form of on-line quizzing to increase students’ active responding to the information presented in lectures and assignments. Specifically, the number of on-line quiz attempts was manipulated (alternated between one attempt and three attempts), and a multielement design was used to compare the effects of the two on-line quiz conditions, with the random alternation of the two conditions within and across two course sections. The findings indicated an increase in one letter grade when three-attempts were used as practice opportunities, in comparison to the one-attempt practice quiz condition, for both the course sections. Results of the study are discussed in terms of efficacy of the on-line quizzes as practice opportunities for improved performance on in-class quiz scores for college students. Implications for practice and directions for future research are discussed.
Symposium #520
CE Offered: BACB
Advancing Behavioral Technology in Early and General Education
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Williford A
Area: EDC/DEV; Domain: Theory
Chair: Rachel H. Thompson (The New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Rachel H. Thompson, Ph.D.

Behavior Analysis is applied most widely with individuals with developmental disabilities and those receiving specialized services. The papers in this symposium provide examples of the application of behavior analysis to address challenges encountered with children served in early and general education settings. Participants include typically developing infants, preschoolers, kindergarteners, and children served in general education classrooms. Interventions include prompting, reinforcement, and extinction and are designed to improve social, academic, and language skills among the participants. Collectively, the data will inform the audience regarding (a) scheduling of teaching trials, (b) the benefit of combining intervention components, (c) procedures useful in identifying reinforcers, and (d) the potential benefits of operant approaches to clinical phenomena. Together, these papers will illustrate the manner in which behavior analysis can be applied to improve our approach to teaching and intervening with children in early and general education settings.

Evaluation of an Affect Index for Determining Infant Preferences.
TANYA BAYNHAM (University of Kansas), Rachel H. Thompson (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Infant participation in behavioral research may be limited by challenges related to identification of generalized reinforcers. In this study, preference hierarchies were obtained for 6 infants using 10 toys during two assessments that employed different types of responses: a paired-stimulus assessment using selection responses (Fisher et al., 1992) and a single-stimulus assessment using affective responses (e.g., approach, laughs, retreat, whines). Overall rankings on the two assessments were not strongly correlated for any participant. The reinforcing efficacy of discrepantly ranked items was evaluated in a concurrent reinforcer assessment. Each assessment identified the most reinforcing stimulus for 3 of 6 participants. All items identified reinforced in-square behavior relative to a control. For 6 of 6 participants, the assessment with the highest test-retest correlation was predictive of the more reinforcing stimulus. Implications of these results will be discussed; despite the lack of correspondence between the assessments, each one may be beneficial under different conditions.
An Evaluation of the Effects of Intertrial Intervals on the Acquisition and Maintenance of Preschool Life Skills.
MONICA T. FRANCISCO (University of Kansas), Gregory P. Hanley (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Recently, Hanley, Heal, Tiger, and Ingvarsson (2007) described a class-wide program aimed at proactively teaching children to respond appropriately to situations that might otherwise evoke problem behavior. Although a three-fold increase in skills was observed following the class-wide implementation of the program, the number of the 13 skills emitted independently at the close of the study varied from 7 to 13 across children. In an attempt to address the conditions under which children reliably emitted the skill immediately following a model, but rarely if ever independently emitted the skill, we evaluated the effects of altering the interval of time between opportunities to emit and receive feedback on skills that were not acquired as a function of experience in the class-wide curriculum. When trials were separated by approximately 30 min (Baseline), and praise or the opportunity to practice the skill were provided for correct or incorrect responses, respectively (the Distributed condition), minimal independent responses were observed (all agreement measures exceeded 80%). When the children were exposed to the Progressive condition, in which the inter-trial interval (ITI) was gradually increased from short (e.g., 3 s) to longer (e.g., 16 min) periods, independent and generalized skills were observed for both children.
Different Response Patterns Following Extinction in Children with Selective Mutism.
BRENDA J. ENGEBRETSON (The University of Iowa), David P. Wacker (The University of Iowa), Linda J. Cooper-Brown (The University of Iowa), John A. Northup (The University of Iowa)
Abstract: The manifestation of selective mutism varies within children, and it is often characterized in terms of anxious and oppositional behavior. Previous investigations have used psychometric approaches to measure these constructs, and operant procedures have rarely been used. In this study, operant procedures were used to evaluate selective mutism. Two typically developing children with selective mutism were included in the study. Extinction was implemented to produce vocalizations to the investigator following a lack of success with other procedures. Responses during and following extinction differed across children. For Maria, extinction was brief (i.e., 15 minutes) and she vocalized independently without further extinction to the investigator during remaining sessions. She also, however, displayed delayed vocalizations with additional stimuli (e.g. different people) following the initial extinction session. For Laura, an extensive extinction session was needed to produce vocalization (i.e., almost 9 hours). Following extinction, however, immediate vocalizations occurred in all novel stimulus conditions. Maria’s quick response to extinction and delayed vocalizations to novel people is suggestive of ‘anxiety;’ whereas Laura showed ‘opposition’ with her delayed response to extinction and immediate vocalizations to novel people. We will discuss how different response patterns to extinction may indicate subtypes of selective mutism.
Effects of Instruction, Goals, and Reinforcement on Academic Behavior: Assessing Skill versus Reinforcement Deficits.
JAMES W. DILLER (West Virginia University), Claire C St. Peter (West Virginia University), Shari Marie Winters (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Effects of instructions, goal setting, and reinforcement, in isolation and combination, were assessed on the letter-naming proficiency of 2 underperforming Kindergarten students. During a no-intervention baseline, both students’ accuracy was low or declining. Instructions alone produced increases over baseline responding, but the effects were not maintained; no improvement relative to baseline was observed when goal setting and reinforcement were used in isolation. However, when reinforcement was combined with instructions and goal setting, the performance of both participants improved in all conditions, with the greatest initial improvements in the instruction plus reinforcement condition. Data from this phase showed some evidence of carryover between conditions. These findings suggest that single interventions were not sufficient for performance improvement, but that combined interventions were effective.
Paper Session #521
Improvement of Posture for Ergonomic Safety
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Area: OBM
Chair: Matthew A. Taylor (Queens College, City University of New York)
Extending Self-Monitoring of Posture Technology into the Workplace.
Domain: Applied Research
SIGURDUR OLI SIGURDSSON (University of Maryland, Baltimore County)
Abstract: This paper will focus on one laboratory application of self-monitoring and feedback to improve computer workstation posture, and three research projects aimed at improving computer workstation posture in actual work environments. The goal of the laboratory study was to examine if fairly extended time intervals (5 minutes) between self-monitoring and real-time visual feedback opportunities would lead to improved posture. The results of the lab study suggest that moderate to minimal effects are observed with a 5-minute interval. The overall goal of the three ongoing research projects in natural settings is to determine the relative effectiveness of traditional "best practices" ergonomic interventions and behavioral interventions. The first study evaluates the effects of a single comprehensive "best practices" ergonomics assessment on worker self-reported bodily comfort and workstation variables modifiable by workers. The second study is aimed at evaluating if postural training consisting of real-time camera feedback and trainer prompting and feedback under simulated work conditions will result in improved posture at actual workstations. The third natural setting study is aimed at investigating the utility of self-monitoring and real-time visual feedback in improving posture at workplace computer workstations.
The Observer Effect with Discrimination Training Plus an Assessment of the Relation between Observer Ergonomic Safety Behavior and the Accuracy of Observations.
Domain: Applied Research
MATTHEW A. TAYLOR (Queens College, City University of New York), Alicia M. Alvero (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: This study expanded upon previous ergonomic safety behavior research in the area of the “observer effect.” The observer effect is described as an observer that performs more safely as a result of conducting safety observations. The current study attempted to tease apart accuracy of observations from the act of observing. Additionally, the design allowed an analysis of the relation between accuracy of observation and safety performance for the respective responses. The study used a multiple baseline design across two pairs of responses (lower back and shoulders/upper arms, and thighs/lower legs and feet). The phases were the following: (a) baseline, (b) behavioral safety discrimination training (BSDT), and (c) BSTD plus observation. The results suggest that BSTD alone substantially improves safety performance. Furthermore, the results suggest that the act of conducting observations in combination with BSTD further improves safety performance; however, the accuracy of observations had low relation with safety performance.
The Effects of a Still-Photo Computer Module without Feedback on Ergonomic Behaviors.
Domain: Applied Research
RHIANNON M. FANTE (Western Michigan University), John Austin (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a still-photo computer training module without feedback on safe positioning of individuals performing an assembly task and a lifting task using a multiple baseline design across behaviors and tasks. The study took place in an analogue office setting and participants were 5 college students. The dependent variable was the percentage of observations scored as safe and each session was recorded via a hidden camera. During each session, participants completed a 5 minute assembly task followed by 2 lifts and this task sequence was repeated a minimum of four times during each session. Prior to the beginning of baseline, participants received information regarding safe positions and also demonstrated the positions, they then received a safety information sheet at the beginning of every session. At the start of each session in the still-photo module without feedback phase, participants were asked to evaluate 10 still-photos of safe postures and 10 still-photos of at-risk postures for the target behavior(s). Increases in safe performance occurred when the still-photo module without feedback was implemented. The possible behavioral functions responsible for this change, the implications for these findings, and future research are discussed in detail.
Symposium #522
Behavioral Contingency Analysis in Management and Education
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Area: OBM/TPC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Francis Mechner (The Mechner Foundation)
Abstract: The managers of organizations, whether in business, education, government, or other, must make decisions based on their perception of the operative behavioral contingencies. When faced with any type of management problem involving the behavior of people, they must identify the parties whose actions are relevant, their possible actions, the consequences—positive, negative, or neutral—of those actions for all the parties involved, the parties’ likely perceptions and predictions of those consequences, as well as their possible misperceptions, non-perceptions, wrong predictions, non-predictions, and uncertainties regarding all of these. They must also consider the perceived and actual time lags, probabilities, and magnitudes of the likely consequences, the actions that can prevent or alter the probabilities or magnitudes of consequences, and changes in the magnitude or probabilities of consequences as a function of actions or the passage of time. A formal language for the codification of behavioral contingencies will be presented, with its own vocabulary, grammar, and syntax, along with examples of its applications to a wide range of complex situations. The examples will be drawn from diverse areas of management including negotiation, safety, sales and marketing, and personnel management. Algorithms, techniques, and procedures for the practical application of behavioral contingency analysis will be proposed.
A Formal Language for the Codification of Behavioral Contingencies.
FRANCIS MECHNER (The Mechner Foundation)
Abstract: A formal symbolic language for the analysis and codification of behavioral contingencies will be presented. The main elements of the language are: • A followed by a horizontal arrow, read as, “If act A is performed then … (a consequence).” Every A is preceded by an implied “If.” • The agent(s) of an act A are designated by arbitrary letters placed in front of the A (e.g., aA, bcA). • T arrow, read as “upon termination of time T …” • A consequence C is any situation or event resulting from an A or a T. The term refers to all relevant aspects of the prevailing environment. Consequences can be positive, negative, or neutral for any party. • A consequence is prevented when the arrow leading to it is cut by a vertical arrow originating from another A or T. • A bracket enclosing vertically listed As, Ts, or Cs indicates simultaneity of onset of the listed conditions. Additional notational devices indicate the parties that perceive, misperceive, don’t perceive, predict, mispredict, or don’t predict any of the events, as well as their probabilities or magnitudes. Because all modifiers can also apply to other modifiers in hierarchical and recursive fashion, the language can express subtle nuances of meaning.
Improving Safety Practices through Behavioral Contingency Analysis.
TERRY E. MCSWEEN (Quality Safety Edge)
Abstract: The installation of safety practices in work environments involves the analysis and design of the operative behavioral contingencies. The parties involved are usually workers, supervisors, the company, and the insurance company. The contingencies often involve tradeoffs between short-term and long-term positive and negative consequences for all of the involved parties. Several safety-related contingencies will be analyzed and codified using Mechner’s behavioral contingency language. An important safety practice in work environments is the use of safety gear. The time and effort of donning it and the possible discomfort of wearing it are the short-term negative consequences of using it. The longer-term consequence for all the parties is a reduced probability of a serious negative consequence. The worker may also be avoiding the short-term negative consequence of a reprimand if his supervisor sees him working without the safety gear, and the supervisor’s act of monitoring the workers’ safety practices avoids a low-probability but serious negative consequence. Analysis of the detailed dynamics involved in such contingencies can suggest ways to install features that make them more effective. Other safety practices that will be discussed are the use of lift teams for patient transfer by nurses, production employees conducting safety observations, and the reporting of infractions.
Behavioral Contingencies in the Business World.
V. THOMAS MAWHINNEY (University of Detroit Mercy)
Abstract: In the world of business, behavioral contingencies—the “if, then” relationships between acts and their consequences for the involved parties—determine what parties do and don’t do. An example is the behavior of a rogue trader in Singapore who caused the collapse of Barings Bank when it was discovered that he had incurred and concealed huge trading losses while at the same time trying to reverse them. This is a case of the often-seen “riding the tiger” contingency where the magnitude of the negative consequence of a necessary act increases as a function of time. The trader’s superiors behaved in accordance with another set of contingencies when they failed to perform appropriate audits. They had no idea that the trader’s apparently stellar trading gains were bogus and that in fact he had hidden the losses that ultimately sank the bank. These types of contingencies, which involve the parties’ diverse perceptions, misperceptions, and non-perceptions of consequences of acts, diverse estimations of probabilities of consequences, and time-based drifts of the magnitudes of consequences, will be analyzed by means of the formal symbolic language proposed by Mechner. Also analyzed will be the behavioral contingencies at play when an employee asks his manager for a raise.
Applications of Behavioral Contingency Analysis in Education.
MELINDA SOTA (Florida State University), Janet S. Twyman (Headsprout), Deborah Anne Haas (Headsprout), Jennifer D. Clayton (Headsprout), T. V. Joe Layng (Headsprout)
Abstract: Complex behavioral contingencies lie at the center of events occurring in a wide variety of systems, including those in the areas of business and education. When changes are made to processes within these systems, those changes are often made to the contingencies involved. Therefore, analysis of these complex contingencies is important in providing support for contingency modification and design. Recently, Francis Mechner proposed a formal symbolic language for codifying behavioral contingencies, including the complex contingencies encountered in areas such as education and business management. This language specifies relationships between acts and their consequences using a specialized vocabulary, grammar, and syntax. This presentation will illustrate its application to the analysis of the complex contingencies involving vendors of educational products and their clients, and the contingencies often encountered in the interactions of school administrators, teachers, parents, and students when new practices or systems are introduced. Examples of situations that will be considered are often-seen interactions of the concerns of administrators, parent expectations or demands, the inertia of educational practices, student progress, time factors, and the consequences for all parties of the involved parties’ actions.
Panel #523
CE Offered: BACB
Establishing and Expanding ABA Affiliate Chapters
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Richard B. Graff, M.S.
Chair: Richard B. Graff (New England Center for Children)
MICHELE D. WALLACE (California State University, Los Angeles)
DAVID E. KUHN (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
JAMES M. SPERRY (The May Institute)
JOHN D. MOLTENI (The Center for Children with Special Needs)

Affiliated chapters are organizations associated with the Association of Behavior Analysis International, whose mission involves the dissemination and growth of behavior analysis. Recently, there has been an increase in the number of chapters that have been established in the United Statesover a third of all U.S. ABA Affiliate Chapters were established within the past 4 years. The purpose of this panel discussion is to review the history of several successful ABA affiliate chapters, and review how each organization is structured, what the goals are, and what the chapters have done to increase membership in their organizations. In addition, panelists will review how they have organized and improved the quality of their respective conferences. Individuals from several affiliate chapters will participate, including the Berkshire Association for Behavior Analysis and Therapy (BABAT), the Maryland Association for Behavior Analysis (MABA), the California Association for Behavior Analysis (CalABA), and the Connecticut Association for Behavior Analysis (CTABA).

Invited Panel #524
Behavior Analysis, Certification, and the APA Model Licensing Act
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
International North
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Larry Alferink (Illinois State University)
Panelists: JANET S. TWYMAN (Headsprout), GERALD A SHOOK (Behavior Analyst Certification Board), TERRENCE J. KOLLER (Illinois Psychological Association)

Behavior Analysis has its origins within psychology. As the field has matured and the evidence supporting behavioral techniques has accumulated, the use of behavioral techniques has spread to other disciplines and the demand for services has dramatically increased. This led to the development of standards and procedures to certify that individuals have the training necessary to provide competent services. Like many other professions, psychologists may be licensed to provide services to the public. While these licenses are issued by the states, the American Psychological Association developed and periodically updated a Model Licensing Act to serve as a guide for state licensing laws. This Model Licensing Act has long included behavior analysis as part of the practice of psychology to be included in state licensing laws. Licensed psychologists may not be certified to practice behavior analysis, and individuals who are certified to provide behavior analytic services may not be either licensed or psychologists. Is there any conflict between certification and licensure and between behavior analysis and the Model Licensing Act? The panel will discuss certification, state licensure and the APA Model Licensing Act as they relate to the practice of behavior analysis by certified behavior analysts and by licensed psychologists.

JANET S. TWYMAN (Headsprout)
Dr. Janet S. Twyman is the Vice-President of Instructional Development at Headsprout, where she is a major contributor to the development of Headsprout’s Generative Learning Technology and the effort to build that technology into highly effective educational programs. Dr. Twyman developed the research methods and systems that led to Headsprout’s ground breaking scientific formative evaluation model of program development, coordinating all elements of instructional design, scripting, graphic creation, animation, sound engineering, story development and writing, software engineering, and usability testing within the research model. She earned her Ph.D. from Columbia University Teachers College and holds certification as an elementary and special education teacher and as a principal/school administrator. Formerly the Executive Director of the Fred S. Keller School and an adjunct associate professor at Columbia University Teachers College, Dr. Twyman has been a long-time advocate and investigator of research-based instruction and systems design. While at the Keller School and Columbia University, she conducted research and taught courses focusing on effective instruction, technology and education, teacher development, and systems approaches to effective education. She has published and presented widely on verbal behavior, instructional design, systems approaches, and on topics of broader conceptual interest. She serves on the board of numerous organizations and has served ABAI as a member, Chair of the Graduate Program Accreditation Processes, Applied Representative, and, most recently, as President.
GERALD A SHOOK (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Dr. Gerald L. Shook is Chief Executive Officer and Founder of the Behavior Analyst Certification Board, Inc. He holds a Ph.D. in Psychology and is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst with over 35 years experience in behavior analysis. Dr. Shook has taken an active role in developing certification in several states, as well as internationally, and has published and presented extensively in the area of credentialing and Behavior Analysis as a profession. He conducted statewide distance education university graduate training in several states and consulted nationally on development of statewide behavioral service and training systems. He currently holds adjunct appointments in the College of Education and Graduate College at Penn State. Dr. Shook was on the Executive Council of the Association for Behavior Analysis International, where he also was Coordinator of the Legislative and Public Affairs Committee and the Affiliated Chapters Board. He was President of the Florida Association for Behavior Analysis. He served on the Editorial Boards of The Behavior Analyst, Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, and Behavior Analysis in Practice. Dr. Shook is a Trustee of the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies, and a Fellow of ABAI. He received the Florida Association for Behavior Analysis’ Award for Outstanding Service; the California Association for Behavior Analysis’ Award for Outstanding Contributor to Behavior Analysis; The Society for the Advancement of Behavior Analysis’ Outreach Award and Award for Public Service; and the Outstanding Alumni Award from Western Michigan University.
TERRENCE J. KOLLER (Illinois Psychological Association)
Dr. Terrence Koller has been Executive Director and Legislative Liaison of the Illinois Psychological Association (IPA) since 1993. He served as IPA President in 1990-1991 but held a number of positions at the IPA before that including Secretary and Chair of the Clinical Section, and Chair of the Placement Committee. He was also Secretary of the IPA’s Health Services Advisory Board and served as the Illinois Council Representative to APA for six years. His APA experience also includes serving as Platform Chair for the Association of Practicing Psychologists and Communication’s Chair for Division 31 (State Provincial and Territorial Psychological Associations). Before becoming IPA’s Executive Director, Terrence worked in a state hospital, community mental health center, as Director of Psychological Services for the Chicago Head Start Program and as Director of Training for the Michael Reese Health Plan. He continues to maintain a part-time private practice.
Symposium #525
International Symposium - RFT Analysis of Therapeutic Techniques: Defusion and Metaphors
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
Stevens 5
Area: VRB/CBM; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Olga Gutierrez Martinez (Universidad de Granada)
Discussant: Ian T. Stewart (National University of Ireland, Galway)
Abstract: The present symposium aims to analyze the basic relations involved in two therapeutic methods commonly used in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT): cognitive defusion and metaphors. There exists large evidence on the superiority of methods like these, focused in altering the arbitrary relation between thoughts and actions, over methods more focused in altering the content of “problematic” thoughts. Part of this superiority has to do with one of the main Relational Frame Theory assumptions: relational networks can be only altered by addition, never by subtraction. The first study shows empirical evidence on this regard. The second paper addresses the experimental analysis of deictic and hierarchical framing, as the relational behavior at the basis of the use of defusion and mindfulness techniques. In the third presentation, the authors present an experimental analysis of the conditions that should be fulfilled for the metaphors to maximize their intended effect of changing psychological functions.
Relational Network Complexity and Defusion.
PATRICIA BACH (Illinois Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Relational networks cannot be changed by subtraction, only by addition. It has been suggested that expanding relational networks may facilitate cognitive fusion. To explore the impact of a larger versus a smaller relational network on performance on an implicit attitude task subjects were trained to relate two novel stimuli to either one or several descriptors. Subjects then completed an implicit attitude test using the novel stimuli and performance and response latencies were compared across number of relations to the novel stimuli. The results will be discussed in terms of their implications for education and psychotherapy.
Hierarchy and Deictic Framing as Basis Process during Defusion Practices.
CARMEN LUCIANO SORIANO (University of Almerí­a, Spain), Sonsoles Valdivia-Salas (University of Almerí­a, Spain), Francisco Jose Ruiz-Jimenez (University of Almerí­a, Spain), Michael J. Dougher (University of New Mexico), Miguel Rodriguez-Valverde (Universidad de Jaen, Spain), Dermot Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Yvonne Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
Abstract: Defusion practices are one of the most relevant and necessary components of the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. As well, defusion seems to be the process involved in meditation or mindfulness experiences. The present experiment works through two relational frames that have been conceptualized as critical in defusion practices. Two experimental and one control conditions will show the impact of establishing hierarchical and deictic framing in relation to the participants’ private events on the performance in highly demanding tasks.
Experimental Analysis of the Use of Metaphors in Clinical Settings.
FRANCISCO JOSE RUIZ-JIMENEZ (University of Almería, Spain), Carmen Luciano Soriano (University of Almería, Spain), Sonsoles Valdivia-Salas (University of Almería, Spain)
Abstract: This paper presents a Relational Frame Theory account of the use of metaphors as effective clinical methods. A number of therapies have shown increased interest in the use of metaphors (e.g. ACT, DBT, MBCT), which have been successfully applied as part of the treatment of several psychological disorders. However, the conditions under which metaphors are useful and have a real impact on psychological functions have not been studied systematically, thus are not well understood. The empirical study here presented attempts to provide a preliminary account of this issue, indicating some of the conditions under which metaphors can be more effectively used for the treatment of psychological disorders.
Invited Paper Session #526
CE Offered: BACB

Addressing the Challenging Behaviors of Adolescents with Autism: Successful Proactive Strategies, Methods and Skills Building Interventions

Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Grand Ballroom
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Richard M. Foxx, Ph.D.
Chair: William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children)
RICHARD M. FOXX (Pennsylvania State University)
Dr. Richard M. Foxx is a Professor of Psychology at Penn State Harrisburg and Clinical Adjunct Professor of Pediatrics at the College of Medicine of the Pennsylvania State University. He has written seven books, written over 130 scientific articles, and made 13 training films. He has given over 1700 talks and workshops. Dr. Foxx is an internationally recognized expert in treating behavioral problems. He has lectured in 11 foreign countries and 47 states. He is the Editor-in-Chief of Behavioral Interventions and is on the editorial board of five scientific journals. Dr. Foxx is a Fellow in five divisions of the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, and the American Association on Mental Retardation. He was the President of the Association for Behavior Analysis and the Division of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities of the American Psychological Association. He has served as an expert witness in a number of court cases involving individuals with autism and developmental disabilities. One of his books, Toilet Training in Less Than a Day, has sold over two million copies and has been translated into seven languages and one of his training films, "Harry" (the treatment of a self-abusive man), has won numerous cinematic awards.

Adolescents with autism can present a special set of behavioral challenges. This talk will focus on the application of effective educational and treatment strategies, methods and skills building approaches to help adolescents and their parents and caregivers not only deal with autism but puberty as well. Some of the areas covered include aggression, masturbation, inappropriate touching, toilet training, social skills, and problem solving skills. The discussion also will include how antecedent planning can reduce confrontations and escape motivated behavior.

Symposium #527
CE Offered: BACB
Theory-Based Research on Conditions of Practice and the Development of Expertise in Sports
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:00 AM–11:20 AM
Williford B
Area: EDC/CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Elise Cooke (Holliston Public Schools)
Discussant: Eric J. Hörst (Training for Climbing)
CE Instructor: John Stokes, M.S.

A growing body of research supports behavior analytic approaches to the development of expertise in sports/athletics. In his 2007 Presidential Scholars Address at ABA, K. Anders Ericsson bridged his largely cognitive approach to the development of elite-level performance with an operant approach. Research on Ericssons model of deliberate practice applied to sports, combined with investigations of athletic performance in the behavior analysis literature, have expanded the basis for which innovative research may emerge. The first paper in this symposium reviews this research and offers directions for future research. The second paper presents just such an innovative investigation, the application of functional analysis methodology to the data-based assessment of reinforcement contingencies for individual high school football players. Similarly, the third paper presents the results of an intervention in which high school football coaches utilized traditional observation versus the use of conditional probability data to determine defensive plays.

A Review of Research and Operant Analysis of Ericsson’s Model of Deliberate Practice Applied to Athletic Performance.
RICHARD K. FLEMING (Shriver Center/University of Massachusetts Medical School)
Abstract: At ABA 2007, K. Anders Ericsson presented the Presidential Scholar’s Address, entitled The Acquisition of Skilled and Expert Performance through Deliberate Practice. Ericsson bridged his largely cognitive analysis of the development of elite performance with an operant analysis. His presentation touched upon athletic expertise, and indeed a growing body of descriptive research has been published in support of this model of deliberate practice and elite-level performance. The purpose of this paper is to review the extant research on Ericsson’s model of deliberate practice applied to sports/athletics; analyze the research questions and methodology from an operant perspective; and suggest opportunities for behavior analytic research on the relationship between conditions of practice and the development of high levels of expertise.
Functional Analysis of Athletic Performance.
JOHN STOKES (Simmons College)
Abstract: Using a multielement design, this study investigated the effects of environmental stimuli on the athletic performance of high school football and lacrosse players. Three conditions were used to determine environmental control: escape, coach attention and peer attention. The dependent variable was tackling behavior, which was task-analyzed and broken down into 5 separate behaviors. All sessions were video taped and coaches were trained in data collection and in providing consequences. The results indicated that the methodology was effective in distinguishing specific environmental variables controlling player behavior. Results were used to prescribe reinforcement contingencies that were successful in increasing tackling performance in all athletes and to design teaching procedures for new coaches. Inter-observer agreement was collected for 100% of trials, with a mean of 82.34%. Results are displayed graphically.
The Use of Conditional Probability Data for Play Calling in High School Football.
JOHN STOKES (Simmons College), Peter Flynn (Billerica High School)
Abstract: Using a reversal design, this study investigated the effects of using conditional probability data on coaches' calling effective defensive plays for a high school football team. During baseline, coaches called plays based only on visual analysis of the opponents' offensive play during games. In the intervention phase, coaches utilized conditional probability data to call defensive plays in games. Results indicated that during the intervention yards gained in rushing and passing, touch downs and first downs were less then during baseline conditions. Interobserver data was taken for 100% of session with a mean IOA of 95%. Data are displayed graphically.
Symposium #528
Under-Addressed Issues in Behavior Analysis: Diversity, Sexuality, Gerontology, and Response Amplitude
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:00 AM–11:20 AM
Area: TPC/CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Diana J. Walker (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Behavior-analytic principles are widely applicable to virtually all behavior of importance to humans and society. Regardless, there are areas of human behavior that have been relatively neglected by behavior analysts, and four of these areas are diversity/multiculturalism, sexuality, gerontology, and response amplitude. Diversity and multiculturalism are of increasing importance in today’s global society. Sexuality has been addressed by behavior analysts in the context of behavior problems but less so in the context of typical, functional sexuality. The field of gerontology is increasingly important, given the growing population of people over age 65. Finally, the dimension of response amplitude has implications for vocal verbal behavior, reading, private events, etc. This paper session will discuss behavior-analytic treatment of these issues, including what has been done and suggestions for future research.
Diversity and Multi-Cultural Issues in Behavior Analysis.
DIANA J. WALKER (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Diversity and multicultural issues have been underemphasized in behavior analysis, perhaps because of the central tenet of individual differences and the environment-based approach to explaining behavior. Racism and other “-isms” are mentalistic (Moore, 2003) and, therefore, antithetical to a radical-behaviorist perspective. Implications of the radical-behaviorist approach to racial and other types of discrimination include the following: (1) a radical behaviorist should not “be prejudiced” or engage in discriminatory behavior, (2) prejudice and discrimination are behavioral problems that can be treated, and (3) we cannot blame the “racist” or “racism” (Guerin, 2005) because that would be mentalistic. Current behavior-analytic approaches to the problem of discrimination will be discussed, along with possibilities for future research and implications for the field.
Sexuality and Behavior Analysis: What’s “Normal” and Why Should It Matter to Us?
FAWNA STOCKWELL (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Human sexuality is a seldom-discussed and under-researched topic in behavior analysis. The majority of behavior-analytic research has addressed problematic behaviors rather than developing a broader perspective of what behaviors exist in the realm of typical, functional sexuality. This presentation will cover current methods of directly measuring sexual behaviors, point out seminal research on the spectrum of human sexual behavior, and discuss implications and directions for further research.
Behavioral Gerontology: The Clients Will Be There; Where Are We?
VINH DANG (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: The population of persons over 65 years old in the US has been increasing at a phenomenal rate. Skinner noted this trend and devoted several articles as well as his 1983 book to this special population. The US Census Bureau projected that the population over 65 will increase by 30% from 1990 to 2010. With the aging of the Baby Boomer cohort, this population is expected to increase by 78% from 40.2 thousand in 2010 to 71.5 thousand in 2030; approximately 20% of the US population will be over 65 years old. This paper will summarize some behavior analytic studies done with older adults and examine how behavior analysis has responded to this socially significant issue along with a further focus on possible controlling factors on the behavior of analysts working with this population. Finally this paper will evaluate the statement, “the older adult population is ripe for behavior analysis.”
Response Amplitude: A Neglected Dimension of Behavioral Research and Development.
JOHN W. ESHLEMAN (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: In most natural sciences, amplitude has equal importance to frequency, often depicted as orthogonal to it. As a data-based review of the literature reveals, response amplitude has been an understudied area within behavior analysis. Few researchers have investigated amplitude, possibly because Skinner (1938) found little significance regarding the intensity of mechanical responses. However, on page 438 em>Verbal Behavior, Skinner (1957) also suggested an amplitude scale for possible use with the study of vocalized verbal behavior. No follow-up research exists regarding the amplitude of verbal behavior, even though it should be apparent that modulation of vocalizations holds considerable social validity. One example concerns the teaching of reading, where we transition from reading out loud to reading silently – an amplitude change. Our verbal communities impose contingencies related to the amplitude of vocalizations. Moreover, as Skinner’s amplitude scale suggests, so-called private events, inner behavior, and covert action may be better conceptualized as low-amplitude behavior, which has implications for how we may observe and measure it. This presentation concludes with a call for research on amplitude of responding, replete with suggested research questions.
Paper Session #529
International Paper Session - Predicting Outcomes for Children with Autism
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:30 AM–11:20 AM
Stevens 3
Area: AUT
Chair: Bob Remington (University of Southampton)
Field Effectiveness of Early Intensive Behavioural Intervention for Young Children with Autism.
Domain: Applied Research
BOB REMINGTON (University of Southampton), Richard P. Hastings (University of Wales, Bangor), Hanna Kovshoff (University of Southampton), Francesca Degli Espinosa (University of Southampton), Erik Jahr (Akershus University Hospital, Norway)
Abstract: We conducted a UK-based 2 year field effectiveness evaluation of early intensive behavioural intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism. An Intervention group (N=23) of preschool children with autism, identified on the basis of parent preference, received treatment supplied from recognised service providers. A Comparison group (N=21) received Treatment as usual supplied by Local Education Authorities. Prospective assessment was undertaken before treatment, and after 12 and 24 months. Groups did not differ on assessments at baseline but, after 2 years, robust differences favouring EIBI were observed on measures of intelligence, language, daily living skills, and positive social behaviour. A greater proportion of individuals in the Intervention group showed statistically defined reliable change in IQ. Measures of parental well-being produced no evidence that behavioural intervention created increased problems for parents.
Behavioral Intervention for Autism - A Survey of UK Service Providers.
Domain: Applied Research
NEIL T. MARTIN (The Treehouse Trust)
Abstract: The growing number of service providers within the field of behavioral intervention for autism and the growing number of descriptions for such intervention (e.g. ABA, Lovaas, Discrete Trial, Verbal Behavior etc.) has inevitably led to much confusion from other professionals and parents about what an appropriate and competent autism-specific behavioral provision looks like. This UK specific survey is an attempt to document existing commonalities and differences between service providers, organisations and individual supervisor/consultants who would describe their provision (albeit in different ways) as behavioral intervention for autism. The survey responses suggest that there is high degree of heterogeneity between behavioral intervention service providers in terms of verbal descriptors, clinical practice and the credentials and experience of those responsible for these services.
Symposium #530
CE Offered: BACB
Assessment Considerations in Behavioral Treatment of Autism
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Continental C
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Discussant: Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
CE Instructor: Gerald E. Harris, Ph.D.

Applied behavior analysis is often characterized as data driven. Data are only as valid as the instruments that produce the data. This symposium presents data-based information about characteristics of measures often used in ABA research and intervention in the area of autism. The first presentation examines several of the most commonly used measures of language in children with autism. How these measures compare to each other and the implications for reporting and interpreting scores from these measures is presented. The second presentation offers findings from a relatively large sample group comparison study concerning the utility of a low-cost, widely used behavior report measure (CBCL) as a screening tool for more efficiently identifying children who could benefit from ABA intervention. The third presentation provides data from a large sample of children with autism who were administered a Weschler Intelligence Scale prior to beginning ABA treatment. Normative data by age group are presented and a case is made for using population specific norms when reporting and interpreting intelligence scores for children with autism. Together, these presentations give significant new information relevant to research and treatment in the area of ABA for children with autism.

An Examination of Standardized Language Measures Used with Children with Autism.
GERALD E. HARRIS (Texas Young Autism Project), Catriona Cullum (Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: Autism is a complex condition, yet typically assessed using few standardized instruments. Level of functioning is often estimated based on a single scale. Additionally, lack of consensus regarding which tests are most accurate in evaluating children with autism may be partially to blame for the inconsistency in measures chosen across and within studies. Researchers often compare scores on different instruments to determine whether or not an intervention was effective. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between language measures (VABS, RDLS, PLS-IV, and GLC) most commonly used in the assessment of children with autism. Since results from these tests are often used interchangeably in the research and intervention communities, this study examined the relationship between scores on these four tests. Participants included 107 children diagnosed with autism between the ages of 15 months and 10 years of age, each of whom was administered multiple language tests within an evaluation. It was found that, although the tests were moderately to strongly correlated, children received very different age equivalent scores across the different tests. For some children, age equivalent scores varied by as much as two years.
Identifying Behavioral Patterns in Children with Autism Using the CBCL.
GERI MARIA HARRIS (Texas Young Autism Project), Catriona Cullum (Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is one of the most widely used measures of child behavior, yet little is known about its psychometric properties in relation to children with autism. Because it is a behaviorally oriented measure, the CBCL has potential utility in clinical activities associated with autism. This investigation compares a normative sample of typically developing children to children with autism to distinguish between behavioral patterns. Parent reports from a sample of 275 children with autism were compared to a sample of same age typically developing children. Group differences were significant enough to consider the CBCL to be a useful screening tool in the identification of children with autism. CBCL problem behaviors are clustered into seven syndromes and five DSM-Oriented Scales, which group items based on their relationship to criteria for DSM diagnoses such as Autism Spectrum Disorder. Although the items in the DSM-Oriented Scales are related to criteria for clinical diagnoses, these scales do not correspond exactly to diagnostic criteria. A proposed CBCL profile for autism, based on the data from this study, is presented and implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.
Revising Normalizations for the WPPSI-III for Use with Children with Autism.
WENDY J. NEELY (Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project), Glen O. Sallows (Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Tamlynn Sallows (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
Abstract: Assessment of cognitive abilities of children with autism is crucial to designing and evaluating behavioral interventions. While the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (3rd Ed.) is generally considered to be the “gold standard” of intelligence tests for preschool age children, the published normalization tables were developed based on a sample of children from the general population. Since children with autism who receive ABA early intervention frequently achieve developmental and cognitive gains at a slower rate than the general population, resulting standard scores often appear to decrease, rather than reflect progress actually made. Wechsler’s normalization procedures were replicated in this study to create scaled and composite scores for use specifically with children with autism. Raw test scores from pre-treatment test administrations of nearly 500 children with Autism were used to create an initial version of the new standard scores. These new standard scores should provide a mechanism with which interpretations of a child’s test scores may be made relative to other children with autism. Implications for use of these revised scales are also discussed.
Panel #531
CE Offered: BACB
Behavior Analysts Consulting in Public Schools: Identifying and Managing Obstacles
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Continental A
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: David A. Celiberti, Ph.D.
Chair: Ruth M. Donlin (Private Practice)
RUTH M. DONLIN (Private Practice)
DAVID A. CELIBERTI (Private Practice)
MARY ELLEN MCDONALD (Eden II Programs/The Genesis School)
LINDA S. MEYER (Autism New Jersey, Inc.)

Behavior analysts consulting in public school settings are often challenged by the behavior of consultees and other service providers and must find ways to teach and engage individuals who may not be optimally receptive to the consultation process. In a related vein, consultees may lack the resources or supports to follow through. Many consultees may fail to adequately recognize the importance of data collection, may not effectively supervise paraprofessionals, and may not adequately assume responsibility for thoroughly evaluating a students progress or program placement. Time, energy, and information is lost when systems are not in place to support consultation. This panel will focus on providing ABA consultation with educational settings that have not consistently employed ABA methods. We will discuss common consultation challenges and strategies designed to shape the performance of staff and improve accountability. This panel topic is relevant to educators, clinicians, administrators, parents of school-age children and all service providers.

Symposium #532
CE Offered: BACB
Rapport Building
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Stevens 2
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Michael Fabrizio (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Discussant: Shahla S. Ala'i-Rosales (University of North Texas)
CE Instructor: Michael Fabrizio, M.A.

Providing effective, quality intervention to children with autism and related disabilities requires a very comprehensive approach. It is well recognized that it is not only what we teach our learners, but how we teach them that makes a meaningful difference. When a systematic plan for building and maintaining relationships between children with autism and their teachers is implemented, students are more likely to trust their teachers not only in what they are teaching, but also in how they are teaching. This symposium will discuss the importance of building rapport with our learners, teaching our learners to advocate for themselves, and assessing therapists teaching interactions in different instructional arrangements.

Developing and Measuring Rapport with Learners with Autism.
MICHAEL FABRIZIO (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Kelly J. Ferris (Organization for Research and Learning), Krista Zambolin (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: Children with autism often face a multitude of teachers throughout the course of receiving intervention services. Because learners with autism characteristically lack the skills required to form new relationships easily, teachers must specifically arrange interactions and experiences with the goal of building a solid history of reinforcement. This paper will share critical pinpoints for assessing the development of rapport between learners with autism and their teachers and present data on both teacher and student behavior. Data will be presented on how rapport data can be used to make clinical decisions related to instructional programs.
Precise Measurement in Naturalistic Teaching Arrangements.
KATHLEEN S. LAINO (Organization for Research and Learning), Heidi Calverley (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Holly Almon (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: According to the BACB Autism Task List, Board Certified Behavior Analysts working with persons with autism must be proficient at assessing, designing, and implementing interventions tailored to characteristics of autism and individuals with autism. Considering individuals with autism vary greatly in their skill level and learner characteristics, and research has shown some skills are best taught using a particular teaching format, it is critical that behavior analysts are proficient at designing and implementing interventions using multiple instructional arrangements. Although The Organization for Research and Learning (formally Fabrizio/Moors Consulting) is known within the behavior analytic community for designing and implementing well designed individualized Precision Teaching programs for children with autism, we also recognize the importance of using other instructional arrangements empirically validated with children with autism. One such instructional arrangement is naturalistic teaching. The following presentation describes O.R.L.’s precise and systematic method of evaluating the delivery of critical components of naturalistic teaching. Measurement is discussed in terms of environmental arrangements, instructional delivery, data collection and analysis, and reinforcement procedures. Data collected on therapists’ behaviors from the naturalistic teaching portion of O.R.L.’s staff training model will be presented.
Teaching Assent Withdrawal and Self-Advocacy Skills to Persons with Autism.
HOLLY ALMON (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Michael Fabrizio (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: In order to assure a “goodness of fit” standard in autism intervention programs, it is of utmost importance that students be active and willing participants in his/her learning environments. Therefore, students must be able to advocate for changes to instruction and changes in teacher behavior. If students can appropriately ask for changes in instruction, assent withdrawal during instruction should be either non-existent or infrequent. This paper will address how to teach several topographies of assent withdrawal in a fluency based instruction teaching arrangement, including asking for a break, choosing to “keep going” vs. “stop” timings, and asking to be “all done” with a program for the day. Other strategies related to appropriate assent withdrawal and self-advocacy will also be discussed.
Symposium #533
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Advances in the Assessment and Treatment of Challenging Behavior
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Continental B
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Mark O'Reilly (University of Texas, Austin)
CE Instructor: Mark O'Reilly, Ph.D.

In this symposium we present recent research findings regarding the assessment and treatment of challenging behavior for individuals with autism and developmental disabilities. The symposium consists of four papers from major university-affiliated research and treatment centers. In the first presentation researchers from Vanderbilt University will summarize the findings regarding assessment and treatment from their recently-established outpatient clinics. The second and third presentations will be from the University of Minnesota and the University of Texas and will provide recent findings on the influence of motivating operations on both the assessment and treatment of challenging behavior. Finally, researchers from the University of Idaho will tackle the controversial topic of sensory integration and provide functional assessment data on the use of weighted vests in the treatment of self-injury.

Treatment Outcome, Intervention Fidelity, and Operant Function Interactions in an Outpatient Clinic for Behavioral Problems.
NEALETTA HOUCHINS-JUAREZ (Tennessee Family Solutions), Craig H. Kennedy (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: The Behavior Analysis Clinic at the Vanderbilt Kennedy Center provides services to children and adolescents with neurodevelopmental disabilities and problem behavior. Our service delivery goal is to establish long-term reductions in problem behavior within home settings using care providers as the primary interventionists. We will present data regarding treatment outcomes. The presentation will begin with a review of the intake and home-training procedures used in the clinic. Data will be presented showing inter-relations between treatment outcome, behavioral function, and intervention fidelity. Implications of our results will be discussed in relation to level of training intensity as it relates to behavioral function that may be required for sustained behavioral change in home settings.
Clarifying Ambiguous Functional Analysis Data via Inspection of Cumulative Data Displays.
TIMOTHY R. MOORE (University of Minnesota), Jennifer J. McComas (University of Minnesota), Frank J. Symons (University of Minnesota)
Abstract: A functional analysis of self-injury (eye-pressing) was conducted with a 20-month-old boy with traumatic brain injury. Results of the functional analysis were initially ambiguous, with SIB occurring during both EO and reinforcement portions of analog attention and tangible conditions. Cumulative record data indicated a higher rate of responding during sessions conducted by the child’s mother compared with sessions conducted by the therapist, suggesting the mother functioned as a discriminative stimulus for positive reinforcement. Functional communication training conducted by the child’s mother was evaluated using an ABA reversal design. SIB was reduced to zero and use of a vocal output device to request positive reinforcement was established during treatment sessions, with re-emergence of SIB during the return to baseline condition. Results are discussed in terms of alternative methods for interpreting ambiguous functional analysis data.
Discrepency in Functional Analysis Results across Settings: Implications for Intervention Design.
RUSSELL LANG (University of Texas, Austin), Mark O'Reilly (University of Texas, Austin), Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Texas, Austin), Jeffrey Michael Chan (University of Texas, Austin), Mandy J. Rispoli (University of Texas, Austin), Tonya Nichole Davis (University of Texas, Austin), Paul D. Langthorne (Tizard Centre)
Abstract: A series of functional analyses were conducted with three children with developmental disabilities. For each child functional analysis findings were compared across settings. Discrepancies in functional analysis results were found in two of the children. For one of these children, the functional analyses were conducted on the playground and in the classroom. The playground assessment results indicated that adult attention was the most reinforcing maintaining consequence. The results of the classroom assessment suggested that access to toys was more reinforcing. Two interventions (an attention-based intervention and a tangible-based intervention) were designed based on the results from each of the assessment environments. These two interventions were then compared in both environments using an alternating treatment design. Results show that the attention-based intervention was more effective on the playground and the tangible-based intervention was more effective in the classroom. Findings are discussed in regards to the generalizability of functional analysis results across environments.
Effects of Weighted Vests on Problem Behavior during Functional Analysis.
SHAWN PATRICK QUIGLEY (Idaho State University), Lloyd D. Peterson (Idaho State University), Jessica E. Frieder (Idaho State University), Stephanie M. Peterson (Idaho State University)
Abstract: Occupational therapists often recommend sensory integration therapies, such as brushing and weighted vests, as a method of managing problem behavior. However, there is little empirical research evaluating the effectiveness of such interventions. The present study evaluated the effects of sensory integration therapy (weighted vest) on problem behavior exhibited during functional analysis. First, a functional analysis was completed with no vest. This was then followed by another functional analysis wherein participants wore a weighted vest during some conditions but not others. Vest and no-vest sessions were counter balanced across time and functional analysis conditions. Results will be discussed in terms of the utility of weighted vests as a method of managing problem behavior.
Paper Session #534
International Paper Session - Social Skills, Play Skills and Group Contingencies
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Area: AUT
Chair: Dennis W. Moore (Monash University)
The Role of Video-Modeling in Successful Interventions Targeting Social Skills in Children with Autism.
Domain: Applied Research
DENNIS W. MOORE (Monash University), Angelika Anderson (Monash University)
Abstract: The social difficulties associated with autism present a particular challenge to individuals with the disorder, their families and practitioners. Inadequate social skills contribute to the social isolation experienced by individuals with autism, and to the difficulties they experience in functioning adaptively in mainstream community settings, including schools and kindergartens. This paper presents the results of three studies targeting play and social skills in children with autism, employing interventions that include video self modeling, video modeling incorporating social stories, and combined in vivo/video modeling. Specific target behaviours included: greeting, inviting to play, other social initiations, and contingent responding. The effectiveness of including video modeling strategies in improving the social repertoire of children with autism, and consideration of specific elements that contribute to the effectiveness of video modeling strategies are discussed.
A Preliminary Investigation of the Effect of a Playscript on the Acquisition of Symbolic Play for Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Domain: Applied Research
NANCY J. CHAMPLIN (Autism Concepts, Inc.), Elizabeth C. Rusinko (Autism Concepts, Inc.), Aimee E. Collier (Autism Concepts, Inc.)
Abstract: We investigated the effect of a visual playscript to teach symbolic play to 4 children diagnosed on the autism spectrum. Symbolic play was defined as using a toy to simulate a real-life action such as, holding a thermometer to a stuffed animal’s mouth and saying the word “sick”. The ‘Vet’ script was comprised of pictures representing 7 motor actions and 7 corresponding vocal actions that typically occur during a visit to a veterinarian. Each picture depicted a stuffed dog, the necessary prop for the required action, and the corresponding vocal response. For example, the first picture showed the stuffed dog, a stethoscope and the word “bum-bum”. Physical and vocal prompts were used to teach the motor and vocal responses, respectively. Prompts were systematically faded to facilitate independent responding for both motor and vocal responses. Increases occurred in independent symbolic play across all 4 children. Results are discussed concerning the importance of teaching play to children diagnosed with autism and the effect of play on the acquisition of cognitive and social skills.
Improving On-task Behavior during Independent and Group Activities by Implementing a Group Contingency.
Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA S. MENTZER (Queens College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York), Sana L. Shadded (Queens College, City University of New York), Lynda Ellen Hounshell (New York City Dept. of Education), Arifa Roban (Queens College, City University of New York), Alicia M. Alvero (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: An effective way to manage a classroom involves enhancing students’ on-task behavior both during independent and group tasks (Heering & Wilder, 2006; Shores, Apolloni, & Noman, 1976), which this study attempted. This research entailed implementing a group contingency on the behavior of five students, between the ages of seven and nine, who attended a public school and previously received a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. The purpose of the study involved examining the percentage of on-task behavior as the function of a group contingency. A momentary time sampling procedure aided data collection for directly observing the participants’ behavior up to nine times a week for approximately four months. An analysis of the data discovered the group contingency yielded promising results.
Symposium #535
CE Offered: BACB
Teaching Parents to Design, Implement, and Evaluate Behavioral Intervention for their Children with Autism
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
International South
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Debra Berry Malmberg (Claremont McKenna College)
Discussant: Lara M. Delmolino Gatley (Rutgers University)
CE Instructor: Debra Berry Malmberg, Ph.D.

Parent education programs for parents of children with autism often focus on teaching parents to remedy the social and communicative deficits of their children. Recently, researchers have begun to investigate the unique contributions that parents can make in treatment choices, such as selecting behavioral excesses and deficits that are important targets with maximal effect. In these studies, parents and clinicians worked collaboratively to develop, implement, and evaluate interventions. In the first presentation, a parent education program was designed to teach parents to address complex problem behaviors in the home. The second presentation discusses the effects of this collaborative parent education program on the family (e.g., parent stress, quality of life). In the final presentation, parents were taught to evaluate and compare the interventions that their child received. These parent education programs will be discussed in terms of the importance of developing programs that are appropriate for individual families needs and the potential to increase parent empowerment.

Evaluation of a Parent Education Program to Decrease Maladaptive Behaviors in the Home.
SABRINA D. DANESHVAR (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Debra Berry Malmberg (Claremont McKenna College), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: Parent education programs have a long history in behavioral treatment of children with autism (Harris, 1982). Newer advances in parent education programming have led to the use of a collaborative approach between behaviorists and parents (e.g., Brookman-Frazee, 2002). The current study examined the use of a collaborative parent education program in targeting maladaptive behaviors of children with autism. Six parents of children with autism participated in an individualized parent education program. A multiple baseline design across participants (parent/child dyads) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a collaborative parent education program in teaching parents to manage and reduce the rigid and ritualistic behaviors of their own children. All of the six children showed decreased rigid behaviors during the targeted activity. Additionally, five out of six parents demonstrated consistent acquisition of behavioral strategies. This study demonstrated that a short-term, individualized parent education program was effective in teaching parents behavioral strategies that were used in the home and decreased the frequency of maladaptive child behaviors.
The Contributions of the Ecological Model to a Parent Education Program.
DEBRA BERRY MALMBERG (Claremont McKenna College), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: Researchers have found that behaviors in the response class of insistence on sameness have high clinical significance and likely affect family quality of life and stress (Green et al., 2007; Szatmari et al., 2006). The ecological model was used to develop the aforementioned collaborative parent education program. The study additionally investigated the effects of the ecological model on enhancing the contextual fit of the intervention and enhancing parent motivation to design and conduct intervention. This approach was also hypothesized to enhance clinical significance and enhance generalization of skills. Parents showed decreased stress levels on the Parent Stress Index after intervention. Results also found high levels of parent satisfaction with the selection of target behaviors and the intervention design. Parents also reported increased confidence in their ability to affect behavior change with their child at home. Results are discussed in terms of the value of applying the ecological model to parent education.
Evaluating Interventions for Children with Autism: Development and Assessment of a Parent Education Program.
KARI BERQUIST (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: This study investigated the effectiveness of a parent education program used to teach parents how to evaluate their child’s interventions. This study specifically examined parents’ acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of behaviors related to the evaluation of their child’s interventions. Additionally, this study looked at parents’ knowledge and attitudes related to informal and formal evaluation of their children’s intervention in comparison to controls. A multiple baseline design across parent participants was used to assess parents’ ability to evaluate interventions. In addition, a pre- and post-test design was used to assess variables related to psychosocial and knowledge of evaluative information, comparing parent participants to a control group. In addition, data was taken on children’s target behaviors in each of their intervention settings (e.g., at an after school behavior management center or a speech therapist’s office). After completion of the parent education program, parents’ evaluative abilities increased in comparison to controls as well as relative to individual baseline measures.
Symposium #536
The Use of Caregivers as Therapists in the Assessment of Problem Behavior
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Boulevard B
Area: CBM/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Nathan Call (The Marcus Institute)
Abstract: There is evidence that there may be advantages to having caregivers act as therapists during the assessment and treatment of problem behaviors such as aggression or food refusal (e.g., Ringdahl & Sellers, 2000). For example, antecedents, consequences, or both, may be qualitatively different when presented by caregivers than by a novel therapist. Similarly, caregivers may themselves become discriminative stimuli that signal the availability of social reinforcement. However, it remains unclear which types of assessments benefit from the inclusion of caregivers, or the degree to which assessments conducted by caregivers agree with more traditional assessments conducted by novel therapists. The papers presented in this symposium will present and evaluate a variety of functional assessment methodologies that incorporate the inclusion of caregivers as therapists. Two papers evaluated assessments that used caregivers as therapists while manipulating only antecedent variables and then compared these antecedent based assessments to ones that also manipulated consequences for problem behavior. The third paper evaluated naturalistic observations of participants and their caregivers to identify the consequences maintaining food refusal in the natural environment. The fourth paper will present two case studies of atypical problem behaviors assessed within a clinic that uses caregivers as therapists as standard operating procedure.
Using Parent-conducted Descriptive Assessments to Treat Pediatric Feeding Disorders.
HEATHER KADEY (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Cathleen C. Piazza (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Kirsten Murphy (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Past research has demonstrated that functional analyses methods can be used to identify the environmental variables (e.g., access to caregiver attention, escape from eating and access to preferred items) that maintain inappropriate mealtime behavior in children with pediatric feeding disorders. What is less clear is the extent to which these consequences are provided following inappropriate mealtime behavior in the natural environment. The purpose of the current study was to (a) use descriptive assessment procedures to examine and measure the delivery of common sources of reinforcement (e.g., attention, escape) following food refusal behavior within a naturalistic feeding context and (b) use the data collected during the initial descriptive assessment to develop effective treatments to reduce food refusal behavior and increase food consumption. Caregivers served as the therapists for all participants, and we evaluated individual treatment components using a multiple baseline design across caregivers. Results indicated that escape extinction was a necessary treatment component for all participants, and attention extinction plus escape extinction was necessary to decrease problem behavior to clinically acceptable levels and increase food acceptance for only some participants. Results will be discussed in terms of the extent to which descriptive assessments predict treatment outcomes for children with feeding disorders.
Procedural Integrity of Brief Functional Analyses with and without Consequences when Parents Serve as Therapists.
AMANDA ZANGRILLO (The Marcus Institute), Nathan Call (The Marcus Institute), Karen Rader (Louisiana State University), Michael E. Kelley (University of Southern Maine)
Abstract: A potential drawback of using care providers as therapists during functional analyses is that they may not always implement assessment procedures with high integrity, potentially resulting in inaccurate identification of the reinforcers maintaining problem behavior. We attempted to evaluate the usefulness of a simplified brief functional analysis (BFA) methodology that manipulated only the antecedent variable in each test condition in an effort to increase procedural integrity by care providers. Results of the simplified BFA were contrasted with those of a standard BFA. Data were examined for concordance of the two BFA outcomes as well as differences in procedural integrity. Interobserver agreement data were collected for greater than 20% of sessions and always exceeded 80% agreement for all dependent variables. Results of the two assessment methodologies matched with respect to the reinforcers maintaining problem behavior, though care providers were able to maintain higher integrity with the simplified BFA. Second, we compared the concordance of the two BFA methodologies to an extended functional analysis. Finally, function-based treatment procedures based on BFA results produced decreases in problem behavior, suggesting that the simplified BFA accurately identified the variables maintaining problem behavior.
Comparison of Functional Assessment Methods: Structured Descriptive Assessment with Caregivers vs. Experimental Functional Analysis with Professionals.
STEPHANIE A. CONTRUCCI KUHN (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michael A. Lind (Kennedy Krieger Institute/Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), David E. Kuhn (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Few studies comparing structured descriptive assessment (SDA) with experimental functional analysis have been conducted. Results from the studies that have been conducted have generally found high levels of agreement when comparing the results from structured descriptive assessments and experimental functional analyses (Freeman et al., 2000, Anderson & Long, 2002). However, the number of participants in these studies was limited to 3-4 participants. In the current study, data from SDA with caregivers was retrospectively compared to data collected during experimental functional analyses with professionally trained staff. Data were obtained for over 20 individuals receiving inpatient treatment for severe behavior disorders. Data were analyzed in terms of identification of function, agreement with identification of function, number of sessions conducted, & delivery of consequences. Overall agreement was lower than that reported in previous studies. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Applying Brief Experimental Analysis to Typically Developing Children with Severe Behavior Disorders.
BRENDA J. ENGEBRETSON (University of Iowa), David P. Wacker (University of Iowa), Melanie H. Bachmeyer (University of Iowa), Linda J. Cooper-Brown (University of Iowa), Matthew O'brien (University of Iowa), Michael A. Lind (University of Iowa)
Abstract: Since 1990, clinicians from the Behavioral Pediatrics Clinic at the University of Iowa Children’s Hospital have been using brief experimental analysis to evaluate a variety of challenging behaviors exhibited by young children who are typically developing. The child’s careprovider routinely serves as the therapist with coaching from clinic staff to evaluate the child’s behavior. An updated summary of the clinic will be discussed by reviewing outcomes from 2004 to 2007. Historically, the most common referral to clinic has been for disruptive behaviors (e.g., aggression, noncompliance), and the most common assessment procedure has been the brief functional analysis. The brief functional analysis is appealing for the assessment of disruptive behaviors because of its efficiency in identifying the response-reinforcer relationships within an outpatient evaluation. However, some behaviors, such as selective mutism and obsessions, are not as amenable to the procedure. In these instances, alternative assessments have been utilized in addition to or independently of the brief functional analysis (e.g., concurrent-choice analysis, fading analysis). Two case studies demonstrating this extension of clinic evaluations for two children who are typically developing and referred for selective mutism and obsessive-compulsive behaviors will be presented.
Invited Panel #537
Clinical Supervision in BA: Shaping the Knower to Know
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
International North
Area: CBM/AUT; Domain: Theory
Chair: Barbara S. Kohlenberg (University of Nevada School of Medicine)
Panelists: PATRICK C. FRIMAN (Father Flanagan's Girls and Boys' Town), ROBERT J. KOHLENBERG (University of Washington), PATRICK M. GHEZZI (University of Nevada, Reno), CLAUDIA DROSSEL (University of Nevada, Reno)

Shaping the applied repertoires of our students requires sensitivity to both the shaping of specified and non-specified response classes. We want our students to be able to attend to raw data, discriminate relevant functional units, and intervene effectively. Shaping the repertoires of clinical students in psychotherapy, and of behavior analysis students in applied settings, requires that the supervisor shape both topographically specified and non-specified responses. This panel will search for commonalities across traditional clinical supervision and supervision in traditional applied behavior analytic settings.

PATRICK C. FRIMAN (Father Flanagan's Girls and Boys' Town)
Dr. Patrick C. Friman received his Ph.D. from the University of Kansas under the Mentorship of Drs. Montrose M. Wolf and Edward R. Christophersen. He is Director of Clinical Services Father Flanagan’s Boys Home and a Clinical Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Nebraska School of Medicine. He has held faculty positions at the University of Nevada as well as Johns Hopkins and the University of Pennsylvania Schools of Medicine. He is the outgoing Editor of The Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and is on the editorial boards of nine other peer-reviewed scientific journals. He has published more than 150 scientific papers most of which involve behavior disorders of childhood in general, and behavioral pediatrics in particular. Generally, Dr. Friman’s research addresses the gap between outpatient well child medical care on one side, and referral-based clinical child psychologic and psychiatric care on the other. The gap includes behavior problems that bedevil parents, are outside the core curriculum used to train pediatricians, and yet are not sufficiently serious to warrant serious psychiatric diagnosis. For example, his research on solving bedtime problems was published in the Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, and presented at a large press conference in New York City, sponsored by the American Medical Association, at which the Surgeon General of the United States presented Dr. Friman to the press. His most recent book is Good Night, Sweet Dreams, I Love You: Now Get in Bed and Go to Sleep.
ROBERT J. KOHLENBERG (University of Washington)
Dr. Robert J. Kohlenberg received his doctorate under Ivar Lovaas at UCLA and is a Professor of Psychology at the University of Washington where he was the Director of Clinical Training from 1997 to 2004. He is certified by the American Board of Professional Psychology and received the Washington State Psychological Association’s Distinguished Psychologist Award. He uses behavior analysis to help understand, teach, and do research on the curative role of a close and intense therapist-client relationship as well as a broad range of clinical phenomena. The approach is represented by the 1991 book Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (known as FAP) by him and Mavis Tsai. Using this approach he and his colleagues (who are often first authors) have done research and published papers on electrical energy conservation, migraine, PTSD, marital counseling, OCD, depression, previously undocumented psychological side effects of anti-depressant medication, DBT, CBT, BPD, acceptance, personality, the self, DSM IV Axis II diagnosis, co-morbidity, the integration of psychotherapies, and the parallels between implanted memories and the therapy rationales presented to clients by behavior therapists. He has also contributed radical behavioral genetic material to help produce his daughter, Dr. Barbara Kohlenberg, a distinguished behavior analyst, talented clinician, teacher, researcher, and co-author.
PATRICK M. GHEZZI (University of Nevada, Reno)
Dr. Patrick M. Ghezzi is the director of the Behavior Analysis Program at the University of Nevada and the director and co-founder (with Sid Bijou) of UNR’s Early Childhood Autism Program. He received his training in experimental psychology at Western Washington University (MS) and in the analysis of behavior at Utah State University (PhD), and was on the research faculty in special education and rehabilitation at The University of Arizona prior to joining the faculty in the psychology department at the University of Nevada. His scholarly interests center on behavior theory, child pathology, and gambling.
CLAUDIA DROSSEL (University of Nevada, Reno)
Dr. Claudia Drossel has been a student, researcher, practitioner, and teacher of behavior analysis for more than a decade. As an undergraduate student, she was introduced to the experimental analysis of behavior by Bill Palya at Jacksonville State University. In 2004, she obtained her Ph.D. conducting studies in basic operant research with Phil Hineline at Temple University. She is now pursing a doctoral degree in clinical psychology at University of Nevada Reno (UNR), where she studies the application of behavior analytic principles to assessment and interventions in dementia care with Jane Fisher. As a trainee within the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and the Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) teams, Claudia’s ability to apply behavior analytic skills artfully has been honed. Claudia’s behavior as a trainer has been shaped by her interaction with trainees. She has shaped student behavior as an instructor of behavior analytic core classes at Temple University and behavioral pharmacology at UNR’s satellite master’s programs. Since 2004, in collaboration with Jane Fisher, Claudia has been training family and professional caregivers of individuals with dementia throughout Nevada to apply behavior analytic principles. As the Associate Director of the Nevada Caregiver Support Center, the removal of caregivers’ barriers to the implementation of behavior analytic care plans for individuals with dementia is Claudia’s main concern.
Symposium #538
Behavior Analysis of the Voters’ Quandary in 2008
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Area: CSE/TPC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Donald K. Pumroy (University of Maryland)
Discussant: Roger W. McIntire (University of Maryland)
Abstract: The coming election in the fall of 2008 is going to be different from any election in the past. Campaigning for the presidency will involve more people, will last for a longer period of time, will be more complex (and probably more negative) and set a new record for the money spent. The elections for the House and Senate will be viewed as more important than usual. The attempt of both parties to try to gain control of both branches will be seen as crucial. Issues are extremely important for each party and for the country. Some issues such as the war in Iraq, Social Security, health insurance, immigration, the economy, education, global warming and the role of science on the government stand out. The first paper helps the voter defend against misleading emotional manipulations. The second paper explores the role and impact of the conservative talk-radio and its effect on the voters. The third paper views the attempt of the political parties to influence senior citizens and to capture their votes.
Defending Against Emotional Manipulations of the Voter.
LEOPOLD O. WALDER (Behavior Service Consultants, Inc.)
Abstract: In papers delivered at ABAI in 2006 (“Patriotism and the Behavior Analysis of Terrorism”) and in 2007 (“A Behavioral View of Manipulations of Voting Behavior”) this author has surveyed over the centuries the nefarious use of emotional manipulations to sway the opinions of the populace. These manipulations have used such stampeding calls as “terrorism” and “patriotism” to interfere with – even squash – reason in the face of fear- and anger-producing challenges. We cited from history and from current times many egregious examples of contriving and hyping events to seize power by the use and misuse of fear and anger. The current paper brings these analyses up-to-date closer to our current nationwide election. The first paper looked at the broad sweep of history in manufactured wars, the second paper looked at the more recent misuse of such words as terrorism, and this third paper examines the use of emotional manipulations in the current presidential primary and election for national office. All three papers apply behavior analytic concept to not only seek scientific understanding but also to offer to the voter ways of seeing through these manipulations which are designed to gain power by subterfuge.
Analysis of the Content of Conservative Talk Radio Shows.
DONALD K. PUMROY (University of Maryland)
Abstract: The coming election in the fall of 2008 and the events leading up to it are going to be most exciting. There are many different aspects of the election but one that will loom large is conservative talk-radio and its influence on the voters. The focus of this paper is on the content of two of probably the most popular radio shows, the Rush Limbaugh Show and Sean Hannity Show. Each of these shows is on three hours per day, Monday through Friday, or 30 hours per week. The shows are broadcast through out the country and are said to emanate from over 500 radio stations. This paper is focused on an analysis of the topics covered in these two shows and the amount of time spent on topics in the program. A sampling of half-hour periods will be taken from the two shows at random times. Each sampling will then be analyzed for content and duration. The data will be divided into time spent on reference to Democrats and Republicans. Other relevant categories will be reviewed. Conclusion will be drawn from the data.
Perceptions of Aging and Voter Turnout.
JUDY G. BLUMENTHAL (Association for Behavior Change)
Abstract: The outcome of the 2008 presidential elections will be due in large part to voter turnout. As evident from past elections, a tremendously high percent of the aging population will cast their vote and influence election outcome. Nonetheless, perception of aging and ageism is real and the senior voters will make a difference and, consequently, appears to influence where candidates and pollsters spend their time and resources. Through a behavioral analysis, those who live and work in a political world will learn that courting the aging voter can increase the chance of leading in the polls; perhaps win the respective election. Along with a behavior analysis of peer influence and group pressures that influence aging voter behavior, it would behoove political experts to identify antecedent conditions as well as the consequences that can influence older voters. The issues that appear to have more importance for the senior citizens will be analyzed and discussed.
Symposium #539
International Symposium - Behavioral Variability
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Josele Abreu-Rodrigues (Universidade de Brasília)
Discussant: Manoel Rodrigues-Neto (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Although the focus of the behavior-analytic literature has been the understanding of steady-state conditions, studies in which behavioral variability is the subject of investigation itself also can be found. It has been demonstrated that response variation is amenable to selection by reinforcement: When reinforcers are contingent on variability, organisms behave variably; when reinforcers are contingent on stereotypy, organisms behave repetitively. Such demonstrations of reinforcement control suggest that variability can be a dimension of operant behavior, a finding that was investigated further in the studies included in the present symposium. These studies show that choice is influenced by the degree of variation required for reinforcement, and that a history with variation or repetition differentially affects rule discovery and sensitivity to response-independent reinforcers.
Behavioral Variation in the Context of Choice.
ALESSANDRA SOUZA (Universidade de Brasília and Instituto de Educação), Josele Abreu-Rodrigues (Universidade de Brasília)
Abstract: Choice between vary and repeat contingencies of reinforcement is affected by the variability requirement. That is, the more stringent the variability criterion, the greater the preference for the repeat contingency. The goal of the present study was to extend this finding to situations in which subjects choose between two vary contingencies. Pigeons’ responses on two concurrently available keys according to a VI 30-s schedule (initial links) produced the onset of one of two terminal links. The terminal-link performance consisted of sequences of four responses distributed in two operanda. In the FIXED terminal link, a specific variability criterion was maintained throughout the conditions; in the VARIED terminal link, the variability criterion was manipulated across conditions. Reinforcement rates were the same in both terminal links. The results showed that choice between vary contingencies was affected by the variability requirement such that subjects tended to prefer low variability requirements.
Variation and Repetition: Sensitivity to Response-Independent Reinforcers.
JOSELE ABREU-RODRIGUES (Universidade de Brasília), Paula Natalino (Universidade de Brasília)
Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate whether reinforcement histories with different degrees of behavior variability, with and without instructions, would produce differential effects upon subsequent exposure to response-independent events. In the Training Phase, college students were required to emit five-letter sequences. For the VAR and VAR-I groups, to be reinforced a sequence had to be different from the 10 previous ones; for the REP and REP-I groups, reinforcers were contingent to a specific sequence. Both VAR-I and REP-I groups received accurate instructions about the reinforcement contingencies. In the Testing Phase, all groups were exposed to sequence-independent reinforcers. The results showed that, during the Training Phase, the VAR and VAR-I groups presented higher levels of behavioral variation than the REP and REP-I groups. With the exposure to independent reinforcers, the level of sequence variation was not altered for the VAR and VAR-I groups, but it increased for the REP and REP-I groups. In both phases, the presence or absence of instructions did not affect differentially sequence variation. It was concluded that a baseline of behavioral repetition is more sensitive to response-independent reinforcers than a baseline of behavioral variation.
The Effects of Variation and Repetition upon Rule Discovery.
JOSELE ABREU-RODRIGUES (Universidade de Brasília), Juliana Brasiliense Vilela (Universidade de Brasília)
Abstract: The present study evaluated the effects of a history with variation and repetition upon rule discovery in subsequent reinforcement contingencies. Twenty college students were required to emit eight-response sequences. In the Training Phase, for the VAR group, a sequence was reinforced only when it has occurred no more than 15% of the trials; for the REP group, only a specific sequence was reinforced; and for the IND group, reinforcers were delivered independently of the sequence. The CTR group was not exposed to this phase. In the Testing Phase, all groups were exposed to four different reinforcement criteria. Also, all participants were required to describe each one of the reinforcement criteria (rules). During the Training Phase, the VAR group presented higher levels of behavioral variation than the REP and IND groups. During the Testing Phase, the VAR and CTR groups showed a greater number of accurate rules than the REP and IND groups. These results suggest that a history with low levels of behavioral variation may impair rule discovery.
Symposium #540
International Symposium - The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP): Investigating Implicit Attitudes in Health and Social Research
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Area: EAB/VRB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Patricia M. Power (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
Abstract: The objective of the current symposium is to further validate a relatively new methodology, namely the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). Each of the four studies presented, aim to demonstrate the advantages the IRAP provides relative to other implicit attitudinal measures (e.g., the Implicit Association Test: IAT, Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998), and explicit measures. The IRAP was designed to measure implicit relations (Hayes et al., 2001). It emerged from Relational Frame Theory (RFT), a modern behavioural approach to human language and cognition (a central postulate of which is that higher-cognitive functioning is composed of relational acts, Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001). Initial studies have shown that the IRAP may be used to measure relational networks or attitudes that individuals are either unaware of or may wish to conceal (Barnes-Holmes, Barnes-Holmes, Power, Hayden, Milne, & Stewart, 2006). The IRAP appears to offer advantages over other reaction time-based attitudinal measures (e.g. the Implicit Association Test), both in its theoretical rationale and its ability to measure many types of relationships (Barnes-Holmes et al., 2006). The current Symposium presents studies that have explored the use of the IRAP across a range of domains, including attitudes toward sexual orientation, race, smoking, and food.
Measuring Race-related Implicit Attitudes, using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP).
PATRICIA M. POWER (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Dermot Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Yvonne Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Ian T. Stewart (National University of Ireland, Galway)
Abstract: This paper presents a series of studies that sought to determine if the IRAP can be used to assess implicit racial stereotypes. Each participant completed an implicit measure (the IRAP) and a range of explicit measures so that the two could be compared. The IRAP involved presenting the sample stimuli “I think WHITE people are” and “I think BLACK people are” with either positive target words (e.g., “Friendly”, “Honest”) or negative target words (“Hostile”, “Deceitful”). Each trial presented two response options; “True” and “False”. Analysis indicated that response latencies depended upon the direction of the task (Pro-White/Anti-Black or Pro-Black/Anti-White) and the race of the sample stimuli. Specifically, White Irish participants showed an in-group, Pro-White, bias, responding more rapidly to White-Positive-True and White-Negative-False trials, than White-Negative-True and White-Positive-False trials. In contrast, participants showed a relatively neutral response to Black people. Consistent with previous research in this domain (e.g., Dasgupta, McGhee, Greenwald, and Banaji, 2000), there were no significant correlations between the implicit and explicit measures. The current findings, therefore, provide preliminary evidence that the IRAP may be used to reveal socially sensitive attitudes, which are not expressed using a typical explicit measure.
The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP): Do We Really Believe that Gay People are Abnormal?
CLAIRE CULLEN (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Dermot Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Yvonne Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Ian T. Stewart (National University of Ireland, Galway)
Abstract: This paper presents a series of studies that sought to determine if implicit and explicit homonegativity would (a) be related; (b) differ as a function of group status; and (c) prove impervious to contextual and situational variation. Using a known-groups approach (N = 20 heterosexual; N = 18 non-heterosexual) the IRAP in Experiment 1, presented the sample terms “Straight” and “Gay” with a series of positive and negative target stimuli (e.g., ‘normal,’ and ‘abnormal’). The response options “Similar” and “Opposite” were presented on each trial and participants were required to respond with speed and accuracy. Experiment 2 (N = 47 heterosexuals) sought to determine if the same IRAP would prove robust against prior exposure to an unrelated IRAP and to variations in the assessment situation (i.e., public vs. private). Explicit attitudes were assessed via a range of explicit measures. Results showed that implicit and explicit attitudes were unrelated. In addition, between group differences emerged on the ‘Gay-Negative’ IRAP trials. Specifically, heterosexuals confirmed Gay-Negative statements more quickly than non-heterosexuals who denied them more quickly. Furthermore, in Experiment 2, the IRAP proved impervious to contextual and situational variation. The results suggest that the IRAP may provide a valid measure of implicit homonegativity.
Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP): Influences of Deprivation and Smoking-history on Implicit Relational Responding.
NIGEL AUGUSTINE VAHEY (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Dermot Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Yvonne Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Ian T. Stewart (National University of Ireland, Galway)
Abstract: IRAP research examining pro- and anti- smoking beliefs suggests that IRAP-indices can distinguish smokers from non-smokers, correlate significantly with smoking-behaviors in predictable patterns, and can identify stigmatised responses not detected by analogous questionnaire measures. However, the previous IRAP data are derived from smokers with whom the level of smoking-deprivation is standardised at 1 hour. Smokers’ relational responses likely vary as a function of the length of time since their last cigarette. Furthermore, the effect of deprivation on implicit relational responses likely interacts with how established pro-smoking relational responses are in the smoker’s repertoire. The current study explores these issues by administering smoking-IRAPs to short- and long-term smokers at varying levels of smoking deprivation ranging from satiated to moderate deprivation. Sampling of smokers in terms of length of time smoking was supplemented with other measures relevant to a pro-smoking relational bias (e.g., number of failed quit attempts). The results have implications for understanding how implicit processes involved in tobacco-addiction vary with deprivation, aspects of smoking-history, and thus concepts of psychological dependence.
The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure: Investigating the Effects of Hunger Manipulations on Implicit Food Attitudes.
IAN MCKENNA (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Dermot Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Yvonne Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Ian T. Stewart (National University of Ireland, Galway)
Abstract: This study sought to use the IRAP to investigate implicit hunger responses to food in obese and normal-weight individuals. The IRAP involved presenting individuals with the two sample stimuli, “Makes Me Feel VERY Hungry” or “Makes Me Feel SLIGHTLY Hungry” with pictures of healthy and unhealthy foods. For half the trials participants were required to respond (Makes Me Feel VERY Hungry – Unhealthy Food – True) and for the remaining trials in the opposite direction (Makes Me Feel VERY Hungry – Unhealthy Food – False). A range of explicit measures were also used. Normal-weight individuals did not discriminate between unhealthy and healthy food when hungry or satiated but, demonstrated a strong unhealthy food bias in a random-hunger state. This was not reflected in the explicit measures. Correlational analysis indicated that implicit-explicit correlations were absent or weak. Conclusions will be discussed.
Symposium #541
The Positive to Negative Feedback Ratio: Educational Myth or Effective Practice?
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Barbara A. Metzger (Sam Houston State University)
Discussant: Vicky Spencer (Sam Houston State University)
Abstract: The “magic” 5:1 ratio of positive to negative feedback is a very popular notion in the field of education. While searching for the origin of this popular belief, we uncovered a fascinating trail through the fields of business management, coaching, positive psychology and marriage therapy. Across a wide variety of fields there are numerous claims regarding the benefits of the “magic” ratio. Although there is evidence that increasing positive feedback can be an effective behavior management tool, we were unable to find evidence that it affects student learning. Therefore we tested in a laboratory setting the affects of manipulating the ratio of positive to negative feedback on the acquisition of a novel skill. We then took this information and designed a simple intervention for implementation in public school classroom
Tracking the Origins of “Magic” 5:1 Positive to Negative Feedback Ratio.
BARBARA A. METZGER (Sam Houston State University), Valerie Anderson-Grigg (Sam Houston State University), Sarah J. Holmes (Sam Houston State University), Patricia R. Hitt (Sam Houston State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this presentation is to track the origin of the popular idea in education of the 5:1 positive to negative feedback ratio. A survey of practicing educators showed that the majority had heard a variation of the “magic” 5:1 ratio, despite the fact that there is minimal experimental evidence to suggest that a particular ratio of positive to negative feedback affects student learning. We trace the “magic” ratio through the fields of marriage therapy, coaching, business management and education and the evidence to support its use.
The Effect of the Positive to Negative Feedback Ratio on the Acquisition of a Novel Task.
SARAH J. HOLMES (Sam Houston State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of different ratios of positive to negative feedback on the acquisition of a simple task. Nine undergraduate students were exposed to an ABACA design and in each condition were given a novel list of symbols which had been assigned an arbitrary meaning. In each condition, the participants were first given a short study time and were then asked to verbally identify the symbol. The dependent variable across all conditions was the number of trials to reach 100% accuracy as a function of the ratio of positive to negative feedback. During the baseline condition, participants were given accurate feedback regarding their accuracy of identifying the symbols. In the first group of three participants, a ratio of 14:1 positive to negative feedback was compared to a ratio of 1:14. In the second group of three participants, a ratio of 15:0 positive to negative feedback was compared to a ratio of 0:15. In the third group of three participants, a ratio of 4:1 positive to negative feedback was compared to a ratio of 1:4. Additional data are currently being collected.
The “Magic” Positive to Negative Feedback Ratio: Does it Work in the Classroom Setting?
PATRICIA R. HITT (Sam Houston State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test whether a positive to negative feedback ratio that has been shown to facilitate learning in a laboratory setting (Holmes, 2008) could be applied in a real classroom situation using a simple, noninvasive intervention that would promote maintenance of the procedure following the end of the experiment. Four participants, secondary teachers from a public high school, were selected based on their initial low rates of positive feedback during academic instruction. An AB, multiple baseline across subjects design was implemented. The positive and negative feedback of each participant during a 45-min class period was recorded using a digital voice recorder and subsequently the ratio of positive to negative comments was graphed. During the intervention, the participants were given paperclips to place in their pockets to serve as a prompt and as a counter for the number of positive comments. Following positive feedback, the participant removed a paperclip. Maintenance data following the experiment will be collected as a measure of the social validity of the procedure. Additional data are currently being collected.
Symposium #542
CE Offered: BACB
The Present Will Pass: Preserving Your Work for the Future
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
Chair: Abigail B. Calkin (Calkin Consulting Center)
CE Instructor: Abigail B. Calkin, Ph.D.

Everyone leaves a body of work that can be helpful to future researchers. Beginning with an analysis of the work of Tom Gilbert, his Performance Matrix, its relevance to an ideal archive, and the contributions of library science, this presentation looks in detail at the strategic and tactical processes of organizing the archives of Gilbert, Barrett, and Lindsley. Additional examples and helpful hints come from a professional archivist from the Archives of the History of Psychology. It is the intent of these presentations to offer advice and direction to those interested in preserving their work and the work of others.

Tom Gilbert's Performance Engineering.
MARILYN B. GILBERT (Performance Engineering Group)
Abstract: Using Tom Gilbert’s published and non-published work, Gilbert will trace the development of Performance Engineering from 1962, with the publication of the article “Dimensions of the Free Operant” and the two issues of the Journal of Mathetics, to Gilbert’s Human Competence and later publications and writings.
Bea Barrett's Archives: Theoretical and Practical Applications Using Information Science and Gilbert's Performance Matrix.
YUKA KOREMURA (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Framed in the notion of the ideal library, Koremura will show the application of library science and Gilbert’s Performance Matrix. This presentation will show the underpinnings of Gilbert’s theory and the practical applications used to create a digital library for Beatrice Barrett’s human free operant research.
Og Lindsley's Archival Collection.
ABIGAIL B. CALKIN (Calkin Consulting Center)
Abstract: Calkin, chair of Og’s Archive Committee, will give an overview of what Lindsley wanted, why the plan needed to change, and what she has learned from books, professional archivists, and practice. She will also discuss the difference between private and organizational collections. The presentation will include an overview and the practical application of how the committee is reviewing his collection and what the committee has done and will do with the Lindsley papers.
Archives of the History of American Psychology.
SHARON OCHSENHIRT (Archives of the History of American Psychology)
Abstract: This will be an introduction to and overview of the professional psychology archives and the U.S. archival repository in Akron, Ohio. Ochsenhirt, a professional archivist, will provide some examples from the Akron Archives.
Symposium #543
CE Offered: BACB
Beyond Autism and Developmental Disabilities: Expanding the Role of Behavior Analysts in Schools
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Williford A
Area: EDC/CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Steven Woolf (BEACON Services)
Discussant: Steven Woolf (BEACON Services)
CE Instructor: Robert K. Ross, M.S.

The symposium presents three cases of students referred in public schools for emotional problems resulting in a lack of sustained curriculum engagement. Additionally, these students exhibited challenging behaviors considered to be disruptive to the overall learning environment. All students were served in typical elementary schools and scored with in the average to above average range on standardized IQ tests. Traditionally, these types of cases were referred to a school counselor or psychologist for psychodynamic treatment. The symposium presents the applied findings and impact of behavior analysts designing interventions for behaviors defined as emotional.

Use of a Hassle Log for Reducing Escape Maintained Behavior.
Abstract: An 11-year-old male was referred for aggression towards others, elopement, and a general lack of academically engaged time. The student was diagnosed with an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Following a Functional Behavioral Assessment, the student’s challenging behaviors appeared to be maintained by a combination of escape from instructional engagement and adult attention in the form of empathic statements. Treatment acceptability on the part of school staff was initially very low for behaviorally based treatments. Following the implementation of a “hassle log” and teacher redirection training, significant improvements were observed in the rates of acceleration behavior (academic engagement) and reductions in the rates of deceleration behavior (aggression and elopement). The presenter will exhibit data related to treatment acceptability, challenging behaviors, and academic engagement.
The Use of a Multi-component Treatment Package to Reduce “Emotional Behavior” in Public School Classroom.
Abstract: A 5 year-old male was referred for aggression towards others and tantrum behavior. The student presented with a language delay but did not carry a formal diagnosis. However, his teacher and school psychologist expressed concerns regarding emotional problems resulting from his parents’ divorce. A Functional Behavior Assessment suggested that problem behaviors were maintained by attention from adults. A multi-component treatment package consisting of a token system, extinction, and time-out was implemented. Results indicated a decrease in problem behaviors and suggested that behavioral interventions may successfully treat “emotional problems”.
Use of a Token Economy, Non-Contingent Reinforcement and Time Out for Reducing Attention Maintained Behavior.
Abstract: A 4-year-old female student was referred for aggression towards others, screaming-type tantrums, elopement, and non-compliance with instruction. The student was diagnosed with Reactive Attachment Disorder and “emotional problems” resulting from neglect as an infant and toddler and the sudden appearance of her birth father while in the process of being adopted by another family member (her uncle). A Functional Behavior Assessment revealed that the target behaviors appeared to be maintained by both adult and peer attention in the form of verbal reprimands from teachers, and a variety of reactions from peers (including crying, and complaining to teachers). A multi-component intervention that included a token economy, non-contingent attention on a variable schedule and an exclusionary time out was implemented. In addition staffing patterns, environmental modifications and training for classroom staff were part of the intervention plan. Following intervention aggression tantrums, and elopement were reduced and on-task behavior (academic engagement) and 1st request compliance were increased.
Symposium #544
From Lecture Hall to Cyber Space: Three Models for Evidence-Based Instructional Design in College Teaching
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Williford C
Area: EDC/TBA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: William D. Newsome (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Jennifer L. Austin (University of Houston, Clear Lake)
Abstract: In today’s technology-driven world, a university instructor is likely find to themselves teaching in any number of environments—spanning from traditional lecture halls to cyberspace and everywhere between. As a result, the modern classroom dynamic may range from face-to-face interaction with students in the classroom to interactions from across the planet. Regardless of classroom type and student location, the need for evidence-based pedagogical decision-making looms large. In this symposium, we will be show-casing three models for data-informed instructional design modifications including traditional lectures, web-based courses, and hybrid courses. Our goal is to share our methods for applying evidence-based practices to nearly any learning environment as well as how those applications may lend themselves as platforms for formal research endeavors.
Assessing the Effects of Peer Coaching in an Undergraduate Statistics Course.
EMILY MICHELLE LEEMING (University of Nevada, Reno), Joseph Charles Dagen (University of Nevada, Reno), Mark P. Alavosius (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: It has long been stated that the profession of educating is an art and not a science. It is because of this concept that society has come to the conclusion that just as there are good and bad artists, there are inherently good and bad educators. It is also assumed that just as there are quality and poor instructors there are inherently excellent and poor pupils, with little or no room for improvement. In 2004, 67% of high school graduates directly entered either a two or four year institution, which was a massive jump from 49% of graduates in 1972. With more students entering the postsecondary education system the need for quality instruction is unavoidable and inadequacy can no longer be justified by student laziness or poor instruction ( An alternative line of educational research evaluating environmental influences on the learning behavior of students has shown marked improvement in both the areas of student performance and instructional techniques. The study presented here aims to further evaluate these areas of research promoting student success. This investigation specifically evaluates the potential effects of an exam retake option, contingent upon contacting unit material with a peer coach in a modified personalized system of...
Using Cutting Edge Instructional Technology in On-line Behavior Analysis Courses.
JOSE A. MARTINEZ-DIAZ (Florida Institute of Technology and ABA Tech), Joshua K. Pritchard (University of Nevada, Reno), Melissa Nosik (TEAM Centers), Cindy Schmitt (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: As the world moves towards globalization, and more and more people are discovering behavior analysis, it is inevitable that demand outstrips supply. In a field so new, there are people clamoring to learn, but with limitations on their ability to commute. We are currently in a technological era in which distance no longer matters. With high speed internet becoming available in millions of homes, bringing the classroom to the student is becoming more and more easily accomplished. We have created and are investigating the utilization of cutting edge developments in computer and online technology to supplement our distance learning courses in Behavior Analysis. In this investigation we look at utilizing a combination of recorded video lectures and weekly live video conferencing with co-instructors as well as an online community. Some common criticisms are noted and findings of our investigation in this method of teaching during this course sequence are contrasted with results from conventional classroom courses.
An Investigation of Efficiency and Preference for Supplemental Learning Modules in Online Instruction.
WILLIAM D. NEWSOME (University of Nevada, Reno), Mark P. Alavosius (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The rate of wide-spread adoption of web-based instruction technologies is increasing across many businesses and educational institutions. Though this progressive trend is promising for the future of education, there is a danger that the demand for web-based learning technologies may out-pace the rate at which educational researchers can evaluate these new technologies and methods. The current study will assess the effectiveness of, and preference for, two supplemental learning modules. The results of this study will inform educators as to whether these modules would serve as viable components of future online courses, and guide future research efforts toward more efficient and appetitive online learning environments.
Symposium #545
Positive Reinforcement in Organizational Learning and Improvement
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Matt Porritt (Aubrey Daniels International)
Discussant: Judy L. Agnew (Aubrey Daniels International)
Abstract: Effectiveness of application of Organizational Behavior Management techniques will be presented and discussed through two case studies and one presentation of best practices. The first case study will highlight the role behavioral leadership and organizational culture on safety processes and safe behavior practices. The second case study will detail the use of fluency-based training and cascaded scorecards in a restaurant. The final presentation will deal with noncontingent reinforcement and best practices for providing reinforcement in organizations.
From Up-State to Down Under: Engineering the Reinforcement Culture in Safety and OBM.
JESSICA M. LUDWIG (SafetyWorks Group )
Abstract: The concept of culture change is common in business to describe a large-scale shift in behaviors within the organization. As behavior analysts in the business world, it may prove very useful for us to understand the concept of culture behaviorally, especially when applying OBM and Behavior Based Safety models. The topics to be examined include defining an OBM or safety culture, some recent examples of culture change initiatatives using both of these models separately and combined as a package, and identifying and managing possible barriers to effectively achieving such cultures.
Spicing Things up with Fluency and Positive Reinforcement at a Chicken Wing and Beer Bistro.
CATHERINE M. BALDERSON (Aubrey Daniels International)
Abstract: This talk will explore maximizing positive performance through Precision Leadership at a chicken wing restaurant by revamping their training program. Methods for doing so using fluency flashcards will be presented, improving the trainee’s opportunity for excellence, thus capitalizing on sales, productivity, customer satisfaction and profit. Most significantly, positively reinforcing the trainer/trainee and restaurant manager using the principles of Performance Management and cascaded scorecards will be discussed.
Random, Fixed, and Variable-time Delivery Schedules (NCR) of Stimuli with Supposed Reinforcing Properties in Organizations—Free Stuff!
MATTHEW L. PORRITT (Aubrey Daniels International)
Abstract: This talk will explore the good and the bad of providing rewards and recognition without these being tied to specific performance. Best practices for providing schedules of rewards and recognition will be presented. NCR procedures from the laboratory and developmental disabilities treatment will inform this presentation.
Symposium #546
CE Offered: BACB
Behavior Systems Analysis in Health Care and Human Service Settings
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Area: OBM/CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Nicholas L. Weatherly (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: Nicholas L. Weatherly, M.A.

This symposium in designed to show the effects of Behavior Systems Analysis and Organizational Behavior Management on improving staff and client behavior in health care and human service settings. Pinpointing areas that need improvement and using the principles of behavior to design and evaluate interventions to address these areas has been shown to produce substantial improvements in these systems. We wish to outline some current work demonstrating these improvements.

A Systematic Evaluation of a Preschool Autism Intervention: Maintenance Training and Testing.
NICHOLAS L. WEATHERLY (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The current study was designed to evaluate a training system geared towards improving the performance of three preschool-aged children diagnosed with autism. The study took place in the Early Childhood Developmental Delay (ECDD) Preschool Classroom located within a public special education school in southwest Michigan. The system in place to train the preschool children was analyzed for areas of improvement, with the maintenance skills training system being selected as the target area for improvement. The purpose of this study was to analyze the system for areas to improve upon, assess how well skills acquired by these three children maintained over time, and assess methods of improving the maintenance of these skills.
An Evaluation of the Impact of Computerized Physician Order Entry on Medical Errors.
SHANNON M. LOEWY (Western Michigan University), John Austin (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system on medication error. The study took place in a 343-bed hospital in the pediatrics inpatient unit. The primary dependent variable was errors made during physician medication ordering, as recorded by pharmacy residents using a detailed check sheet. Secondary dependent variables, including percentage of orders submitted using the CPOE system (compliance), order processing time (physician completion until the order is received in the pharmacy), self-reported errors as collected by the hospital, severity of potential errors found in orders, average length of patient stay, cost associated with errors, and physician satisfaction with ordering process (social validity), were also measured and reported. The implementation of the system was associated with decreased variability and more order sets being completed 100% correctly. During the two phases in which the CPOE system was in place, 77% of orders were completed 100% correctly. Order processing time was drastically reduced with the use of the CPOE system.
HealthVisor: An OBM Intervention to Reduce Employer Health Care Costs.
GUY S. BRUCE (Appealing Solutions, LLC), James Keefe (Warren Achievement Center)
Abstract: Employee health care costs continue to rise rapidly, making it more difficult for businesses that offer health benefits to compete with businesses that do not offer such benefits. We are developing a website that allows employees to record their daily eating and activity choices, as well as their weekly health measures. The program provides individualized daily progress goals for eating and activity choices (using a shaping procedure), immediate feedback on progress, and incentives for achieving daily eating and activity goals and weekly health goals. The website allows organizations to assign supervisors to record participant health measures and to perform other tasks that might contribute program success, such as praising participants for achieving weekly health goals and arranging incentives for them. Supervisors are able to record their completion of these tasks, and earn points for completing them, which they may exchange for any of a list of incentives provided by the organization. We will present pilot data on the effects of the program on employee eating and activity choices, supervisor task completion, employee health, and an organization’s health costs.
Current Work with a Hand Hygiene Auditor Program.
KATHERINE C. WILLERICK (Bronson Methodist Hospital), Krista Hinz (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The hand hygiene auditor program started in May of 2006. Four students are recruited from Western Michigan University’s Psychology (Behavior Analysis) program each semester. The students work at a hospital in southwest Michigan as volunteers and receive practicum credit towards their degrees for participating in this activity. The auditing process consists of walking through the facility and watching staff as they enter or exit a room. All employees are trained to wash their hands when they enter a room, and when they exit a room. The auditors watch to see what was touched in the room, and whether they use soap and water or the alcohol foam to wash their hands. Compliance is recorded on the auditing tool. The auditors are here from one hour a day to six hours a day depending on their schedules. The auditors get weekly feedback about the audits. All clinical staff receive weekly graphs of hand hygiene compliance.
Invited Tutorial #547
CE Offered: BACB
Tutorial: The Tacts of Life: Accuracy, Science and Pseudoscience
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Grand Ballroom
Area: VRB; Domain: Theory
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Timothy D. Hackenberg, Ph.D.
Chair: William F. Potter (California State University, Stanislaus)
Presenting Author: TIMOTHY D. HACKENBERG (University of Florida)

Correspondence relations play a key role in everyday verbal functioning. Describing a weekend outing, classifying a musical piece, categorizing a type of insect, and interpreting a behavioral episode all involve correspondence between a verbal response and some aspect of the world. Such correspondence relations lie at the heart of Skinners analysis of the tact, defined as a verbal response evoked by some event or property of some event, maintained by generalized reinforcement (e.g., social approval). The degree to which a tact truly or accurately reflects some event depends on its correspondence with the contingencies, and can range from high (when contingencies permit precise tacting) to low (when contingencies arranged for tacting are weak or detective, or when special interests of the speaker intrude). Accuracy and truth are therefore products of contingencies arranged by verbal communities which place a premium on correspondence. This is of more than idle theoretical interest. Correspondence relations bear on distinctions between facts and opinions, and more generally, to differences between scientific and pseudoscientific claims. In this presentation, I will discuss some general areas of research relevant to distorted tacts, the conditions under which people are especially prone to their disruptive influences, and how such relations can be studied with traditional behavioral methods. Some implications for scientific accuracy, and for distinguishing science from pseudoscience, will also be considered.

TIMOTHY D. HACKENBERG (University of Florida)
Dr. Timothy D. Hackenberg received a B.A. degree in Psychology from the University of California, Irvine in 1982 and a doctorate in Psychology from Temple University in 1987, under the supervision of Philip Hineline. He held a post-doctoral research position at the University of Minnesota with Travis Thompson from 1988-90. He joined the faculty in the Behavior Analysis program at the University of Florida in 1990, where he is currently a Professor of Psychology. He has served on the Board of Directors of the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, of the Society for the Quantitative Analysis of Behavior, as Associate Editor of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, as President of Division 25 of the American Psychological Association, and is currently serving as the Experimental Representative to the ABA Council. His major research interests are in the area of choice and conditioned reinforcement in humans and other animals. In work funded by the NSF and the NIH, he and his students have developed procedures for comparing adaptive choice in different species, showing that species differences are frequently a product of procedural differences. Reducing or eliminating procedural differences brings cross-species continuities into sharper focus. He is blessed with a talented cadre of graduate students, and has the good fortune to teach courses he cares about, including Theoretical Foundations of Behavior Analysis, Verbal Behavior, and Interpretive Systems.
Symposium #548
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Consultation: Applications from the Field
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
11:30 AM–12:50 PM
Williford B
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Ralph N. Pampino (Quality Behavioral Outcomes)
Discussant: Donald A. Wachelka (Quality Behavioral Outcomes)
CE Instructor: Ralph N. Pampino, M.A.

Designed to provide the attendee with useful information in the form of field-tested behavioral techniques, an understanding of the behavioral principles being used, socially valid statements, positive anecdotal reports, and data-based results. This symposium will address several of the real-time applications that have been used by a private agency while providing behavioral and educational consultation services to public school districts in California. The symposium will consist of two presentations. The first being a detailed description of the techniques, successes and challenges faced when implementing Brief Functional Analyses for young children. The second being a detailed description of creating, implementing and monitoring a daily data recording and feedback system for adolescent-aged students.

Conducting Brief Functional Analyses in Elementary Schools.
HEIDI OKAMOTO (Quality Behavioral Outcomes), David Slade (Quality Behavioral Outcomes), Steven Troyer (Quality Behavioral Outcomes), Ralph N. Pampino (Quality Behavioral Outcomes)
Abstract: Identifying the function of problem behavior is an integral part of providing consultation services to school districts for many reasons. Many behavioral assessments that are conducted in the school setting are based on interviews, direct observations and ABC data collection. Although these methods can be quite effective, they only suggest the function of the problem behavior. The Brief Functional Analysis (Brief FA) can be a very effective and efficient tool for analyzing problem behavior and identifying behavioral function in the educational setting. Developed and introduced by Northrup, Wacker, Sasso, Steege, Cigrand, Cook & DeRaad (1991), the Brief FA involves a series of rapidly changing conditions approximately five to ten minutes in duration, with each condition providing access to a potential reinforcer contingent on aberrant behavior. Conditions are conducted in a naturalistic or practical environment. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the details of implementing several Brief FA’s that were conducted in elementary school settings. The Brief FA procedures were tailored to fit the uniqueness of each student and the school which they attended. Results include data displays of the Brief FA results and follow up data to demonstrate the value of these assessment procedures when behavioral function has been correctly identified. Conclusions reached include incorporating Brief FA procedures can be implemented with minimal effort and yield valuable, powerful results for which to create meaningful, targeted, effective interventions. Attendees will learn; (a) the basics of conducting a Brief FA, (b) how Brief FA procedures can be implemented with minimal effort in a school environment, (c) how to adapt the experimental conditions to fit the student and/or the school environment, and (d) the importance of using Brief FA procedures in a school setting.
The Use of the Daily Behavior Report with Middle and High School Students.
JENNIFER MACDONALD (Quality Behavioral Outcomes), Ralph N. Pampino (Quality Behavioral Outcomes)
Abstract: Behavior challenges in the classroom are not just for students in special education. Many teachers work with challenging students every day in the general education setting (ADHD, Asperger’s Syndrome, ED, etc.) in addition to special education students. Managing challenging students in addition to the rest of the class can be a difficult task. The Daily Behavior Report (DBR) is one method of helping teachers and students manage their behavior in the general education classroom at the middle and high school levels. The DBR has been developed collaboratively with mainstream teachers and assists students in focusing on specific targeted behaviors. The DBR specifically lists expected behaviors and rating criteria, and provides specific and immediate feedback based on performance. Data displays on student performance are presented. Discussion points include the ease of implementation of the DPR, the effectiveness of monitoring student behavior and the provision of objective information to support programming decisions when using the DPR. Social validity from the teachers’ perspectives and social acceptance from the students’ perspective are also discussed. Attendees will learn (a) the value of applying data recording techniques, self-monitoring, daily feedback delivery and other behavioral principles to students in the general education setting; (b) how to implement these procedures with minimal effort and (c) how both adults (teachers and parents) and student behavior can benefit from the DPR procedures.
RALPH N. PAMPINO (Quality Behavioral Outcomes)
Abstract: N/a
Paper Session #549
International Paper Session - Recommendations for Advancing Behavior-Analytic Science
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
11:30 AM–12:50 PM
Area: TPC
Chair: Raymond G. Romanczyk (Institute for Child Development)
What Behavior Analysts Can and Must Learn from Clinical Psychology: The World of Service Delivery.
Domain: Theory
RAYMOND G. ROMANCZYK (Institute for Child Development)
Abstract: Applied Behavior Analysis as a field has grown tremendously during the last 10 years, particularly with respect to behavior analysts engaged in human services provision. Behavior analysis does not have a long history of participation in the mainstream human services system. This presentation will address current weaknesses in the practice of applied behavior analysis and the need for organizations that support behavior analysis to enter into the complex arena of service provision politics and regulation. Examples will be drawn from the profession of clinical psychology, and specific behaviors that individual ABA practitioners and organizations that support behavior analysis should model will be identified.
Casinos as In Situ Sites for Longitudinal, Human Behavior Research: Advantages, Possibilities, and Problems.
Domain: Theory
CALVIN K. CLAUS (National-Louis University)
Abstract: A suggested strategy to research gambling behavior, in situ, is offered, inspired by a classic, longitudinal study. This was the famous Hawthorne research done over 75 years ago. Then, the behavioral task chosen had to meet five criteria. Each person's task had to be: (1) identical, (2) repetitive, (3) performed quickly, (4) one where the subject controlled the speed of behaving, and (5) one where each person's performance could be recorded over a long period of time. A contemporary task and conditions, closely match these specifications: button pressing by bettors on casino Electronic Gambling Devices (EGD). Currently millions of data bytes of a bettor's and a casino management's behavior are recordable in real time. The basic metric is Frequency of Behavior per Unit Time. The Frequency part includes countable button presses and/or size of wagers, a bettor's win/losses and number and cost of other reinforcers casinos offer wagerers. The database can also include location of the EGD and player demographics. The Time dimension can be seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, or years. Issues to be discussed include advantages of using such equal interval scales of measurement, possibilities for advancing knowledge of gambling behavior, difficulties in meeting demands of casino proprietary rights, and subject anonymity.
Perception of ABA in Mainstream News Media.
Domain: Theory
DOUGLAS S. LEE (Behavioral Solutions Inc.), Cristin D. Johnston (Behavioral Solutions Inc.), Michael R. Johnston (Behavioral Solutions Inc.)
Abstract: The term Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is becoming increasingly associated with a myriad of services and programs in the human service area (e.g., Positive Behavioral Support, Behavior Based Safety etc). Keeping track of how ABA is being linked with various endeavors and services is of benefit not only conceptually (how Behavior Analysis is doing as a science) but also for consistency amongst professional services described as having an ABA component (how Behavior Analysis is viewed as a profession). A sampling of mainstream news articles made possible through an ongoing Google search using “Google Alert” of Applied Behavior Analysis, Positive Behavior Support, and Behavior Based Safety, Precision Teaching and Direct Instruction for a period of 6-12 months is being conducted. Preliminary data indicate a striking lack of reference to ABA across these service areas typically thought of as very closely linked to the field of Behavior Analysis. Our sampling to date also points to very limited public news awareness of several areas. Implications of this result as well as recommendations for improving this situation are discussed.
Invited Tutorial #550
CE Offered: BACB
Tutorial: Building a Transactional Systems Model of Services for Children with Autism
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Grand Ballroom
Area: DDA/OBM; Domain: Applied Research
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Anthony J. Cuvo, Ph.D.
Chair: Mollie J. Horner-King (Southern Illinois University)
Presenting Author: ANTHONY J. CUVO (Southern Illinois University)

There has been an escalation in the number of children identified with autism spectrum disorders in recent years. To increase the likelihood that treatments for the children be effective, interventions should be derived from sound theory and research evidence. Absent this supportive foundation, intervention programs could be inconsequential if not harmful to children. Although atypical, the development of children with autism should be considered initially from the perspective of the same variables that affect the development of typical children. In addition, the developmental deviations that characterize autism must be considered when developing intervention programs. Behavioral systems models describe both typical as well as atypical development, and emphasize dynamic multidirectional person-environment transactions. The environment is viewed as having multiple levels, from the individuals with autism, themselves, to larger societal and cultural levels. Behavioral systems models of human development can be generalized to a transactional systems model of services for children with autism. This model is the foundational theoretical position of the Southern Illinois University Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders. The Centers programs are described to illustrate the application of the model to multiple levels of the social ecology.

ANTHONY J. CUVO (Southern Illinois University)
Dr. Anthony J. Cuvo is Professor of Behavior Analysis and Therapy and Director of the Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders at Southern Illinois University. His academic history includes degrees in psychology from Lafayette College (BA Psychology, 1965), Kent State University (MA Clinical Psychology, 1967), and University of Connecticut (Ph.D. Child and Developmental Psychology, 1973). Dr. Cuvo is a former Distinguished Research Fellow of the National Institute of Handicapped Research, and Fellow of the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, and American Association of Mental Retardation. He was the recipient of his College's Outstanding Teaching Award, first recipient of the College Outstanding Researcher Award, and the Phi Kappa Phi Outstanding Scholar Award. Dr. Cuvo worked as a clinical psychologist in Pennsylvania and Connecticut before assuming his faculty position at Southern Illinois University in 1973. He is the Founding Director of the Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders at Southern Illinois University and a founding partner in Illinois’ The Autism Program. Dr. Cuvo has obtained approximately four million dollars in external funding. He has edited two books, authored 14 book chapters, over 100 journal articles and other publications, and made more than 200 professional presentations. Dr. Cuvo has served as Associate Editor for five professional journals, and regular board member for 10 journals. He has been a grant proposal reviewer and site visitor for several federal agencies. He has given invited addresses and workshops in England, Italy, Costa Rica, and Brazil on numerous occasions.
Symposium #551
Evaluating Effective Strategies for Educating Children with Autism
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Continental B
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Morten Haugland (Haugland Learning Center)
Discussant: John W. Eshleman (Optimal Instructional Systems)
Abstract: In the area of autism, finding efficient teaching strategies is critical in the acquisition of skills and the development of efficacious treatment for children on the spectrum. Three data-based studies will be presented outlining several strategies for teaching language, basic academics, and reading skills in the school setting. Procedures, results, implications and future directions will be discussed.
A Comparison of Transfer of Stimulus Control or Multiple Control on the Acquisition of Verbal Operants in Young Children.
TRACI M. CIHON (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Transfer of stimulus control is commonly applied in language training programs that incorporate Skinner’s (1957) analysis of verbal behavior (e.g., Barbera & Kubina, 2005; Braam & Poling, 1983; Finkel & Williams, 2001; LeBlanc, Esch, Sidener, & Firth, 2006; Luciano, 1986; Miguel, Petursdottir, Carr, 2005; Watkins, Pack-Teixeira, & Howard, 1989). However, stimulus blocking may impede language acquisition by prohibiting transfer of stimulus control across verbal operants (Glat, Gould, Stoddard, & Sidman, 1994; Partington, Sundberg, Newhouse, & Spengler, 1994; Sundberg, Endicott, & Eigenheer, 2000). An alternative strategy is to teach verbal operants under multiple sources of control and subsequently fade out supplementary control. This study assessed the efficiency of teaching mand, tact, and echoic operants using transfer of stimulus control via simultaneous presentation or by using multiple control. The results suggest that three participants acquired the target operants with fewer teaching trials using multiple control and two participants acquired the target operants with fewer teaching trials using transfer of stimulus control.
Promoting Efficiency: A Comparison of Two Teaching Protocols in the Education of Children with Autism.
GWEN DWIGGINS (The Ohio State University), Ralph Gardner III (The Ohio State University), Joshua Garner (Haugland Learning Center), Valerie E. Cook (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Children with disabilities often require specialized instruction to reduce the educational gap, especially in the areas of acquisition, generalization, and retention (Binder & Watkins, 1990). Increased efficiency of teaching may potentially close the educational gap in less time allowing more benefit from the educational experience. Recent research has called for the evaluation of validated methods for teaching skills to individuals with autism (Carr & Frith, 2005; LeBlanc, Esch, Sidener, & Frith, 2006; Sautter & LeBlanc, 2006). The current study evaluated the effects of Lovaas Protocol (Lovaas, 2003) and Natural Environment Protocol (Partington & Sundberg, 1998) on skill acquisition, generalization, and retention. Participants ranged in age from 6- to10-years-old with a diagnosis of autism. Target behaviors were determined from skill repertoires performed at 10% or less accuracy. Participants were taught using both teaching methods. Data will be presented using a multiple baseline across sets of behaviors within participants. Generalization probes will also be presented. Strengths and limitations will be discussed related to the use of both teaching methods and suggestions for future research will be outlined.
What Effect does Adding TAG Teaching have on Acquisition of Letter Writing Skills Using Fluency Based Procedures in Learners with Autism?
KRISTINE HAUGLAND (Haugland Consulting)
Abstract: Learners in a center-based program for children with autism were taught letter writing skills using fluency based procedures. TAG Teaching methods were then applied to target correct responses in a sample of letters to be learned. Each learner had half of the letters taught using fluency based procedures alone, while the remaining letters were taught with the addition of TAG Teaching methods. Data were collected on the acquisition rate and a per-minute frequency of correct letter formation. A comparison of the difference in rate of acquisition, based on pre-established criteria for correct and incorrect, was completed between letters taught using fluency based procedures alone and to those taught using fluency based procedures plus TAG Teaching.
Symposium #552
Evidence-Based Practice and Autism Spectrum Disorders
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Continental A
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Susan Wilczynski (National Autism Center/May Institute)
Discussant: Dennis C. Russo (The May Institute)
Abstract: The exponential increase in diagnosed cases of autism spectrum disorders has been paralleled by the rising number of unsupported ‘treatments’ offered by a diverse field of service providers. Individuals placed in a position to make critical treatment decisions are often left overwhelmed by the number of suggested options available on popular websites. The exponential increase in diagnosed cases of autism spectrum disorders has been paralleled by the rising number of unsupported ‘treatments’ offered by a diverse field of service providers. Individuals placed in a position to make critical treatment decisions are often left overwhelmed by the number of suggested options available on websites, popular magazines, parent groups, and television. The National Standards Project is an unprecedented effort to establish evidence-based practice guidelines for educational and behavioral treatments for individuals with autism spectrum disorders under the age of 22. This document will assist decision-makers in selecting treatments that enjoy research support. But evidence-based practice is more complicated than simply selecting the intervention that has the strongest research support. Evidence-based practice involves the integration of research findings with (a) professional judgment and data-based clinical decision-making, (b) values and preferences of key stakeholders, and (c) assessment and improvement of the system to implement the intervention with integrity. This symposium outlines the need for evidence-based practice in autism spectrum disorders, the role the National Standards Project plays in this endeavor, and critical components of evidence-based practice that must be considered by service providers, magazines, parent groups, and television. The National Standards Project is an unprecedented effort to establish evidence-based practice guidelines for educational and behavioral treatments for individuals with autism spectrum disorders under the age of 22. This document will assist decision- makers in selecting treatments that enjoy research support. But evidence-based practice is more complicated than simply selecting the intervention that has the strongest research support. Evidence-based practice involves the integration of research findings with (a) professional judgment and data-based clinical decision- making, (b) values and preferences of key stakeholders, and (c) assessment and improvement of the system to implement the intervention with integrity. This..
The Importance of Evidence-Based Practice in Autism Spectrum Disorders.
JENNIFER D. BASS (The May Institute)
Abstract: Parents, educators, and service providers of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders have never experienced a more confusing time than now. The exponential increase in diagnosed cases of autism spectrum disorders has been paralleled by the rising number of unsupported ‘treatments’ offered by a diverse field of service providers. Individuals placed in a position to make critical treatment decisions are often left overwhelmed by the number of suggested options available on websites, popular magazines, parent groups, and television. Without sufficient information regarding treatment effectiveness, parents, educators, and service providers may invest their time, money, and resources in a treatment ‘du jour’ in lieu of a well-supported treatment. The importance of having sufficient information regarding treatment effectiveness will be highlighted by reviewing past efforts to establish evidence-based practice guidelines. The potential impact of behavior analysts ignoring the trend in other fields of study toward evidence-based practice will be highlighted with special emphasis on the implications for behavior analysts studying and serving individuals with autism spectrum disorders.
The National Standards Project and Evidence-Based Practice in Autism Spectrum Disorders.
SUSAN WILCZYNSKI (National Autism Center/May Institute)
Abstract: Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders deserve to have access to treatments that work. The National Standards Project is an unprecedented effort to establish evidence-based practice guidelines for educational and behavioral treatments for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders under the age of 22. The strength of evidence supporting the broad range of educational and behavioral treatments is outlined in the National Standards Project in numerous ways. For example, the quality, quantity, and consistency of research findings are described in terms of diagnostic classification, age, skill targeted for improvement, as well as behavior targeted for decrease. These strength of evidence ratings were assigned based on a review of over 1000 articles and the method for assigning these ratings will be reviewed. Examples of interventions falling into the highest and lowest levels of research support will be provided as well. In addition, examples of treatments falling into the ‘unestablished’ and ‘discredited’ categories will also be offered. The importance of using these strength of evidence ratings engaging in evidence-based practice will be highlighted.
Moving from Treatment to Practice in Evidence-Based Practice.
ROBERT F. PUTNAM (The May Institute)
Abstract: Understanding the amount of research support for a given treatment is a necessary but insufficient component of engaging in evidence-based practice. Evidence-based practice involves the integration of research findings with (a) professional judgment and data-based clinical decision-making, (b) values and preferences of key stakeholders, and (c) assessment and improvement of the system to implement the intervention with integrity. Examples will be offered in which each of these factors, within reason, may outweigh the strength of evidence supporting an intervention. For example, a treatment that enjoys solid research support but has not been effective in the past with a specific child would not be the first intervention to select. Similarly, a moderately supported treatment that can be implemented across all critical settings (e.g., school and home) might be selected over a well- supported treatment that can only be implemented in one setting. Finally, a staff who has never received training on a given treatment cannot be expected to implement a well-supported intervention until training is available, thus making a moderately supported treatment more desirable until training is completed. In conclusion, evidence-based practice is more complicated than simply selecting the treatment with the highest strength-of-evidence classification rating.
Paper Session #553
Optimizing Learning in Children with Autism
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Area: AUT
Chair: Jenny E. Tuzikow (Devereux CARES)
Comparison of Prompt Strategies for Teaching Students with Autism.
Domain: Applied Research
Abstract: The literature on using prompts to teach children with special needs recommends a variety of prompting procedures to effectively teach specific skills. However, Riley (1995) states that the guidelines for using prompt hierarchies are frequently “poorly defined” and “lack adequate experimental support.” Furthermore, a great deal of controversy exists as to how intrusive certain prompts actually are to the student (Riley, 1995). This only contributes to the confusion that teachers experience when they attempt to select appropriate prompting strategies to teach their students. In addition, no clear evidence exists as to which prompts promote higher rates of learning acquisition thereby leading to greater independence of skill performance. As a result of this uncertainty, the current study attempts to examine the efficacy of utilizing physical and verbal prompting to teach independent greetings to four children with autism. The participants attended an Approved Private School for children with autism. They were identified because they did not meet their expected levels of performance on their IEP goal of initiating and responding to greetings. A multiple baseline design combined with a multiple treatment reversal design (ABACA) was utilized. The results of the study will be presented and implications will be discussed.
Are the Reinforcers Reinforcing? Analysis of Motivation Using a Computer-Assisted Learning Program for Autism.
Domain: Applied Research
SHANNON CERNICH (TeachTown), Christina Whalen (TeachTown)
Abstract: Twenty children with autism (ages 5-12 years) were videotaped using the TeachTown: Basics computer-assisted ABA program. Children were observed for 10-12 minutes using the software. All participants were assessed using standardized language and autism severity measures. Language, joint attention, motivation, attention, and social behaviors were measured during learning trials and during "reinforcer" games via videotaped scoring. No external reinforcers were provided while using the software program, but children were re-directed to the computer if they walked away until their session was finished. "Reinforcement" is discussed along with using secondary reinforcement and "learning to learn" to make activities that were previously not reinforcing become more reinforcing over time to maximize learning.
Using High Interest Visuals to Increase Learning Trends for Students with Autism.
Domain: Applied Research
ARLENE DWORKIN KAYE (CREC River Street Autism Program, Coltsville)
Abstract: Educating children with autism is often challenging and may require significant individualized support. Identification and ongoing assessment of reinforcers in both analogue and natural paradigms is a hallmark of behavioral science and is, without question, pivotal when designing programming for students with ASDs. To the dismay of interventionists, a variety of issues, including satiation and competing value of self-stimulatory behaviors, can interfere with efforts to maintain their arsenal of powerful reinforcers. There is also a body of research that suggests that antecedent stimuli can be associated with escape behaviors in demand contexts. Even when visual schedules are being used effectively, introduction of less preferred activities can occasion problem behaviors. This paper will illustrate ways in which materials can be amended to incorporate student-specific interests. Data presented will demonstrate positive learning trends noted when visuals were embedded with characters or topic backgrounds that were of particular interest to the target student. In some cases, tasks that occasioned problem behaviors not only became preferred, but ultimately became a student’s strongest reinforcer. Technical information and useful references that can be used to individualize materials will be provided. Specific examples of modifications will be included in the PowerPoint program accompanying the presentation.
Symposium #554
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Research and Practice on Staff and Parent Training in Autism Early Intensive Intervention
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Stevens 2
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Daniela Fazzio (University of Manitoba & St. Amant Research Center)
Discussant: Tricia Corinne Vause (Brock University)
CE Instructor: Daniela Fazzio, Ph.D.

Staff and parent training in autism early intensive intervention is paramount to successful outcomes. Presentation 1 reports on the evaluation (multiple baseline design) of a package to rapidly train instructors to implement discrete-trials teaching with children with autism. Self-instruction (manual) and feedback plus demonstration resulted in marked performance improvement in training and generalization. Interobserver agreement, treatment integrity, and social validity were very high. Presentation 2 reports on procedures to promote one familys independence and maintenance of gains upon transition out of intensive intervention. A consumer-reference task analysis was made and staff implemented the tasks first, and subsequently transferred therapy procedures to parents. Generality of results will be reported with a larger group. Presentation 3 reports on an organizational feedback system to increase the level of clinical goals met by parents of children in intensive home-based intervention (24 families) 24-hours-a-day and 7-days-a-week. Various methods of parent training and involvement were implemented and a comparison of feedback with individual parent data and feedback with group data on parent attainment of treatment goals will be presented, as well as results on parent participation and child outcome measures, indicating feedback itself was important to the outcomes, and that children succeeded with various outcome measures.

Rapid Training Package to Teach Instructors to Implement Discrete-Trials Teaching with Children with Autism.
DANIELA FAZZIO (University of Manitoba & St. Amant Research Center), Lindsay Maureen Arnal (University of Manitoba & St Amant Research Center), Garry L. Martin (University of Manitoba), Dickie C. T. Yu (University of Manitoba & St. Amant Research Center), Mandy Starke (University of Manitoba & St. Amant Research Center)
Abstract: In a multiple baseline design across participants, we evaluated a package to train instructors on a 19-component discrete-trials teaching (DTT) procedure. In addition, an AB design within participants evaluated the effects of two strategies on participants’ DTT accuracy: (a) Self-Instructional Manual and (b) Feedback plus Demonstration. During training, teaching sessions were conducted with a confederate who role-played a child with autism. Generalization was assessed in two conditions: teaching novel tasks to the confederate and teaching all tasks to a child with autism. Accuracy while teaching the confederate improved from an average of 36% in Baseline, to 66% after the Self-Instructional Manual, and to 92% after Feedback plus Demonstration. Accuracy averaged 92% during Generalization to teaching 2 novel tasks to the confederate, and 91% during Generalization to teaching 3 tasks to a child with autism. The average training time was 3 hours. Interobserver agreement, procedural integrity, and social validity measures were high.
Developing Independence in Natural Environments in the Home.
KALA J. DABLE (LIFE Midwest), Kara L. Riedesel (Lovaas Institute Midwest), Eric V. Larsson (Lovaas Institute Midwest)
Abstract: In intensive early intervention, it is essential that sufficient parent training is delivered to ensure that the families can transition to independence and maintain optimum child outcomes. The subjects of this presentation were children who were receiving an average of 40 hours per week of direct treatment over three years time. In one case to be reported, parent training was individualized for a child with autism who was 3.5-years-old and had mastered age-typical language and social skill goals through early intervention. Family independence procedures involved developing appropriate normal daily family activities that the parents could implement with their children, and transferring compliance shown with therapists to the parents. A consumer-referenced task analysis was made for each activity and therapists began to implement the tasks at similar times each day, using differential reinforcement for appropriate responding. Therapy procedures were then systematically faded from therapists to parents. Simultaneously, reinforcement was faded to a natural level that the parents could maintain. The generality of these results with a larger group of parents will also be reported. Results supported the efficacy of family independence programming.
Increasing the Effectiveness of Intensive Early Intervention through Parent Training.
MELISSA J. GARD (Lovaas Institute Midwest), Adrienne Stalder (LIFE-Midwest), Steffani N. Falardeaux (Lovaas Institute Midwest), Kristy L. Oldham (Lovaas Institute Midwest)
Abstract: In intensive early intervention with autism, it is essential that programming be consistent 24-hours-a-day and 7-days-a-week to result in optimum outcomes. This presentation will report on an organizational feedback system to increase the level of clinical goals met by parents whose children are receiving intensive home-based intervention. A group of 24 families were served with home-based programming which included comprehensive parent treatment goals. These goals were designed to ensure that the parents would competently follow through with all treatment procedures 24-hours-a-day and 7-days-a-week. Various methods of parent training and involvement were implemented. This presentation will report on a comparison of feedback that includes only individual parent data with feedback that includes group data on parent attainment of treatment goals. The results of the feedback procedures on parent participation measures and child outcome measures will be reported, showing that feedback itself was important to the outcomes, and that children succeeded with various outcome measures.
Symposium #555
CE Offered: BACB
The Assessment and Application of Momentary Time Sampling and Partial Interval Recording in Classroom Settings
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Continental C
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Kate E. Fiske Massey (Rutgers University)
Discussant: Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (The New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Lara M. Delmolino Gatley, Ph.D.

Direct observational data recording methods are utilized widely in ABA instructional settings, and interval sampling methods such as partial interval recording (PIR) and momentary time sampling (MTS) are commonly used when behavior occurs at high frequencies and/or have ambiguity in their onset and offset. Gardenier, MacDonald, and Green (2004) compared the use of PIR and MTS in data collection for stereotypy exhibited by children with autism in an assessment setting, and found that MTS often produced a more accurate measure of the true occurrence of stereotypy than did PIR. To replicate and extend this finding, we conducted a series of studies to further assess the accuracy of MTS and PIR measurement for collecting data on stereotypy, and also to evaluate the application of these data collection methods to the classroom setting. Understanding that a careful balance of accuracy and applicability is desirable for the selection of a data collection method, these studies, taken together, inform the selection and implementation of data collection methods in the classroom setting.

Comparing the Use of Momentary Time Sampling and Partial Interval Recording in Stereotypy Data Collection.
LARA M. DELMOLINO GATLEY (Rutgers University), Kate E. Fiske Massey (Rutgers University), Melissa Dackis (Rutgers University)
Abstract: In their research, Gardenier, MacDonald, and Green (2004) concluded that momentary time sampling (MTS) was more accurate than partial interval recording (PIR) when collecting data on the stereotypy exhibited by children with autism. The authors reported PIR grossly overestimated the occurrence of behavior in all students. To replicate this finding and begin to evaluate its utility in a classroom setting, we compared the use of MTS and PIR for collecting data on the stereotypy exhibited by 10 children with autism in the classroom setting. Three 10-minute classroom observations were collected for students aged 3 to 20 years. Duration data was collected for stereotypy during each videotaped sample, and we collected PIR data and MTS using 10- to 300-second intervals using these same videotaped samples. Results indicated that, for each student, PIR data collection methods significantly overestimated the occurrence of stereotypy, even at the shortest interval. MTS resulted in data consistent with that collected using duration coding, and was often accurate using intervals as long as 60 seconds.
Calibration of Stereotypy Data Collection Methods Based on Frequency of Behavior and Episode Length.
SUZANNAH J. FERRAIOLI (Rutgers University), Kate E. Fiske Massey (Rutgers University), Lara M. Delmolino Gatley (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Collecting data on measurable outcomes is a basic tenet of the development of behavioral interventions, and when data collection methods are selected without sufficient consideration of the frequency of a student’s behavior, even the most effective interventions may be compromised. Momentary time sampling (MTS) and partial interval recording (PIR) are methods frequently used to collect data on stereotypy in classroom settings, and may require calibration based on the frequency of a student’s stereotypy and the average duration of episode to increase accurate evaluation of intervention outcome. Three 10-minute classroom observations were collected for students aged 3 to 20 years. Duration data was collected for stereotypy during each videotaped sample, and we collected PIR data and MTS using 10- to 300-second intervals using these same videotaped samples. Students will be grouped into high- and low-frequency stereotypy groups and long- and short-episode groups based on the occurrence of behavior recorded during observation. Examining the MTS and PIR intervals best fit to each student will indicate which data collection methods and interval lengths might be most appropriate for students based on the total frequency and episode length of exhibited stereotypy. Implications for calibrating data collection methods in the classroom environment will be discussed.
Teacher Perceptions of and Accuracy in Data Collection Using Momentary Time Sampling and Partial Interval Recording.
KATE E. FISKE MASSEY (Rutgers University), Lara M. Delmolino Gatley (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Though research indicates that momentary time sampling (MTS) is more accurate than partial interval data (PIR) in collecting data on stereotypy, evaluating teacher perceptions of the utility of these data collection methods may be helpful in ensuring accurate implementation of these methods in the classroom setting. Additionally, the accuracy with which teachers collect MTS data as compared to PIR data has not yet been determined, and could be integral to implementing these methods in the classroom environment. We collected two 10-minute classroom observations of 10 students with autism aged 3 to 20 years. For each student, a classroom teacher collected data on stereotypy using MTS and PIR at an interval length calibrated to the students’ frequency of behavior. Teachers were then asked to rate the ease and accuracy with which they were able to collect data using each method. Results indicate that, on average, teachers rated MTS as easier to use but less accurate than PIR. In contrast, comparison to duration data indicated that MTS was more accurate than PIR, though teacher error was high using each method. Implications for the use of these methods in classroom settings will be addressed.
Paper Session #556
International Paper Session - Parental Decision-Making, Perspectives and Perceptions
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Stevens 3
Area: AUT
Chair: Abbie Solish (York University)
Parent and Therapist Perspectives on Parent Involvement in Behavioral Intervention.
Domain: Applied Research
ABBIE SOLISH (York University), Adrienne M. Perry (York University)
Abstract: Although the need for parent involvement in Intensive Behavioral Intervention (IBI) has been, and continues to be, emphasized by professionals in the field, little research has explored this involvement or what it entails. A parent self-report questionnaire and a similar therapist questionnaire were designed for this study, in which parent involvement and five variables believed to influence involvement, were operationalized and measured. The independent variables include: parents’ self-efficacy; knowledge of autism and IBI; belief in IBI (general and specific for “my child”); perception of child progress; and parenting distress. Forty-eight parents of children with Autism, PDD or PDD-NOS participated. All parents had children receiving publicly-funded IBI services from one of four regions across Ontario. Results from the parent questionnaire demonstrated that of our five independent variables, parents’ self-efficacy, knowledge, and general belief in IBI, were all significantly correlated with involvement. Furthermore, self-efficacy was able to account for almost half of the variance in predicting involvement, even when controlling for child characteristics. A subsample of parents consented for their children’s therapists to complete the therapist version of the questionnaire (n = 34). This talk will focus on the similarities and differences in the reporting of parents and therapists. Clinical implications will be discussed.
Urban Legends and Autism: Clinical Encounters with Popular Fiction.
Domain: Applied Research
JOEL FARB (The Center for Behavior Therapy)
Abstract: Professionals working in the field of autistic-spectrum disorders often encounter urban legends and similar fictions such as: (1) the child reportedly echoing conversation from house next door -- which the author has encountered numerous times since 1978, and (2) the ubiquitous "fluorescent flicker;" etc. Such fictions are not only reported by parents or anonymously via the internet but are also occasionally repeated by therapists and educators. The program presents a review of common urban legends related to autism and an overview of what, if any, research or factual basis exists to support them.
Panel #557
Trials and Tribulations: Developing a Residential Program Based in Applied Behavior Analysis for Adolescents with ASD
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
International South
Area: AUT/OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Joanne Sgambati (Eden II/Genesis Programs)
WILLIAM J. DONLON (Eden II/Genesis School)
HESTER BEKISZ (Genesis School)
PIERA INTERDONATI (The Genesis School)
Abstract: Although there is an abundance of research and clinical practice guidelines for the use of applied behavior analysis with students with autism in school and parent-based home settings, there is a dearth of information regarding the use of applied behavior analysis in agency-based residential programs for individuals with autism spectrum disorder. There are vast differences between running a school program and developing a residential program for students with ASD. This panel discussion will include agency members from a variety of perspectives including management, supervision, behavior management, special education and speech pathology to provide insight into the difficulties as well as successes in such an endeavor.
Symposium #558
CE Offered: BACB
The Influence of Positive Behavior Analytic Procedures on Problem Behaviors
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Stevens 1
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Gordon A. DeFalco (Evergreen Center)
Discussant: Thomas L. Zane (The Center for Applied Behavior Analysis at The Sage Colleges)
CE Instructor: Gordon A. DeFalco, Ph.D.

Positive behavior analytic approaches are typically implemented to increase desirable behavior. The studies reviewed in this symposium will address the question "What influence do positive behavior analytic approaches have on problem behaviors?" In the first study the rate of problem behaviors displayed by adolescent students with developmental disabilities was monitored in a classroom when antecedent procedures and public posting were used to facilitate teacher consistency in implementing student positive reinforcement programs. The second study evaluated rates of attempted pica in three adolescent students with developmental disabilities when non-contingent reinforcement intervals were varied. The third study varied selected characteristics of attention as consequences for problem behaviors displayed by students with developmental disabilities, based on the results of functional analyses of the relative reinforcing value of various characteristics of attention for specific problem behaviors, demonstrating a relationship between the identified characteristics of attention and the rates of the problem behaviors displayed. Implications for use of restrictive or aversive procedures to reduce or eliminate problem behaviors and suggestions for other positive programming procedures that may enhance the current strategies for reducing problem behaviors will be discussed.

Increasing Positive Reinforcement Programming by Teachers in a Classroom Setting: The Effects on Student Problem Behavior.
LAWRENCE L. LOCKWOOD (Evergreen Center), Tara-Lynn Burbee (Evergreen Center), Kristofer Van Herp (Evergreen Center), Gordon A. DeFalco (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate strategies to facilitate consistent implementation of behavior-contingent positive reinforcement programs by teaching staff in eight classrooms for children with a diagnosis of DD and/or autism. A second purpose was to monitor the influence of these staff procedures on the rate of problem behaviors (e.g., aggression, self-injury, loud vocalizations, etc.) displayed by the students as a result of increased and consistent delivery of positive reinforcement by teaching staff. The effects of data sheets for each student with explicit written cues to deliver positive reinforcement and classroom feedback reported weekly on consistency of positive reinforcement in each classroom was evaluated separately and in combination in a reversal design. Student problem behavior was monitored throughout all conditions of the study. A functional relationship between consistent implementation of positive reinforcement programs and rate of student problem behaviors was demonstrated. Suggestions for additional research of staff management procedures that may facilitate implementation of behavior contingent positive reinforcement programs will be discussed.
The Effects of Scheduled Access to Non-Contingent Edibles on Pica in a Classroom Setting.
KRISTOFER VAN HERP (Evergreen Center), Gordon A. DeFalco (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate whether a fixed-time schedule of non-contingent access to edibles would decrease the frequency at which three participants attempted to place inedible objects in their mouths. Simmons, Smith and Kliethermes (2003) reduced the frequency at which automatically maintained mouthing was exhibited during 30 minute observations through fixed-time food presentation. The present study attempted to extend findings from previous studies in which non-contingent access to edibles was evaluated for limited time periods in controlled laboratory settings to three participants who attempted to ingest inedible objects throughout a six-hour school day. A functional assessment, showing automatic reinforcement to be a plausible function for pica and attempted pica was conducted. Results displayed a functional relationship between the reduction of pica and attempted pica and the non-contingent delivery of edible items. A reversal design was used to conduct a parametric analysis, systematically increasing the time between delivery of non-contingent edibles, resulting in maintenance of low levels of pica behavior for all three participants. A preference assessment was conducted with one participant to identify preferred matched edibles, which when delivered non-contingently, further reduced the frequency of pica and attempted pica.
Using Component Analysis for Program Development of Individuals with Attention Maintained Behavior.
TARA-LYNN BURBEE (Evergreen Center), Lawrence L. Lockwood (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: Attention maintained problem behaviors present special difficulties since staffs are often required to attend to the problem behavior to ensure safety. The purpose of the present study was to identify staff responses that had minimal reinforcing properties to participants with attention maintained problem behaviors and intervene with these behaviors, thereby ensuring safety and reducing the display of problem behaviors. A functional analysis was conducted to identify children with a diagnosis of DD and/or autism whose problem behaviors were maintained by attention. Two participants were identified with attention maintained problem behaviors including aggression, disruptive behaviors, and inappropriate touching. A second functional analysis was conducted with the two participants to determine the reinforcing value of components of attention along two dimensions verbal behavior (“strict language”/“harsh language”) and physical contact (manual prompts/gestural prompts). A multiple baseline across participants was conducted in which staff were instructed to intervene using the behavior components of attention that were determined to be the least reinforcing. Although an overall decrease in problem behaviors was seen for both participants some of the problem behaviors continued to be displayed at lower frequencies. Some possible reasons for these finding and future research directions in this area will be discussed.
Symposium #559
CE Offered: BACB
Pocket PC and Video Applications in Clinical Settings
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Katherine Miriam Johnson-Patagoc (Our Lady of Peace)
Discussant: James W. Jackson (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale)
CE Instructor: Katherine Miriam Johnson-Patagoc, M.S.

Computer and video technology use is increasing in almost every industry world-wide to improve performance and increase the effectiveness and efficiency of services. The utilization of technology in applied behavior analysis is also on the rise (Jackson & Dixon, 2007). The first presentation will illustrate the use of a computerized hand-held device (pocket PC) to collect data during behavioral treatment and assessment sessions in a psychiatric setting. The second presentation will illustrate the utilization of video training to increase staff positive interaction behaviors, as well as increase the productive involvement of participants with developmental disabilities. The final presentation will describe a series of computer programs for handheld and desktop computers that have been developed to advance data collection and service delivery for a school servicing children with Autism. Benefits and challenges of these technology applications will be discussed.

Using a Pocket PC to Collect Data during Behavioral Assessment and Treatment Sessions.
JEFFREY E. DILLEN (Our Lady of Peace), Holly L. Bihler (Our Lady of Peace), Katherine Miriam Johnson-Patagoc (Our Lady of Peace), Kimberly Dwyer-Moore (Our Lady of Peace), Janice L. Marley (Our Lady of Peace), Beth A. Duncan (Our Lady of Peace), Erin G. Moreschi (Our Lady of Peace)
Abstract: Computer and video technology use is increasing in almost every industry world-wide to improve performance and increase the effectiveness and efficiency of services. The utilization of technology in applied behavior analysis is also on the rise (Jackson & Dixon, 2007). This presentation will illustrate the use of a computerized hand-held device (pocket PC) to collect data during behavioral treatment and assessment sessions. Data collection programs reviewed during the talk will include preference assessment, functional analysis, and functional communication training. Case examples of behavior analysts conducting assessment and treatment sessions with children and adolescents with developmental disabilities and problem behavior will be presented. Examples will include corresponding data collected via pocket PC and video. Benefits and challenges will be discussed.
Competency Based Video Training: Increasing Staff Interaction Skills and Use of Positive Behavioral Programming in Developmental Disabilities.
JOHN M. GUERCIO (Missouri Department of Mental Health), Marinda Phillips (Missouri Department of Mental Health), Gary Scheffler (Missouri Department of Mental Health), Bob Bradshaw (Missouri Department of Mental Health), Donna Delia (Missouri Department of Mental Health)
Abstract: The use of video-taped training was implemented with groups of new direct service employees working in group living environments in a facility serving adults with co-exiting diagnosis of mental retardation and/or other developmental disabilities. Staff were required to go through a 1-hour training that was developed to focus on their positive interaction skills with the participants that they were working with as well as the implementation of positive, incentive-based programming that was in place for the facility. A post-test was then administered on the key elements of the video. A criterion was set for successful performance on the post-test. The video included role-playing of some of the critical aspects of positive interactions styles, as well as the use of a least restrictive treatment philosophy and stance of advocacy with the participants that they were serving. Data were taken both prior to the introduction of the training and after on a set of staff behaviors addressed in the video. The results showed that staff were able to increase their display of positive interaction behaviors, as well as increase the productive involvement of the participants that they worked with.
Designing Computer Data Collection Tools for Working with Children with Autism.
JAMES W. JACKSON (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Jacquelyn M. MacDonald (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University), Susan Szekely (Illinois Center for Autism)
Abstract: From the use of personal computers, personal digital assistants, and cell phones, advances in technology have both paralleled and spurred advances in industry, science, and service delivery. The field of applied behavior analysis is not exempt from such advances (Carr & Burkholder, 1998; Dixon, 2003; Jackson & Dixon, 2007; Kahng & Iwata, 1998; MacLin, Dixon, & Jackson, 2007). The current presentation describes a series of computer programs for both handheld and desktop computers that have been developed to advance data collection and service delivery for a school servicing children with autism. These programs include applications for collecting descriptive functional assessment data, a flexible interval and frequency based application for collecting data on up to 3 individualized behaviors for 1 to 6 children simultaneously for the pocket PC with accompanying software for calculating IOA for desktop computers, applications for conducting multiple types of preference assessments for both pocket PC and desktop PC, and a desktop PC application using PECS cards as stimuli for conducting preference assessments for children trained in Picture Exchange Communication System. The development and employment of these systems will be described and how the data collected with these systems has been employed in treatment decisions will be discussed.
Symposium #560
CE Offered: BACB
Making ABA a First Choice Treatment in More Settings
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Williford A
Area: EDC/TBA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Deirdre Lee Fitzgerald (Eastern Connecticut State University)
Discussant: Donn Sottolano (Area Cooperative Educational Services)
CE Instructor: Deirdre Lee Fitzgerald, Ph.D.

Behavior Analysis provides an effective and efficient means of increasing the success of learners in a variety of settings. Despite strong empirical support for a principled approach to arranging learning and the demonstrated effectiveness of many specific programs and procedures, Behavior Analysis is not a first choice intervention in many contexts. Even in the treatment of individuals with autism where it has enjoyed noteworthy popular and scientific acclaim, practitioners are repeatedly challenged to defend its use. Factors that will increase the wide scale acceptance of Behavior Analysis will be discussed.

Why Data are not Enough to Increase the Adoption of Effective Practices.
MELISSA MICHAUD (Eastern Connecticut State University), Deirdre Lee Fitzgerald (Eastern Connecticut State University), Tricia Heavysides (Eastern Connecticut State University), Jessica Paredes (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Scientific evidence drives the work of all Behavior Analysts. It is part of the conceptual underpinnings of the discipline, it drives all of our assessment work, and directs the design and implementation of interventions. The same evidence does not sway consumers of our services, though. Behavior Analysts often find that despite convincing empirical findings, consumers make treatment choices that are not grounded in data. Discussion will address why this is the case. Ways to increase the acceptance of behavioral interventions will be proposed.
Making University Training Part of the Solution.
MENIKA S. SCHULTE (Eastern Connecticut State University), Deirdre Lee Fitzgerald (Eastern Connecticut State University)
Abstract: Behavior Analytic university based training programs have many models for effective practice. The standards of the Association for Behavior Analysis International and those of the Behavior Analyst Certification Board provide precise and clear standards for student skill development. Universities can contribute to the wide scale acceptance of behavioral interventions by training professionals that are both stewards and advocates. Specific repertoires that will facilitate these roles will be addressed.
Increasing the Social Validity of Behavioral Interventions.
MALLORY KEEGAN (Eastern Connecticut State University), Putita St. Onge (Eastern Connecticut State University), Deirdre Lee Fitzgerald (Eastern Connecticut State University)
Abstract: Social validity measures are important components of well-designed behavioral interventions. Extensive research has documented the need for these analyses. How this research can be applied to the goal of making behavioral interventions a first choice treatment in more settings and for more populations will be discussed.
Symposium #561
CE Offered: BACB
No Time for Sleep: Active Student Responding in College Classrooms
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Williford C
Area: EDC/TBA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: David Bicard (University of Memphis)
Discussant: Matthew Tincani (University of Nevada)
CE Instructor: David Bicard, Ph.D.

Although 30 years of research on the effectiveness of active student responding on student achievement and behavior exists for students in grades K-12, there are a limited number of empirical, peer-reviewed studies that address active student responding with post secondary students. This symposium will present the results of three studies on active student responding weve conducted in our classrooms. The first two studies involved the use of electronic guided notes vs. paper guided notes, and electronic response systems vs. single student responding on next class quizzes and application assignments. The third study involved the effects of SAFMEDS of on students discrimination of terms in ABA and on response generality and long-term maintenance of behavior.

Effects of Student Response System vs. Traditional Techniques on College Students' Quiz and Application Performance.
SARA C. BICARD (University of Memphis), David Bicard (University of Memphis), Clinton Smith (University of Memphis), Esther Joy Plank (University of Memphis), Richard C. Casey (University of Memphis), Laura Baylot Casey (University of Memphis)
Abstract: This presentation will describe an empirical investigation of active student responding utilizing an electronic student response system vs. single student responding in two post-secondary classes (teaching methods for students with mild-moderate disabilities and classroom management). An alternating treatments design was used to test the effects of the two procedures on students’ next session quiz performance and on application tasks.
Effects of Handwritten vs Electronic Guided Notes on College Students’ Recall and Application.
SARA C. BICARD (University of Memphis), David Bicard (University of Memphis), Hirofumi Shimizu (Headsprout)
Abstract: Numerous studies have investigated instructor prepared handouts that have cues to write important information from a lecture. However, relatively few have been conducted with college students and these studies have not evaluated the effects of guided notes on students’ ability to apply the information covered in the notes. In addition, none of the studies involved using computers to take notes. This study extends the literature by investigating differences in quiz score and application task performance when using handwritten and electronic guided notes.
The Effects of SAFMEDS On Students’ Recall, Response Generality, and Maintenance of ABA Terms.
DAVID BICARD (University of Memphis), Laura Baylot Casey (University of Memphis), Sara C. Bicard (University of Memphis), Mindy Taylor (University of Memphis)
Abstract: In this study a pre-test and post-test of the written definition of 87 terms in ABA and a four week follow up served as the dependent variables for an investigation of an application of a fluency based study procedure using flashcards. Students spent 15 minutes each class practicing (see/saying) one-minute timings of ABA terms and self-reported performance each week. At the end of the semester students completed a written exam consisting of 45 randomly chosen terms. Follow up data were taken at the beginning of the next semester to determine maintenance of behavior. Data are reported in relation to fluency of SAFMEDS.
Panel #562
Using the Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis to Develop and Deliver Effective Online Instruction
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
12:00 PM–1:20 PM
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Nancy Glomb (Utah State University)
MELINA ALEXANDER (Weber State University)
JASON L. GIBSON (University of Kentucky)
NANCY GLOMB (Utah State University)
KATHERINE J. MITCHEM (California University of Pennsylvania)
Abstract: In the last ten years, the number of undergraduate and graduate students who participate in online courses has steadily increased. Many students opt to participate in online courses because of financial and family obligations that preclude enrollment and attendance in traditional campus-based programs. For others, a lack of geographic proximity to university classrooms makes online coursework the only option. There are many suggestions as to what structural components a quality online course should contain such as an easily accessible management system, a means for instructor-learner and learner-to-learner communication, a course orientation, and electronic evaluation procedures. While most internet-based course management programs such as eCampus and Blackboard include these components, faculty are often challenged when it comes to designing online course content so that learners are actively engaged and mastery of important skills and knowledge is clearly evident. The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate how using the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis promotes the development and delivery of highly effective online instruction and in turn maximizes student performance. Panelists from four special education teacher training programs will describe successful online courses that have been developed in this manner.
Paper Session #563
Multi-Component Interventions for Adolescents
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
9:00 PM–10:20 PM
Area: EDC
Chair: Chelsea V. C. Francis (Newark City Schools)
The Effect of Skillstreaming Training on the Self-Esteem of Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities.
Domain: Applied Research
CHELSEA V. C. FRANCIS (Newark City Schools)
Abstract: Many diagnoses which qualify students for special education services name deficits in social skills as a major component of the disability (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The six student subjects in this research had the following diagnoses, listed by prevalence: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD), Cognitive Delay, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, Depression, Trichotillomania, Asperger’s Syndrome, and an uncategorized psychotic disorder (still being assessed). This particular research study aimed to measure the effect, if any; the skillstreaming curriculum has on the self- esteem of the middle school-aged students with emotional and behavioral disabilities who participated in the program. The hypothesis was that, if skillstreaming affects self-esteem, those children who were taught deficit- specific social skills via this curriculum would demonstrate a self-reported increase in self-esteem, via the CFSEI- 3. There are a number of variables that must be taken into account before deciding whether or not the hypothesis was supported in this research. First of all, it must be considered whether or not subjects took the testing seriously. Another variable which must be considered is the validity of the CFSEI-3 test itself, in relation to the students tested. Some of the questions do not fit this population (ED) very well. This test may also not have measured the kind of progress made on the social skills addressed by the skillstreaming curriculum. The results of this particular research study are inconclusive. For many students, there were differences in scores taken before and after the curriculum. However, whether the scores increased or decreased was not consistent, leaving conclusions difficult to make. It is possible to see, just the same, that there were effects on certain disabilities, in certain areas of self-esteem.
Teacher Friendly Behavior and Academic Monitoring System for High School Students with Challenging Behaviors.
Domain: Applied Research
RICK SHAW (Behavior Issues), Heidi Maurer (Kentwood High School), Stephen Litster (Kentwood High School), Tammi Harris-Smith (Kentwood High School), Michelle Spratley (Kentwood High School)
Abstract: During baseline high school students that engaged in challenging classroom behaviors were rated daily by each teacher for on-task, participation, respect, compliance, and nondisruptive behaviors. Following baseline, areas that were identified as "high need" were targeted through a differential reinforcment of high rates (DRH) program on a homework tracking sheet. Students had to write down their homework for that day, have teachers rate and sign the sheet, check-in at the end of the school day with an adult, and have parents review and sign. Students graphed their ratings during the end of the day check-in. There were daily and weekly rewards and consequences at school and at home for having the sheet signed and meeting the goals based on achieving a percentage set for target behaviors. Students were successful in decreasing challenging behaviors and detentions/suspensions, and increasing appropriate behaviors and grades.
Combatting "Senioritis": Using Contingency Contracting to Improve Academic Performance.
Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN KNIGHT (Sterne School)
Abstract: This is a small scale examination of the effects of a student-teacher contracting procedure on the academic performance of high school students. Participants were four, male high school seniors with mild learning disabilities attending an independent school in San Francisco. Several undesired behaviors occurring at a high frequency, including truancy, inattention, and poor academic performance, necessitated a behavioral intervention early in the school year. The contracting procedure used, based largely on existing standardized methods, was implemented by the classroom math teacher (also the author). After developing contracts with the students, group contingencies were delivered based on attainment of predetermined goals set by the students and the teacher. Baseline data will be compared to results to determine efficacy of this particular contracting implementation.



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