|Abstract: This review looks at Pivotal Response Training (PRT) interventions targeting social initiations and providing instruction of that skill by a trained intervention agent in the natural environment. The data is coded and displayed into adult- and peer-mediated interventions (AMI and PMI). The results of effect size may have future implications on service delivery for learners with autism. The current review suggests AMIs and PMIs targeting social initiations for learners with ASD have the potential to build an important bridge between research and practice. Often social skills are taught by professionals who require extensive or accredited training (e.g., school psychologists, researchers, or Board Certified Behavior Analysts). The review suggests that trained paraprofessionals, parents, and peers produce similar outcomes without hiring additional personnel. Both AMIs and PMIs have been successfully integrated into the school day, social groups, and community environments of the learner with ASD.|
In this study, it was aimed to examine the effect of a peer education program developed on the acquisitions of knowledge and skill of writing and implementing social stories by students attending primary school, and the effect of social stories delivered by peers who have completed the program on the acquisition of crossing skills by students with developmental disabilities, maintenance of this skill two weeks after the end of the implementation, and generalization with a different street. In the study, social validity data were collected from peer tutees and peer tutors using a subjective evaluation approach. The study was carried out with a total of six participants consisting of three students aged between 7 and 9 years who attend a primary school in Turkey/Bingöl province, two of whom are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and one of whom is diagnosed with a mild intellectual disability, and these students' peers with normal development. Peer tutees were taught how to write and deliver social stories with one-on-one instruction by following the steps of Powerpoint presentation, modeling, experimenting, and providing feedback. In the study, a multiple probe design with probe conditions across dyads (peer tutor - peer tutees), one of the single subject research models, was used to evaluate the effect of social stories written and delivered by peer tutors on peer tutees' learning crossing skills. Research results showed that peer tutors acquired the social story writing and implementation skill accurately by 100%. After the instruction delivered by the peers who acquired the social story writing and implementation skill, it was observed that peer tutees acquired the crossing skill and could generalize it to a different street, and that two peer tutees with the autism spectrum disorder continued to exhibit this skill they acquired accurately by 100% two weeks after the end of the study. Social validity data collected from peer tutees and peer tutors using a subjective evaluation approach showed that both peer tutees and peer tutors had positive opinions on the target skill, social stories, and research results. These results were discussed within the context of the literature, and suggestions were made to include peer-mediated implementations in teaching different skills with different methods and to make the use of social stories in teaching safety skills by parents, siblings, specialists working in the field and teachers widespread.