Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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2008 Education Conference

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Poster Session #1
Poster Session
Friday, September 5, 2008
6:00 PM–8:00 PM
Grand Ballroom D
1. A Comparison of Teaching Strategies to Promote Acquisition of Gross and Fine Motor Imitation Skills
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
LAUREN-LEE ASKEW (Blue Ridge Autism Center), Jamie L. Granatino (Blue Ridge Autism Center)
Abstract: Motor Imitation has been identified as an important prerequisite for the development of cognitive and social skills. Discrete trial techniques have been effective in teaching motor imitation. Recent research indicates naturalistic teaching strategies are effective in teaching object imitation, but have not yet been extensively examined in the teaching of other motor imitation responses. In this study, a multiple baseline, single-subject design was utilized to assess acquisition of gross and fine motor imitation targets across teaching techniques: simple motor imitation (“Do this” and model), motor imitation with sign language (mand function), and motor imitation within a simple social song (“Head, Shoulders, Knees, and Toes”). Discrete trial techniques were incorporated into all teaching methods to ensure repetition and systematic prompt fading. Results showed that utilizing a motor imitation with sign language teaching method, two targets were mastered within 13 total sessions; utilizing a motor imitation with songs teaching method, two targets were mastered in 15 total sessions; and utilizing a simple motor imitation teaching method, two targets were mastered in 22 total sessions. These results demonstrate that the synthesis of discrete trial and naturalistic teaching methods, such as social songs and sign language, was more efficient than traditional motor imitation methods.
 
2. Comprehensive School-Based ABA Programs as the Goal: How Do We Get There?
Area: EDC; Domain: Synthesis
MICHELLE TURAN (University of Windsor)
Abstract: Comprehensive programming for children with autism has been the goal of early intervention services. The achievement of this goal in Ontario has been met with increasing demands for equivalent school-based services. Strategies said to be Applied Behaviour Analytic are now required to be included on the IEP's of children with autism, however the limitations in terms of individual student outcomes has not been discussed. The purpose of the current paper is to 1)describe the conflicting literature on "comprehensive" approaches to intervention for children with autism, 2) compare existing models of school-based comprehensive programs 3) analyze how comprehensive programs can lead to providing comprehensive outcomes for children with autism.
 
3. Demonstrating Program Effectiveness in an Infant Toddler Program for Children with Autism Using a Standard Developmental Assessment.
Area: EDC; Domain: Description
MARI R. UEDA (Applied Behavior Consultants, Inc.)
Abstract: Abstract: Research indicates that an empirically derived intervention such as ABA, during a child's early development (0-3 years) may: a) prevent or reduce the long term impact of a child's developmental disability on his ongoing growth and development, b) increase the probability she will be able to participate in typical developmental, academic and social activities in natural environments, and c) improve the likelihood he will no longer require specialized services. A specialized program for infants and toddlers is described which provides 1:1 ABA services to children diagnosed with Autism or whose symptoms place them at risk for the diagnosis. Outcome data demonstrate that all infants and toddlers enrolled have made developmental gains. Thirty nine percent made more developmental gains (in months) than actual months spent in the program. An additional 9% of students made the same developmental gains as months spent in the program. Thus, 49% of all students enrolled made at least the expected developmental gains. Ninety five percent of all students transitioned to a less restrictive environment after turning three. The program design and data collection methods will be presented to illustrate the usefulness of standard, evidenced based measurement methods in demonstrating program effectiveness.
 
4. Effects of Modified Functional Communication Training in the Natural Environment on Social Communicative Behaviors.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
GREGORY R. MANCIL (Western Kentucky University), Todd F. Haydon (University of Florida)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) provides an effective method to address communication and behavioral needs of children with autism (Wacker et al., 2005). The majority of the studies, however, are in clinical settings and typically do not address generalization to natural environments or expansion of communication mands (Mancil, 2006). In contrast, milieu therapy is designed to increase communication mands and generalization in the natural environment. Thus, the purpose of this presentation is to provide a detailed structure of the systematic techniques for implementing FCT with milieu procedures in home and classroom settings. This description will be provided in conjunction with supportive empirical data obtained using a multiple baseline across participants with children diagnosed with autism who had a tangible function identified by a functional analysis. Parents were trained via video and role-playing to teach the children communication using milieu therapy procedures during play routines in their homes. After 30 five-minute session blocks, the children decreased dependence on prompts, increased communication, and decreased engagement in aberrant behavior. These results maintained over time and generalized to the classroom for each child. Parents and practitioners will be provided with handouts of the procedures and examples of the implementation procedures.
 
5. Evaluating the Utility of a Longitudinal Comprehensive Behavior Support Plan: An Illustrative Case Example.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
SHELLEY CLARKE (University of South Florida)
Abstract: This study was designed to look at the continued use of an assessment-based intervention, across two school years for a girl with autism spectrum disorder and multiple medical disabilities. A descriptive comparison was conducted in order to examine the characteristics of the intervention and support plan over time. This comparison provided the opportunity to identify changes and similarities that might serve as possible factors related to maintenance durability. An experimental analysis was also conducted in order to evaluate the continued viability of the assessment-based intervention in a new context. Objective empirical measures were collected following the repeated implementation of the functional assessment process, as well as collecting measures reflecting quality of life issues. The intervention was evaluated across two years with multiple measurement strategies in order to obtain a relatively comprehensive portrayal of the impact of the behavior support efforts over time, for both participant and intervention agent. In addition to direct observations of participant behavior, social validation data were obtained across various phases of the support plan.
 
6. HANDS in Autism Collaborative Classroom Project: Case Study of Staff Training.
Area: EDC; Domain: Description
NAOMI SWIEZY (Christian Sarkine Autism Treatment Center at Riley), Patricia A. Korzekwa (Christian Sarkine Autism Treatment Center), Melissa Stuart (Christian Sarkine Autism Treatment Center)
Abstract: The HANDS in Autism program (Helping Answer Needs by Developing Specialists in Autism) began a community-based demonstration classroom to develop local capacity for training school personnel in working with children with autism and to pilot an integrated collaborative classroom model based on data-driven decision-making and the use of empirically-based strategies. Throughout the evolution of the project, data were collected on teacher-student interactions specifically focusing on prompting strategies, positive attention to students, contingent attention to student target behaviors, and student independence. Data will be presented showing the progression of staff training and its subsequent impact on student behavior.
 
7. HANDS in Autism Model: Analysis of Program Efficacy through Skill Demonstration Activities.
Area: EDC; Domain: Description
PATRICIA A. KORZEKWA (Christian Sarkine Autism Treatment Center), Naomi Swiezy (Christian Sarkine Autism Treatment Center at Riley), Melissa Stuart (Christian Sarkine Autism Treatment Center), Stacie L. Pozdol (Christian Sarkine Autism Treament Center at Riley), Iryna V. Ashby (Christian Sarkine Autism Treatment Center)
Abstract: The HANDS in Autism training model has been developed with primary consideration provided to an intensive, hands-on training rooted in ABA principles and best practices. Participants learn in an active environment through didactic, intensive hands-on practice, coaching, and feedback sessions. Ultimately, participants are asked to apply these principles to diverse real-life situations during classroom interactions with student participants differing in age and behavioral and developmental profiles. To determine the effectiveness of the HANDS in Autism model, participants were assessed through demonstration of their ability to retain, understand, and apply curriculum material. Specifically, participants were observed during hands-on activities in which interactions with student participants were coded for correctness in applying the skills taught. Additionally, participants provided products and written samples demonstrating their knowledge and application of other skills (e.g., generation of appropriate goals). Upon receiving feedback, participants worked to adapt approaches and to revise products accordingly. These adapted behaviors and products were then reevaluated to determine immediate feedback incorporation. Through these observations, in-situation activities, and product samples, we were able to demonstrate that the HANDS in Autism model was an effective program for increasing knowledge and practical application of skills relevant to professionals working with children with an ASD.
 
8. Improving Academic Engagement and Social Interactions Using Restricted Interests as Antecedent and Consequence Based Interventions.
Area: EDC; Domain: Description
PENA BEDESEM (University of Central Florida), Gregory R. Mancil (University of Central Florida), Kara Rosenblatt (University of Central Florida)
Abstract: Restricted interests have been used as antecedent and consequence based interventions in the research literature (Adams, 1998). Embedding the restricted interest of the child with autism into either academic tasks or cooperative play activities can increase appropriate behavior (Charlop et al., 1990). In addition, this strategy has the added advantage of providing the child a more appropriate and functional way to engage with restricted interests. This poster will provide practitioners in the field of special education working with students with autism, across age and ability levels, specific strategies to identify and subsequently use their restricted interests as antecedent and consequence interventions to increase academic and social engagement. This poster will provide parents and practitioners the knowledge of (a) how to identify the restricted interests of students with autism, (b) how to use those interests to increase on-task behavior, and (c) how to use restricted interests to encourage peer-related social interactions. Empirical support will be used to describe and support the effectiveness of these procedures.
 
9. Teaching Play Skills to Effectively Compete with Behaviors Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement in a Public School Setting.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
ALICIA A. RICHARDS INGIOSI (PA VB Project), Staci Futrick (Upper Merion School District), Rebekah L. Houck (PA VB Project)
Abstract: In a public elementary school classroom with instruction guided by the analysis of verbal behavior, a student engages in mouthing behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. This case study set about to answer three questions: 1. Will teaching play skills effectively decrease and/or replace the mouthing behavior? 2. Is the lack of play skills in a free play environment occurring due to skill deficit or due to low motivation? 3. If we address the skill deficit by teaching play skills in a highly structured 1:1 teaching environment, will these skills generalize to the free play environment independent of additional procedures? Baseline and treatment phase data are provided as well as inter-observer agreement and treatment integrity data. Treatment phases include an intensive teaching only setting and intensive teaching plus generalization for the free play environment. Measurements during these phases involved frequency of mouthing behavior versus approach to toys as well as duration of engagement with target toys and duration of inappropriate engagement with toys. Results indicate that play skills taught in a 1:1 setting do not generalize on their own; however, when a generalization plan is developed and implemented, the mouthing behavior decreases and time spent appropriately engaging with target toys increases.
 
10. Telecare Training Program for Parents of Children with Autism.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
JOY KOLB (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Sigurdur Oli Sigurdsson (University of Maryland, Baltimore County)
Abstract: Some parents of children with autism are unable to access to traditional parent trainings because of cost, transportation, and child-care issues associated with these training programs. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a telecare training program to teach empirically-based interventions to parents of children with autism in the home environment. The online program was designed to teach parents skills to decrease problem behaviors exhibited by their children with autism. The intervention package provided training on extinction, differential reinforcement, and a three step prompting procedure to reduce problem behavior. Three parents of and their children with autism participated in this study. The parents implemented the strategies learned from the telecare training program with the support of web-based consultations from the investigator. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across participants indicated the parents learned to correctly implement the behavioral intervention in the home environment. In addition, the children exhibited substantial decreases in disruptive behavior when the parents consistently implemented the intervention components. These results suggest telecare training programs may provide useful and cost efficient alternatives to traditional parent-training programs.
 
12. The Competent Learner Model and Its Use to Decrease Extremely Injurious Behaviors for a Learner with Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
ANNE KATONA-LINN (PaTTAN-Harrisburg)
Abstract: In this case study, we are looking at the effects of using the Competent Learner Model with a learner with Autism Spectrum Disorders who exhibits severe injurious behaviors at home and in school. The Dependent variables are classified as injurious behaviors (biting, hair pulling, scratching, hitting, kicking, pushing and pinching). We are looking at reducing the injurious behaviors and increasing his acceptance of requests and academic participation. The Independent variables are the components of the Competent Learner Model (CLM) which is based on principles of applied behavior analysis, analysis of verbal behavior, direct instruction and precision teaching. Based on a functional analysis, the function identified was to avoid/escape requests or perceived requests including physical proximity of the teacher(s), activities or other materials as a result of his injurious behaviors. Measurement of frequency and duration is repeated on a daily basis, and is reported in graphic format. There has been a significant decrease in the duration and frequency.
 
13. The Effect of Sensory Activities on Correct Responding for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
GINNY L. VAN RIE (Georgia State University), Juane Heflin (Georgia State University)
Abstract: Sensory interventions, commonly heralded as useful for students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), are supported through anecdotal and case reports, with little empirical support to substantiate their impact on educational performance. To address this gap, an alternating treatment design with replication of the most effective intervention was used to demonstrate a functional relation between sensory activities and correct academic responding for four children with ASD. Students were randomly assigned one of the two sensory interventions (i.e., swinging or bouncing) or the control activity for each session to counter balance and ensure equivalent exposure to each intervention. Each intervention used two sets of instructional materials from two different response classes to control for practice effects. Analysis of the results reveals data fractionation for correct responding among the sensory activities and control condition for three of the four participants, and replication to mastery for two participants. Correct responses for the two participants who were very active and easily distracted during instruction fractionated in favor of linear swinging. Correct responses for a third participant who was hypoactive fractionated in favor of bouncing on an exercise ball. The fourth participant's responses were unaffected by the sensory activities. Results were analyzed considering individual characteristics.
 
14. The Effectiveness of Behavioral Intervention for Aggression in Children With Autism.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
FRANCINE DIMITRIOU (The Cleveland Clinic School for Autism), Travis Haycook (Cleveland Clinic Center for Autism), Leslie V. Sinclair (Cleveland Clinic Center for Autism), Aletta Sinoff (The Cleveland Clinic Center for Autism)
Abstract: One challenging behavior exhibited by children with autism is aggression. In a center-based, applied behavior analysis school for children with autism, 29 formal behavior reduction plans were implemented to treat aggressive behavior in 29 students, ranging in age from eight through 22 years.. The success of the plans was determined by the reduction of the targeted behavior to a rate of < 1.0 occurrences per day. The plan was determined to be unsuccessful if the criterion success rate was not achieved within 130 days of treatment. Of the 29 behavior plans implemented, 20 plans achieved the targeted success criterion in an average of 40 days of implementation. This represents an overall success rate of 68.97% of plans implemented. Of the remaining 9 plans, an additional 5 plans achieved the targeted success criterion in 150 days. The poster presentation will review data extrapolated from the individual behavioral programming as well as offer information as to the techniques utilized to achieve the desired success rate.
 
15. Using Instructive Feedback to Increase the Efficiency of Learning for Young Children with Autism.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
BRIAN REICHOW (Vanderbilt University), Mark Wolery (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Instructive feedback (IF) involves the presentation of additional nontarget stimuli during the consequent event of correct responding (Werts, Wolery, Holcombe, & Gast, 1995). The research on the effectiveness of IF suggests it is an effective instructional modification for increasing the efficiency of learning. The present study examined the effectiveness and efficiency of IF back by comparing two instructional arrangements of the progressive time delay procedure (PTD; PTD without IF and PTD plus IF presented during the consequent event of correct responses) using an adapted alternating treatment design. The participants of the study were 5 young children with autism. Four experimental manipulations demonstrated clear results - acquisition of all target stimuli and stimuli presented as instructive feedback, while two experimental manipulations provided mixed results. The results suggest (a) the inclusion of IF did not hinder the acquisition of target responses, (b) IF was an effective method of instruction for these children with autism, and (c) the inclusion of IF with the PTD procedure produced increased efficiency of learning. The results are discussed within the constraints and limitations of the clear and mixed results and implications and recommendations for practice are provided.
 
16. Utilizing a Systematic Observation System to Monitor Progress of Students with Autism during Community-Based Vocational Training.
Area: EDC; Domain: Description
KAREN M. NEIFER (Devereux CARES), Todd Harris (Devereux), Kate Dickey (Devereux CARES)
Abstract: Systematic behavioral observation is a common practice among school-based practitioners and is largely viewed as one of the most objective and direct measures of student behavior. Several published observation codes exist (e.g., Behavioral Observation of Students in Schools; Shapiro , 2004 and State-Event Classroom Observation System; Saudargas, 1997). A limitation of these coding systems is that many practitioners will commonly conduct a small number of observations on a given student, raising concerns regarding the validity of the observations. Another limitation is that the majority of the codes are designed to be used in school settings during academic tasks. We propose to close several gaps in the literature by describing an observation code for adolescents and young adults with autism that can be used in both classroom settings and community-based vocational settings. More importantly, the systematic observation system will allow a teacher, job coach, or other classroom staff to easily collect data on a number of important variables on a repeated basis, thus facilitating progress monitoring. Sample data sheets and graphs will be presented.
 
17. Video Modeling and Children with ASD: Does the Age of the Model Matter?
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
JAMIE S. OWEN-DESCHRYVER (Grand Valley State University), Amy L. Matthews (Grand Valley State University)
Abstract: Video Modeling (VM) is an empirically-supported, behavioral strategy that can be used to teach skills to children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and other disabilities. Despite its effectiveness, little is know about the types of models that maximize the success of this intervention, in particular whether adult or peer models are more beneficial. The current study extended preliminary research on this topic by evaluating the effects of peer versus adult models on the development of social-play skills in three preschoolers with ASD. A combination of a multiple-baseline/alternating treatments design was implemented. During the intervention phase, on alternating days participants were exposed to videos of peers versus adult models playing with age-appropriate toys, such as building with blocks and playing with toy food. After observing the video models, participants were observed during free play with the same activities. Results indicated that both types of models were similarly effective in increasing modeled play behaviors and play statements, with slight differences for individual participants. Data are currently being coded to determine whether other participant behaviors suggest a preference for models of differing ages, specifically, whether there are differences in participant affect, eye gaze and verbal/behavioral responses while they are watching the videos.
 
18. Video Modeling and Script Training: Comparing the Evidence Bases.
Area: EDC; Domain: Synthesis
TRINA D. SPENCER (Utah State University)
Abstract: Video modeling and script training strategies are commonly used with children with autism to improve social interaction and increase the spontaneous use of language. The community that employs them generally accepts these strategies as adequately validated; however the relevant research literature has not been examined according to evidence based practice guidelines that provide an objective method of determining strength of evidence. Using Horner et al.'s (2005) proposed guidelines for determining quality of single subject design research, the bodies of literature on video modeling and script training will be evaluated and compared. Methodological challenges, especially those related to defining target populations and outcomes, will be discussed.
 
19. Increasing Money Counting Skills with a Student with a Brain Injury: Performance and Skill Deficits.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
DANIEL MARK FIENUP (The May Institute), Dipti Mudgal (The May Institute), Amanda P. Horst (The May Institute/ Northeastern University), Gary M. Pace (The May Institute)
Abstract: This poster will describe the use of single case designs to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions targeting money counting skills. A student with a brain injury was taught to count bills and coins. Initially, an activity schedule was implemented to increase the student’s organization of counting skills. The schedule targeted increased appropriate sorting of money and counting bills and coins from the highest value to the lowest value, but this intervention had limited impact on accuracy of counting. A second intervention, a token system, was implemented to target a hypothesized performance deficit. A changing criterion design was used to evaluate this intervention. With bills the student’s counting accuracy quickly increased to acceptable levels whereas accuracy with counting coins increased only as the criterion for earning a reward was also increased. The different patterns of behavior across the two interventions and across bills and coins suggest that different contingencies may have been controlling responding for bills and coins. Relative impact of skill and performance deficits within similar skill sets will be addressed.
 
20. Peer-Mediated Cognitive Behavior Strategy to Solve Aggressive Classroom Behaviors for Korean Children with Behavioral Disorders.
Area: EDC; Domain: Standards
SANG BOK LEE (BK 21 Task Force Team, Daegu University, S. KOREA), Eun-Jung Lee (BK 21 Task Force Team, Daegu University, S. KOREA), Min Kyoung Cho (BK 21 Task Force Team, Daegu University, S. KOREA), Yunhee Shin (BK 21 Task Force Team, Daegu University, S. KOREA), Mihyang Choi (BK 21 Task Force Team, Daegu University, S. KOREA), Jung Hee Park (BK 21 Task Force Team, Daegu University, S. KOREA), Kyung Hee Kang (BK 21 Task Force Team, Daegu University, S. KOREA), Won Ok Gu (BK 21 Task Force Team, Daegu University, S. KOREA)
Abstract: The present study examined school-based peer-mediated cognitive behavior strategy to increase prosocial behaviors and to decrease aggressive behaviors. Three elementary school children, in the 1st grade who were reported as showing aggressive classroom behaviors by their teachers. The results showed that all of the three children showed behavior increase in their prosocial behaviors and behavior decrease in their aggressive behaviors.
 
21. Training Parents to Implement Evidence-Based Academic Interventions.
Area: EDC; Domain: Description
MARK D. SHRIVER (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: When children are struggling academically, it is not uncommon for their parents to be involved with assisting with homework or providing extra tutoring. Effective tutoring requires time, resources, knowledge and skill in instructional techniques that many parents may not posses. In such cases, parents may benefit from training in individualized, evidence-based, instructional strategies to improve their child’s academic progress. This poster presents information and data from an outpatient psychology clinic focused on training parents of children with disabilities data-based interventions to improve their child's academic progress. Over 100 children and families have received services in this specialty clinic. Program evaluation data will be presented, and data from specific case examples will be provided. The poster will outline the process of identifying effective interventions based on previous research, direct skills assessment, brief experimental analyses, and progress monitoring. The poster will also outline the process of training parents to implement evidence-based academic interventions.
 
22. Explicit Instruction of Phonological Awareness Skills to Preschool Children with Disabilities.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
RALPH GARDNER III (The Ohio State University), Ashley Shaheen (Bright Horizon School), Temple S Lovelace (The Ohio State University), Kristall J. Graham (The Ohio State University), Christopher D. Yawn (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Children who do not learn to read well are likely to experience failure both in school and beyond. Young children typically receive their initial formal instruction in reading when they enter kindergarten. Kindergartners who have important prerequisite skills will have an advantage in learning to read. One important pre-reading skill is phonological awareness (National Reading Panel, 2000). This study examined the effects of explicit instruction of phonemic and phonological awareness skills on the phonological skills of diverse learners in a preschool program. Each of the five participants had been diagnosed with a disability (i.e., emotional disturbances, ADD, speech disability, and autism). Participants were explicitly instructed in letter-sound relationships by the researcher. Data from the study shows a functional relation between explicit instruction in phonics and the dependent variables (i.e., phoneme identification, alliteration, and rhyming) as measured using curriculum based measures and Get It Got It Go (Early Childhood Research Institute on Measuring Growth and Development, 1998). A multiple baseline design across behaviors was used to demonstrate a functional relation between explicit instruction and the dependent variables. The researcher also assessed the participants' ability to generalize the instructed phonological skills to other written materials.
 
23. Selecting Effective Programs to Influence Healthy and Harmful Behaviors for Adolescents.
Area: EDC; Domain: Standards
SHAWN M. BOLES (Oregon Research Institute), Liz Miles (Deschutes Research), Sarah Goracke (Deschutes Research), Herb Severson (Deschutes Research)
Abstract: The Decision Support System for Youth Well-Being (DSS-YWB) is an internet system designed to act as a 'smart notebook' for making, recording, and tracking decisions about programs intended to influence the prevalence of adolescent healthy and harmful behaviors. The DSS-YWB can be used to assess the well being of a group of adolescents, choose behaviors to influence, compare and select programs relevant to the behaviors and settings of interest, and produce/maintain a plan that documents the consequences of these decisions across time. A key feature of the system allows users to quickly and easily compare costs and features of some 90 evidence-based programs and to view other users’ experiences with selected programs through a unique review and rating mechanism. Programs have been included based on their strong empirical support, high ratings or awards by national agencies that set stringent criteria and/or refereed journal articles that document their efficacy. Sources include: SAMHSA’s National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices; the OJJDP Office on Juvenile Justice Department of Justice Model Program Ratings for exemplary programs; The Helping Americas Youth (HAY) Program Tool evidence-based programs that prevent and reduce delinquency or problem behaviors; and Blueprints for Violence Prevention, prevention and intervention programs.
 
24. The Academic Effects of Peer Tutoring for the Tutor.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
DONNA M. VILLAREAL (Ashland University)
Abstract: While the research provides strong evidence of the effectiveness of peer tutoring for tutees, there is less empirical evidence to indicate how peers benefit academically from serving as tutors. The purpose of this study was to determine the academic effects of peer tutoring for the tutors. Peer tutoring is a teaching method that may be used to increase opportunities for students to receive individualized instruction and practice. This method involves recruiting peers who are trained and supervised by the teacher to instruct and respond to each other. As tutors, peers provide prompts and cues, feedback, and reinforcement to their tutees. In an early study of the academic effects of peer tutoring for the tutor, Dineen, Clark, and Risley (1977) determined, in part, that academic benefits accrue to tutors who participate in structured peer tutoring. The counterbalancing of conditions used allowed the simultaneous comparison of three students' spelling performance using comparable word lists. Results of pre- and post-tests indicated that each student's spelling improved at a nearly equivalent level with respect to the words that they tutored and on the words for which they received tutoring. The experiment provided evidence that peer tutoring produced measurable gains for tutors as well as tutees. The present study was an attempt to systematically replicate the investigation of Dineed et al. (1977) to determine whether, and to what extent, academic gains in spelling would occur. The participants were elementary students enrolled in a general education classroom at a Spanish Immersion school. This investigation incorporated a parallel measurement to count correct letter sequences within words as well as measures of treatment integrity, maintenance, generalization, and social validation. Although the tutor gains made by 8 of the 9 participants were less than the gains demonstrated on word items on which they were tutored, the overall differences in gain scores indicated academic benefits for the tutor.
 
25. The Wing Institute: Promoting Evidence-Based Education.
Area: EDC; Domain: Description
RONNIE DETRICH (Wing Institute), Randy Keyworth (The Wing Institute), John E. States (The Wing Institute)
Abstract: The Wing Institute is a private, non-profit foundation with the mission of promoting evidence-based practices in education. We do this by functioning as a catalyst organization which allows us to create opportunities for interaction among various stakeholders in the educational process. We promote evidence-based practices through an annual summit, publications, support of the Evidence-based Practice SIG within ABA, our website, and a knowledge network.
 
26. Using a Token Economy to Improve Academic Performance of Incarcerated Youths.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
MARK T. HARVEY (Florida Institute of Technology), Lelia Robin Weeks (Space Coast Marine Institution), Ada C. Harvey (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of a token economy procedure on the academic performance of 4 youths in a residential facility for juvenile offenders. An ABAB1 withdrawal design was used to demonstrate a functional relation between points earned and changes in accuracy of assignments and academic productivity. During treatment conditions, academically based points were exchangeable for secondary reinforcers (e.g., food, drinks, or small tangibles). Results showed increases in the academic performance for 3 out of 4 participants. A change in point values after the second baseline proved more efficacious for increasing accuracy of completed assignments. Both teachers and students highly rated the procedures on a social validity scale. A second behaviorally-based token economy was used across all sessions, as per the institution’s behavior management strategy. The current study provides support for the use of token economies to increase academic performance which may lead to reduced recidivism and quality of life post-graduation.
 
27. An Evaluation of Effective Practice Standards Using Activity Schedules.
Area: EDC; Domain: Standards
ALISON M. BETZ (Utah State University), Thomas S. Higbee (Utah State University), Timothy A. Slocum (Utah State University)
Abstract: An evaluation on the APA division 16 and the CEC standards for evidence based practices was conducted. The reliability and validity of each standard were assessed by reviewing a commonly used intervention, activity schedules. Limitations and future considerations for each standard are discussed.
 
28. An Example of the Practical Application of Behavior Analysis to Decrease Aggression in a 3+ Year Old Preschool Child.
Area: EDC; Domain: Description
SANDRA MONDYKOWSKI TEMPLE (Massachusetts Teacher Association)
Abstract: This poster describes a practical application of a behavior plan using applied behavioral analysis principals to decrease targeted disruptive behavior in a 3+ preschool male who is developmentally delayed, especially in the area of functional language. This child also has sensory integration issues, as well as suspected processing delays. A functional behavior analysis was done and date pre and post the application of the behavior plan was gathered and graphed. Data on the three targeted behaviors was gathered and graphed. The behaviors observed and targeted for primary intervention consisted of hitting, pinching, and squeezing. These behaviors met the criteria of danger to another individual, along with the criteria of impeding social integration, learning, and acceptance in the school and community setting. The behavior plan taught positive behavior which would serve the same function as the problem behavior. Planned positive reinforcement occurred when the new behavior was exhibited or the problem behavior avoided. Environmental and curricular strategies and modifications were also utilized along with a crisis management plan, if needed. After ten weeks of application, this student was able to modify his behavior and continue to learn and function in the integrated preschool room, rather than be transferred to a substantially separate classroom.
 
29. Effects of Self-Monitoring on the Procedural Integrity of a Token Economy System.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
JOSH PLAVNICK (Michigan State University), Summer Ferreri (Michigan State University), Angela N. Maupin (Michigan State University)
Abstract: This study examines the effects of self-monitoring on the procedural integrity of a complex behavior intervention. One teacher and two paraprofessionals were trained to implement a differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior procedure for two students with developmental disabilities. Data were collected on the number of steps completed accurately prior to and following the use of self-monitoring checklists. A multiple baseline across staff was used to examine a functional relationship between self-monitoring and procedural integrity. A second multiple baseline across students was used to examine a functional relationship between an increase in procedural integrity and student outcomes. Results suggest that self-monitoring is an effective method for increasing procedural integrity and that accurate implementation improves student outcomes.
 
30. Evidence-based Strategies for Teaching Students with Intellectual Disabilities: Adapted and Interactive Video Instruction.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
ANNA S. EVMENOVA (George Mason University)
Abstract: Recent legislation mandates the inclusion of students with disabilities into general curriculum and accountability measures. Even those students who cannot participate in the standardized evaluations due to their disabilities and are pursuing alternate assessments must target academic skills. In effort to raise expectations and learning outcomes, educators are searching for new evidence-based, effective strategies to include their students with disabilities into meaningful academic education. This rigorous single-subject research study introduces alternative ways for designing instructional materials, based on the principles of UDL, to ensure active participation of students with intellectual disabilities in content-based curriculum. It investigates the effects of various video adaptations, including simplified narration, highlighted text and/or picture symbol-based captioning, and interactive video searching on factual and inferential comprehension of non-fiction video clips by 11 students with various abilities and needs. The existing research is sufficient to consider video instruction, closed captioning, picture symbols, and active learning as effective, evidence-based interventions for students with disabilities. In turn, adapted and interactive video instruction successfully combines all those elements. Thus, the new evidence-based special education practice is examined and identified based on the visual and statistical analyses (via randomization tests), as well as on qualitative findings from the social validity interviews.
 
31. Implementing Direct Instruction Curriculum for Summer Remediation in a Teacher Training Model Classroom.
Area: EDC; Domain: Description
BETTY FRY WILLIAMS (Whitworth University)
Abstract: The Direct Instruction model (University of Oregon and SRA) was first evaluated via Project Follow as one of 13 educational models implemented with 75,000 children from 170 communities across a 10-year period. Direct Instruction was proven the most effective for student gains in reading, math, language, problem solving, and self-esteem. Further research revealed significant IQ gains for students at all IQ levels and academic gains for students with mild and moderate disabilities. At Whitworth University graduate and undergraduate practicum students provided instruction in a campus-sponsored, summer school program for elementary-aged children with learning problems by using Direct Instruction curriculum programs including Reading Mastery Plus, Reasoning and Writing, and Connecting Math Concepts. Group design, pre- and post-testing using the Woodcock Johnson Test of Achievement showed students averaged 6 months progress in 6 weeks of the DI campus summer school; that students made gains during the 6 weeks of DI campus summer school, though some did not make progress during their regular 9-month school year; and that students with learning problems made twice as much progress as normal learners in the traditional summer school. This summer school model proved effective for remediating academic delays for children and for training preservice professionals.
 
32. The Effects of Paraprofessional Proximity on the Social Interaction of Children With and Without Disabilities.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
JOANIE GARRO (Private Consultant), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: The proximity of an adult may affect the social interactions of children with and without disabilities in inclusive education settings (Werts, Zigmond, & Leeper, 2001;Young, Simpson, Myles, & Kamps, 1997). In the current study, a multielement design was used to examine the relationship between the location of a paraprofessional and the frequency of social interactions between children with and without disabilities. Participants were two children diagnosed with autism and mental retardation, along with their typically developing peers. The amount of distance between the paraprofessional and the child with disabilities was manipulated in two conditions. In the proximal condition, the paraprofessional remained at arm’s length from the student with disabilities. In the distal condition, the paraprofessional remained at least 10 feet from the student. Total social initiations and responses of all participants were examined under the two conditions. The children with and without disabilities interacted more frequently when the paraprofessional was in the distal position. The general education teacher also generally directed more social initiations to the child with disabilities when the paraprofessional was in the distal condition. The paraprofessional interacted more frequently with the child with disabilities when positioned within arm’s length of the student.
 
33. The Effects of Simultaneous Prompting Embedded into Teaching Activates for Teaching Preparatory Skills for Preschool Inclusion to Children with Developmental Disabilities.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
SERHAT ODLUYURT (Anadolu University), Sema Batu (Anadolu University)
Abstract: The general purpose of this study examine the effectiveness of simultaneous prompting embedded in activities for teaching preparatory skills for preschool inclusions to children with developmental disabilities. A multiple probe design across behaviors was used and replicated across subjects. Also the perspectives of the teachers of the participants about the skills taught to the participants and themselves were determined through interviews conducted by the researcher. Three participants who had Down Syndrome with an age range of 36-44 months. The target skills taught to the participants were: (a) following two step instructions provided in group activities, (b) participating in group activities by raising his/her hand, and (c) nodding head when asked “Do you want …?”. The effectiveness results of revealed that all three participants acquired the target skills at criterion level. Moreover, two of the participants maintained the skills in the inclusive environments where they were placed seven weeks after the study was completed. Furthermore, The social validity data revealed that the preschool teachers of the two participants were very pleased about having the participants in their classes, the participants skills acquisitions and also about being informed about inclusion and children with special needs at the beginning of the school year.
 
34. The Role of Evidence-based Journals as Evidence-Based Information Sources.
Area: EDC; Domain: Standards
RALF SCHLOSSER (Northeastern University), Jeffrey S. Sigafoos (University of Tasmania)
Abstract: Evidence-based practice (EBP) involves the integration of the best and most current research evidence with clinical expertise and relevant stakeholder perspectives in the pursuit of making the best possible decisions for a particular client (Straus, Richardson, Glasziou, & Haynes, 2005; Schlosser, 2003). There is a five-step process involved: asking a well-built question, searching for evidence, appraising the evidence, applying the evidence, and evaluating the application. Clinicians face considerable implementation barriers, including a beginning knowledge and skills base about EBP, lack of resources (e.g., access to pertinent databases), and insufficient dedicated EBP time. Perhaps the most time-consuming EBP activity that also requires the most expertise is the searching for and critical appraisal of evidence. Clinicians require knowledge of and skills in searching various sources in order to retrieve the best and most current evidence in an efficient manner. Clinicians require knowledge of various factors that contribute to the internal and external validity of research. In this session the presenters will highlight the roles of evidence-based journals among the array of evidence-based information services in order to negotiate these barriers to EBP implementation. Evidence-based journals are available in a variety of health care and related fields (e.g., Evidence-based Communication Assessment and Intervention, Evidence-based Health Care and Public Health, Evidence-based Nursing, Evidence-based Mental Health, etc.). The presenters will draw from their experience as joint founding editors of Evidence-Based Communication Assessment and Intervention. Evidence-based journals provide structured abstracts of appraised research studies and systematic reviews, which meet pre-defined quality criteria. As such, these journals minimize search time and reduce the knowledge and skill burden that is being otherwise placed on the clinician. Evidence-based journals rank in the middle of the proposed “5S”-pyramid for evidence-based information sources, beginning with (1) studies, followed by (2) syntheses, (3) synopses, (4) summaries, and (5) systems (Haynes, 2006). Original studies represent the foundation of the pyramid followed by syntheses such as the systematic reviews produced through C2. Synopses are very brief descriptions of original articles and reviews such as the structured abstracts that appear in evidence-based journals. Summaries integrate...
 
35. Calculating Effect Size Estimates for Single-Subject Experimental Designs.
Area: EDC; Domain: Synthesis
OLIVER WENDT (Purdue University), Ralf Schlosser (Northeastern University)
Abstract: This poster will demonstrate a variety of procedures to compute an effect size estimate for data from single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs). SSEDs are typically examining pre-treatment versus post-treatment performance within a small sample of participants, or treatment versus no treatment conditions across individuals. The adoption of evidence-based practice (EBP) demands greater accountability and more reliable, objective results which has led to increased scrutiny of how SSED research is analyzed. EBP emphasizes the importance of objective outcome measures, especially “magnitude of effect” indices or “effect sizes” (ES). Including ES in published research displays the relative strength of various treatments. ES are also needed to summarize outcomes from SSEDs for inclusion in meta-analyses. Two general types of statistical-summary strategies have been proposed for assessing magnitude of effect in SSEDs, non-regression and regression approaches. Regression approaches determine efficacy of SSEDs by using linear-regression techniques to model repeated observations. The resulting R2 regression ES easily can be converted to Cohen’s d, a popular ES in group designs. Non-regression approaches use the amount of non-overlapping data as an indicator of performance differences, i.e., the extent to which data in baseline versus intervention phases do not overlap is an accepted indicator of the magnitude of effect.
 
36. Comparison of Three Instructional Approaches to Teaching Math Skills to Secondary Students with Behavioral Disorders.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
GLENNA BILLINGSLEY (Austin Independent School District), Brenda K. Scheuermann (Texas State University), Jo A. Webber (Texas State University)
Abstract: This session will describe results of a study that examined the effects of three approaches to teaching specific math objectives to 10 secondary students with behavioral disorders. The study explored three research questions: (1) which method of instruction was most effective as measured by multiple objective indicators of math performance; (2) which method of instruction was preferred by students; and (3) which method was associated with the fewest instances of inappropriate behaviors. Dependent variables included student scores on the math subtest of the WRAT-3 and weekly curriculum-based assessments, a student preference survey, and objective data reflecting student behavior. The three instructional conditions were direct teach, computer-assisted instruction, or a combination of the two. An alternating treatments research design was used, including a best-treatment phase and a post-instruction maintenance probe. Data analyses included visual analysis of separation of data paths and calculation of the percent of nonoverlapping data among the three interventions. Results indicated clear superiority of one method for some students. Student characteristics, including disability conditions, student preference data, and behavioral data were correlated with performance under each condition.
 
37. Relative Numerosity in Young Children: Comparison Between Sequential Versus Simultaneous Tasks.
Area: EDC; Domain: Description
VIRGINIE HUS (University Charles de Gaulle), Vinca Riviere (University Charles de Gaulle), Jean-Claude Darcheville (University of Lille)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that animals can learn to discriminate stimulus numerosities both when the stimuli are presented simultaneously (Honig & Matheson, 1995) and successively (Alsop & Honig, 1991; Machado & Cevik, 1997). In our research, we asked whether 4- and 5-year-old children (i.e., children that have not acquired the number concept) also are able to discriminate two stimulus numerosities, one representing more and one representing less of a quantity. In a standard matching-to-sample task, children were exposed to two sample numerosities (presented simultaneously, e.g., 5 red dots plus 2 green dots displayed in a computer screen, or sequentially, e.g., 5 red dots followed by 2 green dots, each dot presented individually) and then they were rewarded for choosing the most numerous alternative (red in the examples). Binomial tests of choice proportion revealed that children were able to discriminate the stimulus numerosities only when the samples were presented simultaneously – choice proportion were at chance levels in the sequential discrimination task, but significantly above chance in the simultaneous task. Potential reasons for this asymmetry like stimuli presentation, children’s stimuli preferences will be discussed.
 
38. Teaching Modes and their Impact on Learning Contextual Competences.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
MARIA ELENA RODRIGUEZ PEREZ (University of Guadalajara), Gabriel Velazquez (University of Guadalajara)
Abstract: Interbehaviorism considers that, in formal education, studying and teaching are two processes which represent the interaction of a student with a structured dissertation describing a competence to be learned. Previous research has identified the studying conditions that promote the learning of a contextual competence (i.e. labeling the parts of an object). To continue this line of research, in this study, 48 college students (divided into 6 groups) participated to evaluate the teaching conditions that promote the learning of a contextual competence. The experimental design considered pre-test, training, and post-test sessions. Pre-test and post-test evaluated performance while (1) labeling parts of Orion Constellation after reading a text with pertinent information, and (2) labeling Lunar Maria without any information. Pre-test performance was used to balance groups. Each group was trained to label Lunar Maria in different modes taking into consideration the amount of information released at once (complete, partial with repetition, partial without repetition) and the nature of task while reading (implicit or explicit recognition of Lunar Maria). Data were analyzed to determine the impact of each training mode on learning a given contextual competence and whether this learning may modify performance on a free learning situation.
 
39. The Effects of a Check In Check Out Intervention to Improve Academic and Behavioral Performance of Elementary School Students.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
KATHRYN J. NICHOLS (West Tennessee RISE Project/University of Memphis), Sara C. Bicard (University of Memphis), Esther Joy Plank (University of Memphis)
Abstract: The Check In Check Out (CICO) program, a secondary intervention for schools implementing positive behavior support, targets students at-risk for chronic behavior problems. CICO involves teachers providing positive feedback at the end of a class. The CICO intervention has been shown to increase academic engagement while reducing inappropriate behaviors (Hawken & Horner, 2003). However, the feedback feature may be problematic for teachers. The current study utilized a reversal design to investigate the effects of a modified CICO intervention on teacher behavioral ratings and academic engagement of six elementary students without disabilities. Preliminary data show no discernible difference between baseline and intervention phases. Issues related to teacher buy-in and treatment integrity are discussed as factors affecting the success of the intervention.
 
41. Value Added from Individual and Group Studies of iPASS Mathematics.
Area: EDC; Domain: Synthesis
PHILIP N. CHASE (West Virginia University), Robert L. Collins (iLearn, Inc.), Kristin Mayfield (iLearn, Inc.), Chata A. Dickson (West Virginia University), Harold E. Lobo (West Virginia University), Andrew Lightner (West Virginia University), Vennessa L. Walker (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Procedures from recent evaluations of Web-enabled curricula will be used to illustrate comparative methods for establishing evidence. Single-subject experiments conducted in a controlled laboratory setting are used to evaluate the internal validity of iPASS, a middle-school mathematics curriculum. Random controlled trials of the same curriculum also are conducted to evaluate its generality across middle school children in multiple states and different schools. Finally a multiple-baseline across years and across schools is being implemented electronically to further the analyses of external validity. The poster will illustrate the benefits of combining single-subject and group methodologies to assess internal and external validity. In addition the poster will describe a range of practical issues concerning evidenced-based standards including: multiple sources of testing, student mobility, treatment integrity, student preference, and random assignment. By conducting studies at both highly controlled single-subject and large scale group levels we hope to provide a good example of how synthesizing levels of analysis results in thorough evidence-based standards.
 
42. Applied Behavior Analysis Professional Development Program at the Florida Institute of Technology.
Area: EDC; Domain: Description
COREY L. ROBERTSON (Quest, Inc.), Jose A. Martinez-Diaz (Florida Institute of Technology & ABA Tech), Cindy Schmitt (Florida Institute of Technology), Joshua K. Pritchard (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: In an era in which online distance learning is being offered more and more, it is important to take a critical look at exactly what is required to have effective and enjoyable experience for the students. With high speed internet becoming available in millions of homes, bringing the classroom to the student is more and more easily accomplished. The Florida Institute of Technology has created and is investigating the utilization of cutting edge developments in computer and online technology to supplement our distance learning courses in Behavior Analysis. In this investigation we look at utilizing a combination of recorded video lectures and weekly live video conferencing with co-instructors as well as an online community. Some common criticisms are noted and findings of our investigation in this method of teaching during this course sequence are contrasted with results from conventional classroom courses. The efficacy of teaching in this manner is analyzed.
 
43. Effects of Peer Feedback on Paraprofessional Behavior in Vocational Training for Cognitively Impaired Adolescent Students.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
TAKETO NAKAO (University of Florida)
Abstract: Students with cognitive impairments often face challenges when looking for a job after graduating high school. Vocational training has become a critical educational component for cognitively impaired high school students to help them be prepared to have skills to increase their possibility for employment. Paraprofessionals frequently take an important role in working with students with cognitive impairments at educational environments. However, they rarely have knowledge of behavioral strategies that have been effectively used for teaching individuals with cognitive impairments. Peer feedback is an intervention where peers provide praise and corrections that are likely to reinforce a participant’s use of behavioral strategies during the vocational training. In this study, we examined the use of peer feedback to increase fidelity of three behavioral strategies (guidance, tapping, and praise) for a paraprofessional when teaching a high school student with cognitive impairments vocational skills. A multiple baseline across behavioral strategies was used in this study. Data was collected by counting the frequency of each behavioral strategy used correctly during each session. Additionally, social validity data was obtained on the use of peer feedback as an approach for accurate use of behavioral strategies. Finally, limitations and future directions of this study will be discussed.
 
44. Function-Based Support: An Approach for Training Elementary School General Educators.
Area: EDC; Domain: Synthesis
LYNNETTE CHRISTENSEN (Brigham Young University), Paul Caldarella (Brigham Young University Positive Behavior Support Initiative), K. Richard Young (Brigham Young University)
Abstract: Though function-based support (FBS) is considered best practice for behavioral interventions in school settings, there is no legal mandate to provide FBS for students without disabilities who are exhibiting problem behaviors. Thus many of these students receive inadequate interventions or none at all. In response, we investigated the effects of using a streamlined training approach to help teachers learn to independently implement FBS as a prereferral intervention. Ten single subject studies were used to evaluate the training of elementary school general educators to use function-based support, via functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and behavioral support planning (BSP). Participants included eight teachers and ten students with varying behavior problems. Teacher knowledge was measured by a modified multiple baseline design and included pre-test, formative, and post-test data. Effectiveness of the teacher generated FBAs and BSPs was determined by student behavioral outcome data as measured by eight AB and two ABAB designs. Teacher social validity ratings of the training method, and of the benefits to students, were also measured. Results indicated that teachers were able to effectively implement FBS as evidenced by positive student outcomes. Teacher knowledge also improved throughout the training. Teachers rated the training method and the benefits to students positively.
 
45. Preparing Pre-Service Teachers to Use Evidenced-Based Practices.
Area: EDC; Domain: Standards
KELLY A. HECKAMAN (Valdosta State University), Shirley E. Thompson (Valdosta State University), Karla Hull (Valdosta State University)
Abstract: Providing pre-service teachers with multiple opportunities to practice using research-based strategies and collecting data on the students in their classrooms is an essential aspect of developing competent and effective teachers. This poster describes an initial special education certification program that focuses on preparing teacher candidates to use evidence-based practices and to make data-based decisions. We include examples of single-subject design projects that candidates have completed that show the effects of the candidate’s intervention on the student’s behavior. Our goals are for our graduates to be able to identify and use research-based instructional strategies, and to collect and analyze data as a natural component of their daily teaching routine.
 
46. Response to Intervention: Data Based Decision Making with Educators.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
KRISTIN N. JOHNSON-GROS (Eastern Illinois University), Eric Mesmer (Radford University), Gary Duhon (Oklahoma State University)
Abstract: Response to Intervention (RtI) is a model derived from empirical research that is historically steeped in data based decision making. However, the ability for educational staff to make appropriate decisions based upon data analysis is still largely unknown; in that, researchers do not completely understand what variables (e.g., skills) are the most valuable for educators to have to make appropriate and informed decisions. Considering the high-stakes decisions that are being made in schools utilizing RtI data, it seems that understanding of these variables is imperative. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of a workshop training (i.e., didactic, modeling, and feedback) on data based decision making knowledge and providing activities to determine level of appropriate decision making through vignettes. The participants were educators from a southern state that attended a summer workshop on RtI data based decision making. The participants were presented with a series of activities to assess knowledge and performance throughout the day. The investigators used prestests and posttests before and after feedback. A MANOVA and LGCM were used to examine mean differences across measures before and after and the relationships between and among the dependent variables. The results and implications are discussed.
 
47. Adapting Single-case Designs for Research on Groups.
Area: EDC; Domain: Synthesis
NEVILLE MORRIS BLAMPIED (University of Canterbury)
Abstract: Single-case research designs in which the unit of analysis is the individual participant preserve both quantitative data and the possibility of making valid causal inferences while avoiding the aggregation and averaging of data. They are a highly effective alternative research strategy to mainstream research based on group data and its statistical inference. However, there are situations (e.g., classrooms; organizations; preventative or therapeutic psycho-education interventions) where the natural or convenient unit for intervention involves a group of participants. Existing single-case, graph-based analytic procedures are ill-suited to these situations and there is a temptation to revert to the use of group-based statistical analyses. This poster describes adaptations of standard single-case designs and accompanying graphic analyses, covering reversal, multiple-baseline, changing-criterion, and alternating-treatments designs, that permit the analysis of group level interventions. This is achieved by using scatter-plots of individual data in various ways, such that data falling above or below the diagonal (zero change) line indicate intervention effects. Effect-size and other information can also be displayed.
 
48. Comparing Evidence Based Criteria through a Review of Repeated Readings.
Area: EDC; Domain: Synthesis
BREDA V. O'KEEFFE (Utah State University)
Abstract: Presentation of a literature review on repeated readings for increasing reading fluency, by using the What Works Clearinghouse and Council for Exceptional Children criteria for evidence-based practices and comparing these results with the results of previous reviews on the topic, such as the 2000 review done by the National Reading Panel, and the 2004 review by Therrien. This review will look at the difference in results based on different criteria and reviewing processes.
 
49. Connection Between Methodological Designs and Evidence for Practice.
Area: EDC; Domain: Synthesis
BARBARA SCHIRMER (University of Detroit), Todd Schirmer (Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science), Alison Schirmer Lockman (Rowland Hall-St. Mark's School)
Abstract: Given concerns about the quality of research in education and questions about what constitutes evidence for informing instructional practice, several professional organizations have developed standards for quality research in just the past few years. These efforts provide a first generation of standards for a few of the methodologies commonly used in educational research but certainly not all of the major designs, and the differing categories and criteria used in these standards create a problem of coherence and utility to researchers, practitioners, education leaders, parents, and public policymakers. However, agreeing upon standards for quality research will address only half the equation. The other half is connecting types of research with evidence for effective practice. Most of this discussion to date has centered on experimental designs and the direct connection between findings from experimental studies, particularly RCT designs, and evidence for practice. What is missing from this discussion is the role of other designs in establishing lines of research inquiry that lead logically to experimental investigation. In this poster, we will present a proposed progression to illustrate how knowledge generated from correlational, descriptive, and qualitative methodologies is prerequisite to soundly conceptualized experimental studies that can then establish evidence for effective practice.
 
50. International Research & Education Project Teams.
Area: EDC; Domain: Standards
MARK SCHWARTZ (Biofeedback Foundation of Europe (IREP) Program)
Abstract: Biofeedback is a non-invasive technique in which sensors are attached to a person allowing data about their physiological state to be collected. Physiological values are monitored (measured) and transformed into visual and audio information for the therapist and the person. In this way, physiological activity can be quantified and documented objectively as it relates to health and behavior. The Biofeedback Foundation of Europe (BFE) runs a number of International Research & Education Project (IREP) Teams to implement evidence-based practice in clinical research, education and training. The BFE has developed a set of criteria for standards of evidence, using online, real-time interactive training of practitioners and researchers. Team members learn how to measure and monitor physiological indicators; heart rate, temperature, skin conductance, respiration, muscle tension, and brain waves in real time via internet. Teams are divided by dominant signal type; Surface Electromyography (SEMG), Electroencephalography (EEG) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). The biofeedback information produced from the physiological data is more easily understood by most people than the information received through their own senses. The association between the physiological data and the internal information allows the subject to attain new patterns of behavior that can then be integrated into their daily activities.
 
51. "What is 4X4?...Congratulations!" Middle School Students Tutoring with Technology.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
RENEE KOEHLER VAN NORMAN (University of Nevada, Las Vegas), Ali Nehrkorn (University of Nevada, Las Vegas), Juan M. Simon (University of Nevada, Las Vegas), Madonna Pittman (University of Nevada, Las Vegas)
Abstract: Classwide peer tutoring systems are designed to deliver many instructional opportunities with positive and corrective feedback within a brief amount of class time. Targeting students with similar academic deficits and assigning them to dyads can create more opportunities for supplemental instruction and practice; however, pairing two low-performing students with similar instructional needs may create situations where students are practicing errors and not receiving appropriate feedback (Van Norman & Wood, 2008). One way to help tutors provide correct feedback within a tutoring system is to give the tutor a model of the correct answer (Van Norman & Wood, 2008; Wood, Van Norman, Mackiewicz, & Cooke, 2007). This study employed a multiple baseline design across peer tutoring dyads to evaluate the effects of a systematic peer tutoring program with electronic recording device (Mini-Me®) on the accuracy tutor feedback given by middle school students receiving instruction in a resource room. The secondary activities of this study evaluated the extent to which peer tutoring with accurate feedback impacted the acquisition of basic multiplication facts as measured by weekly 1-minute fluency probes and 5-minute paper and pencil tests. Results show that prerecorded answers to multiplication facts increased students' accurate feedback during peer tutoring and testing.
 
52. An Evaluation of Integrity Failures during Token Economies.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
ALLISON SERRA TETREAULT (West Virginia University), Claire C St. Peter (West Virginia University), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Shari Marie Winters (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Token economies are an empirically supported behavior management system, but may be implemented imperfectly by teachers. Although research has examined the effects of incorrect implementation (treatment integrity failures) on differential reinforcement in general, little is known about the effects of treatment integrity failures during token economies. In the current study, we examined the differential effects of errors of commission (unscheduled reinforcers are delivered) and omission (scheduled reinforcers are not delivered) on academic behavior maintained by token economies with six typically developing students. Students were exposed to baseline, a token system with full integrity (implemented perfectly) and reduced levels of integrity with both errors of omission and commission in a multiple-baseline-across-participants design. During reduced integrity phases, the system was implemented correctly 50% of opportunities, because this level seemed to be possibly detrimental to differential reinforcement interventions in previous research. Effects of token systems were not detrimentally affected by implementation at 50% treatment integrity (with either omission or commission). These findings suggest that token systems may be recommended when levels of treatment integrity are a concern.
 
53. An Evaluation of the Effects of and Preference for a Magnetic Choice Board.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
NICOLE HEAL (Southern Illinois University), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England College)
Abstract: High levels of child engagement are desirable in early childhood classrooms because children learn through their interactions with their environments. Using a multiple baseline across classroom design we examined the effects of a magnetic choice board during free-play times on child engagement and location using a momentary-time sampling (MTS) procedure. In addition, the social validity of the intervention was directly assessed with the children via a group-oriented concurrent chains arrangement and indirectly assessed with the teachers via a questionnaire. Interobserver agreement was assessed for a minimum of 26% of sessions with mean agreement above 87% for all measures. Implementation of the magnetic choice board during free-play times resulted in a slight increase in engagement and less activity switching. Results of the social validity assessments indicated child and teacher preference for the magnetic choice board arrangement. Effective and preferred environmental arrangements for free-play times are discussed.
 
54. An Examination of Practices Regarding the Utilization of Scientifically Based Research at the District Level (in Two Midwestern States) and the State Policy Level Following Passage of NCLB
Area: EDC; Domain: Standards
PATTY L. POLSTER (St. Louis University)
Abstract: Administrators across the nation are regularly faced with decisions regarding the best ways to serve their students and community. NCLB legislation calling for the utilization of scientifically based research necessitates a more thorough administrative decision-making process than many in the field are accustomed to. The current study will attempt to examine the extent to which Missouri and Illinois school district administrators and school boards have developed (and/or currently utilize) specific policy and/or procedures related to the identification and utilization of research in educational and/or curricular decision making, as well as what proportion of administrators surveyed report having received adequate training to identify and utilize SBR. Additionally, interview data from representatives of each state department of education will be presented regarding policies and/or procedures related to the identification and utilization of SBR, as well as staff readiness to implement any such policies.
 
55. Are Mentoring Programs Evidence Based?
Area: EDC; Domain: Synthesis
GINGER KELSO (Utah State University), Benjamin Lignugaris/Kraft (Utah State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this poster presentation is to describe the process and difficulties in evaluating the quality of studies based on peer reviewed research reports. Gersten et al.'s (2005) quality indicators for group and quasi-experimental research were used to evaluate the literature on community and school-based mentoring programs for youth. Results of that analysis will be presented along with information on the difficulties encountered in determining study quality such as lack of reporting, unclear criteria, and difficulty interpreting intent of indicators. Results will also indicate whether, given the current methods, mentoring programs meet the standards to be considered evidence based.
 
56. Computer-Assisted Peer Tutoring on Phoneme Segmentation Fluency by Kindergarten Students At-Risk for Reading Failure.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
CHARLES L. WOOD (University of North Carolina at Charlotte), April L. Mustian (University of North Carolina at Charlotte), Ya-yu Lo (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Abstract: Peer tutoring is a research-based strategy used across a wide range of age groups and settings. Teachers may find it difficult to pair students for tutoring because the tutor must be able to evaluate the tutee’s response as correct or incorrect (Van Norman & Wood, 2008). Slideshow programs (e.g., PowerPoint) can include pictures and embedded audio prompts to improve the effectiveness of peer tutoring (Wood, Mackiewicz, Van Norman & Cooke, 2007). This study used a multiple probe design across students to evaluate the effects of a computer-assisted peer tutoring program on students’ phoneme segmentation fluency. Participants included 4 kindergarteners identified by a winter benchmark of DIBELS Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (Good & Kaminski, 2002) as at-risk or some risk. Results showed computer-assisted peer tutoring increased participants’ phoneme segmentation fluency. Implications for future research, classroom practice, and response to intervention will be discussed.
 
57. Defining Evidence Based Practices in Secondary Transition.
Area: EDC; Domain: Standards
VALERIE MAZZOTTI (University of North Carolina, Charlotte), April L. Mustian (University of North Carolina, Charlotte), David W. Test (University of North Carolina, Charlotte)
Abstract: This presentation will educate professionals about evidence based practices in secondary transition. No Child Left Behind (2001) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004) emphasized the value of identifying evidence based practices in education. Through an extensive literature review, evidence based practices in secondary transition have been identified based on quality indicators described by Horner et al. (2005), Gersten et al. (2005), and guidelines of methodological rigor from the Institute of Educational Sciences. Additionally, the practices have been organized into five specific categories by Kohler’s Taxonomy for Transition Programming (1996). A set of criteria has been developed to identify levels of evidence for four categories of research (i.e., strong, moderate, potential, low) to identify evidence based practices. Establishing and disseminating evidence that supports secondary transition practices is essential to improved instruction and adult success for students with disabilities. Practices presented will be "evidence-based", which denotes only those practices with a strong or moderate level of evidence. The objectives of the presentation will include (a) describing a set of criteria developed to define evidence based practices, (b) informing professionals of those practices demonstrated through research with high methodological rigor, and (c) suggesting areas for future research.
 
58. Direct Instruction: 40 Years of Evidence.
Area: EDC; Domain: Description
TIMOTHY A. SLOCUM (Utah State University), Cathy L. Watkins (California State University, Stanislaus)
Abstract: The research base for Direct Instruction is unusually strong. Research and evaluation studies using various methods, conducted in a range of settings, involving diverse types of learners, and investigating a range of academic outcomes have accumulated over more than 40 years. This body of research empirically validates that Direct Instruction has strong, positive effects on children's academic achievement. The principles of instructional design upon which Direct Instruction programs are based were derived from more than 50 controlled studies. In the national evaluation of Project Follow Through, the Direct Instruction model produced the highest student outcomes on measures of basic skills, cognitive skills, and affective skills. More recently, the effectiveness of Direct Instruction has been noted by the American Federation of Teachers, American Institutes of Research, and the Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk. Independent research reviews provide additional support. Meta-analyses of studies comparing Direct Instruction to other instructional approaches have revealed large effect sizes for Direct Instruction (e.g., White,1988; Adams & Engelmann, 1996). Direct Instruction is unique among published curricula in the degree to which different types of research converge over time to validate the effectiveness of the component practices as well as the entire instructional model (Shug, Tarver, Western, 2001).
 
59. Early Behavioral Intervention for Children with Special Education Pre-referrals: A Study of Two Cases.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
DANIEL L. LESAGE (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Jennifer L. Austin (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Ryan T. O'Connor (University of Houston, Clear Lake)
Abstract: Many young children are referred for special education evaluations due to persistent challenging behaviors. This study displays data for two kindergartners who were referred to their school’s pre-referral problem-solving teams due to defiance, noncompliance, and aggression. Following the referrals, we worked with the children’s teachers to develop individualized interventions to address these problems. For Mark, whose behaviors were maintained by attention, we used differential reinforcement within the context of a token economy to increase teacher attention for appropriate behavior. Outcomes were assessed using a reversal design (IOA averaged 97%). Kelly’s behaviors also were maintained by attention and were evoked by changes in her teacher’s allocation of student attention. Her intervention involved compliance role-playing, differential reinforcement for compliance, and exclusionary time-out for extremely disruptive behavior. Due to the severe nature of Kelly’s behavior, results were evaluated using only an AB design. Also, the sporadic nature of her behavior precluded IOA observations. Both children showed marked improvements in behavior. Further, neither was considered at risk for special education placement at the end of the school year. Our results are discussed in the context of the potential for behavioral interventions to change special education trajectories for typically developing children with behavioral challenges.
 
60. Effects of Demonstration and Coaching on Kindergarten Teachers' Accurate Delivery of Group Instruction Strategies.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
NANCY L. COOKE (University of North Carolina at Charlotte), Allison G. Kretlow (University of North Carolina at Charlotte), Charles L. Wood (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Abstract: This study examined the effects of two levels of training on kindergarten teachers' accurate delivery of group instruction strategies. Specifically, teachers were trained to use choral responding and response cards in combination with a model-lead-test procedure for introducing skills and correcting errors. A multiple-baseline-across-participants design was used to examine the differential effects of a half-day workshop and individual demonstration and coaching on teachers' accurate delivery of instructional trials within calendar lessons. In addition, the extent to which teachers' generalized accurate use of the instructional strategies to word work lessons was examined. Results indicated demonstration and coaching were more effective than a workshop in increasing teachers' instructional accuracy.
 
61. Effects of Scripted Instruction on Opportunities to Respond for First Grade Students At-Risk for Reading Failure.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
TARA GALLOWAY (University of North Carolina, Charlotte), Nancy L. Cooke (University of North Carolina, Charlotte), Shawnna S. Helf (UNC-Charlotte: College of Education), Allison G. Kretlow (University of North Carolina, Charlotte)
Abstract: Research demonstrates a strong relationship between increased opportunities to respond and improved academic achievement (Greenwood, Delquadri, & Hall, 1984: Greenwood, Hart, Walker, & Risley, 1994; Stanley & Greenwood, 1983). This study used a multiple baseline across participants design to examine the effects of scripted instruction on opportunities to respond to task-focused components of reading lessons. Participants included 4 elementary school tutors and 12 first graders who placed in the at-risk category on the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) subtests for first grade reading skills. Results indicated scripted instruction yielded a higher percentage of task-focused opportunities to respond across all tutors. Implications for future research and school practice will be discussed.
 
62. Effects of the Class-wide Function Based Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) Program.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
HOWARD P. WILLS (Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Debra M. Kamps (Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Carl Conklin (University of Kansas), Blake Hansen (University of Kansas)
Abstract: The current study examined the effects of The Class-Wide Function-Based Intervention Team (CW-FIT) program. The program was established to broadly target common functions maintaining problem behaviors in elementary classrooms (teacher attention, peer attention, escape). A randomized experimental-control group design was used to examine the effects of the intervention in 24 classrooms across 4 urban elementary schools and including over 400 students. In addition to this primary design, an ABAB reversal design was conducted in 21 of the intervention classes. Measures included multiple probes of student engagement and problem behavior as well as teacher praise and reprimands. Results indicate an increase in student engagement and teacher praise with subsequent decreases in problem behaviors in intervention classes as compared to control classes and as compared to baseline rates.
 
63. Effects of Three Types Of Opportunities to Respond on Active Student Responding.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
TODD F. HAYDON (University of Florida), Gregory R. Mancil (University of Central Florida)
Abstract: The purpose of this presentation is to provide information on an experimental study that compared three types of teacher questioning procedures (individual responding, choral responding, and a mixture of choral and individual responding) on the academic and social behaviors of students at-risk for emotional or behavioral disorders. Information will be shared about the research design, findings, and implications for large group instruction. Six students identified as having chronic disruptive behaviors that placed them at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) participated in this study. This study took place during a large group teacher-directed content vocabulary lesson. The dependent measures for this study included the following student behaviors: (1) active student responses, (2) off-task behavior, and (3) disruptive behavior. Included in this study are two phases: (1) teacher training and (2) comparison of three interventions (i.e., individual responding, choral responding and mixed choral and individual responding). Using an alternating treatments design the results of the study will be discussed and graphs of data provided.
 
64. Headsprout Early Reading: Formative Evaluation and Experiments.
Area: EDC; Domain: Description
MELINDA SOTA (Florida State University)
Abstract: This poster will describe research and published papers that focus on Headsprout Early Reading was empirically developed and the data that shaped the final product. The teaching routines used, the critical reading repertoires taught, and the learner data which shaped Headsprout Early Reading, will be described, including how the development procedures used were so precise that actual experiments could be conducted during the development process and published in a peer-reviewed journal, contributing new evidence to our understanding of how children learn.
 
65. Headsprout Early Reading: Summative Evaluation and Experiments.
Area: EDC; Domain: Description
APRIL HEIMLICH STRETZ (Headsprout)
Abstract: This poster will present the current database of summative, or large scale, evaluations of Headsprout Early Reading. Several multi-year evaluations and controlled research featuring unbiased group assignment, across settings and populations, will be summarized. The data reflect the growing data-based of evidence of outcomes with Headsprout Early Reading.
 
66. Nebraska Response to Intervention Consortium: Promoting Evidence-Based Practices in Schools.
Area: EDC; Domain: Standards
SARA S. KUPZYK (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Tanya Ihlo (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Melissa N. Andersen (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Kristi L. Hofstadter (University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
Abstract: The Nebraska Response to Intervention (RtI) Consortium was created to promote the successful use of RtI in the state of Nebraska. Response to Intervention is a service delivery model that involves providing high quality, evidence-based instruction matched to student needs, monitoring progress, and making data-based decisions. The Consortium provides systematic training to Educational Service Units and school districts to develop and deliver a quality RtI model within their schools. Training, based on a problem solving model, begins at an individual level to address school needs. The Essential Elements of RtI developed by the Consortium provide a framework for the development and refinement of the model within individual schools. In addition to the Essential Elements, the Consortium has developed criteria and guidelines for evaluating literacy curriculum and instruction within each tier. The training model, Essential Elements, and the Literacy Guide will be presented as a means of enhancing the use of evidence-based practices in schools.
 
67. Reviewing the Evidence for Using Time Delay to Teach Picture and Word Recognition to Students with Severe Developmental Disabilities.
Area: EDC; Domain: Synthesis
DIANE BROWDER (University of North Carolina, Charlotte), Lynn Ahlgrim Delzell (University of North Carolina, Charlotte), Fred Spooner (University of North Carolina, Charlotte), Pamela Mims (University of North Carolina, Charlotte), Joshua Baker (University of North Carolina, Charlotte)
Abstract: A comprehensive review of research using time delay to teach picture and word recognition to students with moderate and severe developmental disabilities was conducted using quality indicators proposed for single subject research. Studies were identified using an operational definition of time delay and other inclusion criteria. The studies were reviewed using defined quality indicators and then synthesized to determine if time delay is an evidence-based practice. The poster presenter will discuss what was discovered about reviewing a body of evidence.
 
68. Secondary Literacy Intervention for Diverse Low-Income Urban Learners: A Longitudinal Follow-up.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
ANGELLA HARJANI SINGH (The Ohio State University), Gwendolyn Cartledge (The Ohio State University), Lenwood Gibson (The Ohio State University), Starr E. Keyes (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: This poster presents a multi-year follow-up project on the effects of early reading intervention on the school performance of non-ELL and ELL urban learners. The study includes 61 at-risk learners (38 non-ELL[African & European American]; 23 ELL[Somalian & Hispanic]) and 28 (African, European, & Hispanic American) comparison controls. The comparison students were classmates who did not evidence risks markers at the beginning of the school year. The researchers questioned whether intensive (secondary) interventions would enable the at-risk learners achieve benchmark status, how much intervention was needed to achieve this status, and how the at-risk learners compared to their higher performing peers. A second set of questions pertained to whether students achieving benchmark would experience reading success in their classrooms, and avoid special education risk. A multiple-baseline design across groups as well as multiple linear regression (Year 2) and growth curve modeling (Year 3) were used to demonstrate pupil growth in PA skills (i.e. nonsense word fluency and phonemic segmentation fluency) and oral reading fluency. The poster will present the findings of this study, demonstrating the power of these interventions for at-risk students.
 
69. Temporal Patterns of Behavior in the Scheduling of Psychology Quizzes.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
DAVID P. JARMOLOWICZ (West Virginia University), Claire C St. Peter (West Virginia University), Yusuke Hayashi (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Weekly quizzes provide frequent performance feedback; however, the time investment involved in administering and grading such quizzes may occupy an undue proportion of instruction and preparation time. One way to retain the benefits of frequent quizzing without this time investment is administering quizzes on a flexible schedule in a different environment. However, the logistics can be daunting in multi-section courses. For example, poorly scheduled quizzes can result in too many students attempting to take their quizzes at once. When given deadlines, temporal patterns of group behavior exhibit scalloped patterns akin to those seen on fixed interval schedules (e.g., Critchfield et al., 2003). We evaluated the degree to which these temporal patterns can be utilized to facilitate efficient scheduling of quizzes in a computer lab. Undergraduate psychology students were given one week to take quizzes with the deadlines for completion staggered across days in a manner similar to a multiple baseline design. Scalloped patterns of test taking were observed for each section; however, when averaged across sections smooth variable-interval like patterns were observed. Results are discussed in terms of the utility of this scheduling practice and the importance of understanding naturally occurring temporal patterns of behavior.
 
70. The Benefits of T'ai Chi for Children with Disabilities.
Area: EDC; Domain: Description
CHERYL LYNN NYE (Psychologist -Private Practitioner)
Abstract: T'ai Chi, a 3000-year old practice, has documented health benefits for adults. Meditation appears to produce functional changes in the brain, (Lazar, et al. 2005). Findings indicate improvements in attention for adolescents with ADHD, (Hernandez-Reif, et al. 2001). The evidence-based practice of T'ai Chi for young children with disabilities, however, was virtually unexplored. Program objectives included determining if children with disabilities could access the benefits of this slow, meditative exercise. A specially designed training method (patent pending) utilizing behavioral controls enabled six male children with disabilities, ages 7 to 10, to complete a 10-session program. Preliminary findings include a 100% reduction in observable tics in a child with Tourette’s syndrome. Additionally, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Parent Form, yielded an average improvement >1.5 SD on the Global Executive Composite. The National Center for Learning Disabilities delineates the role of executive functioning in school success. Children with autism have higher levels of cortisol, a marker of stress, (Corbett, et al. 2006). T'ai Chi reduces cortisol levels, (Jin, 1989). Stress-related behaviors in participants with Autism Spectrum Disorder diminished and social skills improved. Future robust research could further unveil the viability of T'ai Chi as a promising intervention strategy.
 
71. The Effects of a Fluency Building Activity on the Oral Reading Fluency of At-Risk African American First Grade Boys.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
LENWOOD GIBSON (The Ohio State University), Gwendolyn Cartledge (The Ohio State University), Starr E. Keyes (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: The National Reading Panel's provides data on academic achievement of U.S. students. This report card consistently indicates a large discrepancy in the reading achievement scores of African American students and their White counterparts. The current gap in the latest report (2007) is over 25 points and has changed very little over the past 15 years. In light of these differences, efforts can be made to improve the academic performance, specifically reading skills of African American students. The use of fluency building procedures have proven effective for increasing oral reading fluency of at-risk readers; however many of these interventions focus on students beyond the first grade. The current investigation was conducted to examine the effects of a fluency building activity on the oral reading fluency and comprehension of first grade, African American males who were identified as at risk for reading failure. The fluency activity consisted of the following components: sight word recognition, modeled reading, guided practice with corrective feedback, and one-minute timed readings. Preliminary data from a multiple baseline across participants design indicated that this fluency activity was effective in increasing ORF rates over baseline rates for all of the participants.
 
72. The Four Building Blocks: A Contextualist Model to Construct the AGILE Learning Program.
Area: EDC; Domain: Synthesis
WILLIAM J. HELSEL (AGILE Learners Program/PLEA), Stuart E. Libman (PLEA Agency), Jonathan M. Amey (PLEA Agency), Dana Fish (PLEA Agency)
Abstract: The AGILE (Academic Generative Instruction for Learner Enhancement) Learning Program provides obvious pleasant efficient language, reading, writing, and arithmetic instruction to children described as emotionally disturbed, learning disabled, and autistic that continuously unfolds and shows improved performance began in August 2003. A contextualist model, the 4-Building Blocks, comprised of performance management, instructional design and delivery, motivative analysis, and contingency management findings from the science of human behavior literature is at its foundation. A model that shows contextualism is needed to understand what we say and do; a worthwhile life history; and efficient building of alternative things to say and do. This history is best measured by changing frequencies where we see 'the flowing nature of behavior.' To see these changing frequencies, Standard Celeration Charts will be shown at the program and individual level. For the program evaluation a count of charts over a 5-year period is presented. As part of the formative evaluation, or the continuous collection and analysis of data during program development to provide an ongoing experimentally controlled research base for ensuring effectiveness with individuals, three charts are shown representing the basic premise of Kent Johnson's Generative Instruction that complex behavior repertoires develop when component repertoires are appropriately sequenced, instructed, and rehearsed.
 
73. The Headsprout Research and Development Approach.
Area: EDC; Domain: Description
MARTA LEON (Headsprout)
Abstract: This poster will describe the research process used by Headsprout in developing its online reading program and provide for a clear definition of what meant when a program is termed "research-based." The concepts of formative and summative evaluation are introduced and defined with their importance to a proper evaluation of a program' instructional effectiveness described. A detailed, under-the-hood, explanation of Headsprout's product development approach is presented demonstrating that the design Headsprout Early Reading was not only "informed" by research, but is the product of a direct scientific development process as well.
 
74. Unison Responding - Over 20 years of Research (and Counting).
Area: EDC; Domain: Synthesis
DAWN W. HAMLIN (Penn State University/SUNY Oneonta), David L. Lee (Pennsylvania State University), Kathy L. Ruhl (Pennsylvania State University)
Abstract: Results of a meta-analysis of unison responding procedures (UR) as well as data from two new studies focusing on teacher implementation will be presented. Additionally, a review of UR literature will be compared to the Horner et al. (2005) suggestions for what constitutes a sufficient research base for single subject studies.
 
75. Universal Behavioral Supports: Evaluating the Sustainability of Systems Level Support.
Area: EDC; Domain: Description
JAMES E. CONNELL (Temple University)
Abstract: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA, 2004) stresses the development of positive behavioral interventions for students presenting with undesired behavior. Numerous evaluations (Bohanon, et al. 2006; Chapman & Hofweber, 2000; Colvin & Fernandez, 2000; Irvin, Horner, & Ingram, 2006; Odom, Brantlinger, & Gersten, 2005) report the effectiveness of positive behavioral interventions in public education settings. The present description highlights the practical implementation of a school-wide behavior support plan facilitated by a board certified behavior analyst working as a behavior specialist for a small urban school district by following best-practices as indicated in the research and legislation listed above. The creation of the plan (Horner et al., 2005) was accomplished via professional development in-service training modules across the summer months, and implemented in the fall of the same year. Key school stakeholders volunteered or were recruited to be a part of the leadership team and were guided through the development of a comprehensive school-wide positive behavior support plan. The comprehensive plan included school rules and behavioral expectations, lesson plans to teach the desired school behaviors, a token economy used to reinforce the occurrence of the desired school behaviors and a supportive, instructive function-based discipline policy. The results of the universal intervention demonstrated that behavior analysts working for local education agencies can significantly reduce the rate of office discipline referrals and suspensions by implementing positive behavior supports. Furthermore, typical across the year rises in suspensions and discipline referrals were reversed as the plan's proactive, instructive practices were implemented with consistency. Finally, data demonstrating sustainability will be presented illustrating the school's ability to maintain the plan after the departure of the behavior specialist.
 
76. Using Phoneme Segmentation Task Training to Differentiate the Need for Supplemental Instruction from Task Misunderstanding.
Area: EDC; Domain: Evaluation
SARA MOORE MACKIEWICZ (University of North Carolina, Charlotte), Nancy L. Cooke (University of North Carolina, Charlotte), Tara Galloway (University of North Carolina, Charlotte)
Abstract: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if a brief task training procedure can lead to more accurate instructional decision-making for students at risk for reading failure. It may be difficult to differentiate between students who truly need extra support and those students who simply did not comprehend the task they were responding to. A randomized pretest-posttest experimental design was used to examine the effects of task training on the phoneme segmentation skills of kindergarten students. Following the regular administration of the Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF) screening of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS), students identified as being at risk were randomly assigned to either the experimental or the control group. A model-lead-test-feedback strategy was used to teach students the task of segmenting words into individual phonemes during one brief (less than 10 min) session. Results indicate a significant difference between the experimental and control groups on the PSF posttest and a greater percentage of students decreased their risk level on PSF following task training when compared to those student in the control group. Implications for using brief task training to reduce false positives when identifying students for supplemental instruction will be presented.
 
 

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