Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


Eighth Annual Autism Conference; Louisville, KY; 2014

Event Details

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Poster Session #12
saturday night poster session
Saturday, March 1, 2014
6:00 PM–7:30 PM
Grand Ballroom C (Suite Tower)

Comparison of Methods for Demonstrating Passage of Time When Using Computer-Based Video Prompting

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LINDA C. MECHLING (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)

This poster presentation provides information on a single subject research study comparing two procedures for demonstrating passage of time when using computer-based video prompting by four young adults with moderate intellectual disability. A task component, which is integral to many daily living and vocational tasks when presented through video technology, is the passage of time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance of students when completing daily living tasks that required the task step of waiting as time passes. Specifically, passage of time was represented through video prompts while the camera continuously recorded using: a) visual disappearance (counting down) of time on a color coded timer (Time Timer); or b) a close-up view of the target step (e.g., substance boiling, soiled item soaking in dish water) while time passed. An adapted alternating treatments design was used with four students with moderate intellectual disability to evaluate two video-based procedures for presenting passage of time as the video played. Results indicate that gains were made by each participant when using both video procedures and that both procedures were equally effective in promoting completion of task steps requiring the passage of time.

2. Bootleg Behaviorism: The Clash of Psychiatric Nursing and Modern Behaviorism
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
BRENT HAYWARD (Office of Professional Practice)
Abstract: The profession of nursing strongly aligns itself with the tenet of the therapeutic relationship with the client which allows the development of person-centered care. Psychiatric nursing further exposes a craft of specialist nursing which recognizes both the "what" and "how" of the practice of caring for those with mental disease or distress. For those psychiatric nurses working in non-traditional roles with people with intellectual and developmental disabilities, their practice is additionally informed by the foundations of positive behavior support, functional behavior assessment and perhaps the application of more classic behavioral interventions, a combination of approaches referred to as modern behaviorism. This presentation investigates the origins of psychiatric nursing's association with behavior assessment and intervention and considers how the ongoing re-conceptualization of psychiatric nursing has effectively eliminated modern behaviorism from nursing theory and practice using the author's experience of his work with people with disabilities. It is vital to acknowledge and subsequently address theoretical and practice barriers to remedy the exclusion of evidence-based interventions and prevent contemporary practice being considered "bootlegged."

Living With a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): Experiences of Turkish Mothers

Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
Yesim Gulec-Aslan (Sakarya University, TURKEY), Hande Cihan (Sakarya University, TURKEY), DAMLA ALTIN (Sakarya University, TURKEY)

New children change family dynamics and families accordingly try to adapt to the new situation. If the baby has special needs, this adaptation period can be trying, especially for mothers. The research about the experiences of mothers provides unique findings concerning their support (Hallahan & Kaufmann, 2009). The goal of this poster presentation is to understand the experiences of 20 Turkish mothers of children with ASD. This study has been conducted utilizing a phenomenological approach, which is a type of qualitative methodology that aims to explore an individual's personal experiences. Data were collected using metaphors, which are a valuable data collection tool for gathering deep and new insights into educational studies (Jensen, 2006). Participants completed the question "Autism is similar to/the same as", because by writing what autism means for them and why. This data will then be analyzed via descriptive analysis. The results will be discussed in terms of implications for future research and practices. We are expecting this study to provide new knowledge about the perspectives of mothers in different countries like Turkey. Jensen, D. F. N. (2006). Metaphors as a bridge to understanding educational and social contexts. International Journal of Qualitative Methods. 5 (1), 1-17.


Connected Kids: Training Parents to Use Developmental and Behavioral Strategies With Their Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANNIE BAGHDAYAN (University of Oklahoma)

Connected Kids is a program focused on training parents to use developmental and behavioral strategies to improve social communication skills for their child with autism spectrum disorder. Children who participate in the program are between 2 and 6 years of age. Participants in this presentation will learn about the program, including the curriculum and strategies that were used to work with the parents and their children. The presentation will include examples from several families who have participated in the program.

5. Language Assessment and Communication's Evaluation of Autistic Child Study Case
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
KHALED SAMIRA (Hospital of Setif)
Abstract: From the birth and during the first years of his life, the autistic child does not seem in interaction with his surrounding, and compared with normal development, his language is often delayed after three years or can even decline. When they speak, the autistic children use the language just for their personal needs not for functional communication. Verbal communication is not the only one in deficit, so the non verbal one, games are also altered and for it, the speech therapist has to specify all these dimensions of the formal and pragmatic language and prosody often neglected by the therapist.

Technology Interventions for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of The Literature

Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
JULIE THOMPSON (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)

Research on the use of technology to support individuals with ASD has demonstrated great promise; however, few studies include diverse or non-English speaking students (Kasari & Smith, 2013; West, 2013). Odom et al., (in press) conducted a review of technology for secondary students with autism and of the 14 studies included, only two reported cultural diversity of participants and none indicated linguistically diverse participants. In order to improve research to practice for diverse individuals with autism it is important to identify what research has been implemented with diverse populations and the effectiveness of the research. While it is helpful that research-based practices for individuals with autism are being identified, there is concern that these practices may not be effective for some culturally and linguistically diverse individuals, or may need substantial adaptations to demonstrate effectiveness (West, 2013). The current review extends previous reviews of technology by targeting studies that include culturally and/or linguistically diverse participants with ASD from pre-kindergarten through adulthood. Implications for individuals with ASD, families, and practitioners will be discussed. In addition, suggestions for future research will be provided.

7. Using a Hero as a Model in Video Instruction to Improve the Daily Living Skills of a Student With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
YOSHIHISA OHTAKE (University of Okayama)
Abstract: In this session I will present the impact of video hero modeling (VHM) on the daily living skills of an elementary-aged student with autism spectrum disorder. The VHM, in which a character much admired by the student exhibited a correct response in the target setting, was shown to the participant immediately before the situation where he needed to exhibit the target behaviors. The target behaviors included drying hands with a handkerchief independently after washing his hands in a bathroom, folding his sweater and pants independently before putting them away, and reading the day's lunch menus aloud with articulation for his classmates. Results of a multiple-probe design across three behaviors showed that each of the three target behaviors improved only when the VHM was introduced. In addition, the participant and his teachers showed positive attitudes toward use of VHM. However, the teachers hesitated to develop the VHM by themselves due to the perceived complexity of the development process and time constraints.

How to Implement Self-Management Strategies in Work and Community Settings for Individuals With ASD

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KEITH STOREY (Touro University), Michal Post (Touro University- California), Linda K. Haymes (Touro Univeristy- California)

Self-Management strategies have been successfully used in daily living and employment situations for persons with ASD. In employment settings, developing self-management programs promote job independence and often free up the worker from external guidance and instruction. These strategies provide self-monitoring and control over work performance socialization, hygiene and essential living skills. Self-management procedures are flexible, effective, and easy to implement for individuals with ASD. They give the person more control over their life, increase generalization, and decrease dependency on others.


CANCELED: The Process of ABA- Based Education in Turkey: A Case Study Presentation

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ELIF SANAL (psychologist)

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by impaired social interaction, communication and repetitive or stereotyped behavior. Autism is quite common all over the world as well as in Turkey. The education of children with autism in Turkey is decided by The Counselling and Research Center (CRS) which is a special education committee. Children with special needs who are expected to reach the goals of primary school curriculum are directed to the related institutions and organizations by CRS. Children who are not able to reach the goals of primary school curriculum attend to the special education institutions. There are different institutions that apply the methods of ABA-based education to children with autism in the field of special education in Turkey. The purpose of this poster presentation is to provide information regarding how to apply ABA-based education in one of these institutions in Turkey. In addition, it includes the performance of a child with autism who has been attending to this institution and studying ABA-based education since 2012. This study is expected to be useful for international literature by being an example about ABA-based education in Turkey.

10. Increasing Food Acceptance in a Preschool Child With Autism Using High-Probability Foods and Systematic Desensitization
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATHLEEN MCCABE-ODRI (Partners in Learning, Inc.), Lauren DeGrazia (Partners in Learning, Inc.), Jennifer Cornely (Partners in Learning, Inc.)
Abstract: Many individuals with autism experience challenges with food refusal or food selectivity (Volkert, V.M., & Vaz, P.C.M., 2010). The majority of published research for effective feeding interventions include escape-extinction as an important component of the intervention protocols (Addison, L.R.,, 2012). However, escape-extinction protocols typically elicit disruptive responding that impede parental adherence (Wilkins, J.W., 2011; Volkert, V.M., & Vaz, P.C.M., 2010). This study examines the effectiveness of a treatment package using high-probability foods and systematic desensitization components without escape-extinction to increase bite acceptance for a preschooler with autism exhibiting both food refusal and food selectivity (LaRue, R.H., 2011; Vaz, P.C.M., Volkert, V.M., & Piazza, C.C., 2011). The study shows that the subject increased his acceptance of both portion size and food variety without exhibiting severe problem behaviors during treatment sessions. The protocols were implemented in the home by the subjects parents after training, reducing the frequency of feeding sessions implemented in a clinical environment. This study adds to the literature on feeding disorders for children with autism and the use of high-probability sequences with systematic desensitization for challenging behaviors (Nevin, J.A. & Shahan, T.A., 2011; Lee, D.L.,, 2012; Meier, A.E., Fryling, M.J., & Wallace, M.D., 2012 ).

Training Question-Asking Behavior in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NIKKO DA PAZ (University of California, Merced), Rose Scott (University of California, Merced)

Typical children benefit from asking questions. However, children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) ask fewer questions than their typical counterparts. This research examined the efficacy of improving question-asking behavior in 8 children with ASD, ages 3–4 years old. In contrast to previous research, children received no tangible reinforcement and were trained to ask questions that focused on the actions of a person. The study was conducted in four phases: baseline, instruction, generalization, and post-test. Using interactive video, participants were taught to ask a video actor "What are you doing?", then generalize the question-asking behavior to a live actor. The data were analyzed with both visual analysis and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). Results revealed that children did not produce questions at baseline. However, after exposure to the intervention, their question-asking behavior improved with a significant treatment effect during instruction (p = .031) and generalization (p = .041). Results also indicated that children gained vocabulary as a result of asking questions. This research demonstrates that children with ASD can be trained to ask person-oriented questions without task-contingent rewards. Further implications suggest that children with ASD may be intrinsically motivated to engage in a reciprocal language exchange.

12. An Evaluation of Trial-Based Functional Analyses in Classroom Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BLAIR LLOYD (Vanderbilt University), Joseph H. Wehby (Vanderbilt University), Emily Weaver (Vanderbilt University), Samantha Goldman (Vanderbilt University), Michelle Harvey (Vanderbilt University), Daniel Sherlock (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Although the functional analysis (FA) remains the gold standard for identifying the function of problem behavior for students with disabilities, traditional FA procedures are typically costly in terms of time, resources, and perceived risks. The purpose of the present study was to replicate and extend a trial-based FA methodology that shows promise in classroom settings. Participants were 4 paraprofessionals and 4 students with developmental disabilities and histories of high-frequency problem behavior who attended public elementary schools. Descriptive data on student problem behavior (i.e., direct observation and paraprofessional report) were collected to identify hypotheses and design experimental trials. Paraprofessionals conducted trial-based FAs in students usual instructional settings. To validate the outcomes of the trial-based FAs, paraprofessionals conducted subsequent intervention trials in the same setting. Results of the present study add to the growing evidence validating the trial-based FA as a practical alternative to traditional methodologies that are difficult to implement in classroom settings.

Behavior Problem Clusters for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
SAMANTHA GOLDMAN (Vanderbilt University)

Although by definition a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) involves atypical social interactions, communication deficits, and restricted or stereotyped behaviors, children with ASD also show other, co-occurring behavior problems that require the attention of behavior analysts. To examine these behaviors, this study used the Parental Concerns Questionnaire (McGrew et al., 2007) to measure the level of severity of 12 behavioral concerns for a sample of 361 children with ASD, ages 2-21. Results showed a range of behavior problems with social interactions and attention span being rated by parents as the most severe. Factor analysis with varimax rotation was performed on the 12 behavior items to analyze the correlations between them and reduce them to their underlying dimensions. Two factors were extracted from these behavior problem variables: Psychiatric Behaviors and Autism Characteristics. These findings provide some descriptive data on the type and severity of co-occurring behavior problems for children with ASD. In addition, the identified symptom clusters that underlie these behavior problems may be used to better target treatment and service use to specific types of behavior problems for children with ASD.


Developing Community Partnerships to Improve the Lives of Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TRACY MCKINNEY (University of Illinois Chicago)

The National Research Council (2001) recommends early intervention when it comes to educating individuals with autism. While the National Research Council does not recommend a specific intervention methodology, the State of New York Health Department (1999) and The United States Surgeon General support the use of applied behavior analysis (ABA) for students with autism. Several researchers have reported incorporating methods of ABA when teaching students with autism (Babel, Martin, Fazzio, Arnal, & Thomson, 2008; Fazzio, Martin, Arnal, & Yu, 2009; Salem et al., 2009; Thiessen et al., 2009) because these specific principles have been proven successful in instructing individuals with autism (Green, 1996; Lovaas, 1987; Smith, 2001). This presentation will trace the steps as a BCBA-D seeks community partners to meet the needs of early intervention in the south side of Chicago. While facing life threatening obstacles, the BCBA-D remains dedicated to her mission.


Using Brief Functional Analysis for Non-Compliant Behavior in a Preschool Student With Developmental Disabilities

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
WALLACE LARKIN (University of Cincinnati School Psychology Department), Nathan Fite (University of Cincinnati), Andrea Ritchie (University of Cincinnati)

A four-year-old preschool student with developmental disabilities was referred for assessment for excessive non-compliant behaviors. His preschool teachers made the initial referral at the beginning of the academic year citing severe disruptive behaviors including screaming, crying, elopement, grabbing classroom items, and defiance towards his teacher instruction. A teacher interview was conducted as an indirect assessment of the problem behavior along with observations by two University of Cincinnati graduate students, which led to the hypothesis that the disruptive behavior was maintained by escape from demands. The graduate students then conducted a brief in vivo functional analysis to confirm this hypothesis. Sessions were carried out across all conditions suspected to maintain the problem behavior as determined through both indirect and direct assessment. A confirmatory analysis was then carried out for the two conditions displaying the highest rate of the targeted behavior. Results indicated that the disruptive behavior was maintained by escape from demands, and a functionally related intervention plan focused on Functional Communication Training (FCT) was developed based on these results to reduce the disruptive behavior in the school setting.


The Opinions of Parents and Faculties About Safety Skill Teaching to Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ELIF TEKIN-IFTAR (Anadolu University), Nursinem Sirin (Anadolu University)

Autism spectrum disorders is a life long developmental disorder that is characterized by limitations in communication and social interaction, daily life, and restrictive and repetative interest and behaviors. Systematic instructionis needed for teaching many skills and behaviors to children with autism spectrum disorders. Safety skills is one of the skill area that should be taught to the children with autism. Safety skills can be considered as the skills used at home and in the social life. This skills can also be included in the training schedules as per their occurrence time and frequency. However, the number of studies in this field is limited and most of them are conducted with mentally retarded children. They are related with opinions about teaching safety skills and the effectiveness of safety skills training. But there are very few studies investigating the opinions of parents and faculties in teaching safety skills to the children with autism and how these skills can be taught. In the descriptive studies that collect the views of parents or teachers about the safety skills, questionaries are generally used. This study aims to determine the views of the parents and faculties about the safety skills training. In this regard semi-structured interview technique is going to be used. Preleminary results showed that parents find sfaety skill training very important. They also explain that they do not know how to develop objectives and how to prove training about these skills. Faculties reported that teaching teacher candidates how to teach safety skill is very important and should be part of courses realted with systematic instruction.

17. Peer-Mediated Pivotal Response Treatment for Young Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
AINSLEY BOUDREAU (Dalhousie University), Isabel Smith (IWK Health Centre)
Abstract: Introduction: Efficacious social skills interventions for children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are rarely adopted at school. School-based interventions must not only be evidence-based but also feasible and acceptable to school stakeholders. Peer-mediated approaches offer a logical, face-valid and cost-effective means to enhance social skills for children with ASD. The Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) model is well-suited to the school context. Objective: To examine the evidence related to peer-mediated PRT interventions to increase social-communication skills for children with ASD. Methods: A systematic review based on the Reichow et al. (2008) criteria, was conducted of all published studies examining the effectiveness of peer-mediated PRT in school-aged children with ASD. Results: Five peer-mediated PRT intervention studies utilizing single-subject research designs, were identified, involving 8 participants with ASD and 21 peer coaches (aged 7 to 10 years). All studies of peer-mediated PRT observed positive outcomes. However, the existing research base did not meet criteria for classification either as promising or established evidence-based practice (EBP) for amelioration of social skill deficits in children with ASD. Conclusions: More research is required in order for peer-mediated PRT to be considered EBP. This synthesis of the literature can guide clinical decisions and future research.

Embedding Social Learning Opportunities During Small Group Instruction

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JUSTIN LANE (University of Georgia ), David L. Gast (University of Georgia), Collin Shepley (Oconee County Schools), Jennifer Ledford (University of Georgia)

Small group instruction provides teachers with opportunities to embed social interactions and related behaviors during academic tasks, as well as assess observational learning of other students academic targets. Six, 4-year old children with social-communication delays were divided into three dyads and taught functional classroom words (e.g., glue, cup) using constant time delay (CTD) during center rotations in a public preschool classroom. Instructive feedback on peers interests (e.g., favorite toy, snack) was provided following prompted and unprompted correct responses. Sharing reinforcers was taught during small group instruction using a system of least prompts (SLP). A multiple probe design across behaviors replicated across three dyads was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the CTD procedure to teach functional classroom words during a small group instructional arrangement and assess acquisition of non-target words and incidental social information about a peer. All participants learned to read target words, consistently shared during instructional sessions, and acquired some of the instructive feedback targets.

19. In Your Own Backyard: A Collaboration Between Public School and Behavior Analysts
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
GABRIEL VALLEY (Step By Step), Christine Austin (Step By Step), Michael Wagner (Step By Step), Lindsey Feltz (Step By Step)
Abstract: A growing trend is to incorporate intensive behavioral intervention within public elementary schools, allowing for students diagnosed with autism to receive behavioral health services to support their educational placement. This descriptive analysis provides a comparison of 3 elementary aged students’ baseline scores at the beginning of the 2012/2013 school year to a one year follow up, after receiving intensive behavioral intervention. Comparison scores were evaluated with a language skills assessment, The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills-Revised, along the following standardized assessments; Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition, Social Communication Questionnaire, PDD Behavior Inventory, Scales of Independent Behavior Revised, and the Parent Relationship Questionnaire. These scores indicate that each student showed marked advances in their verbal knowledge and either maintained their nonverbal skills or obtained slightly higher scores, in addition to a decrease in impeding challenging behavior. The results suggest that the use of intensive behavioral intervention within a school setting can result in increased language and social development and foster academic success.
20. An Evaluation of the Long-term Treatment of Problem Behavior in an Elementary School Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
John F. Lee (University of Iowa), JAN TURBES (Northwest AEA), Brenda Langstraat-Janisch (Northwest AEA), David P. Wacker (University of Iowa), Brenda J. Bassingthwaite (University of Iowa Children's Hospital), Sean D. Casey (The Iowa Department of Education)
Abstract: We evaluated the long-term treatment of problem behavior exhibited by a third-grade female student with autism. Camie was in the public school setting and her academic skills were at grade level, but was served 100% of the time in a segregated room and being considered for out of district placement due to increasing problem behavior (e.g. aggression, self-injury, property destruction). The Challenging Behavior Service (CBS), a training program conducted by the University of Iowa, Northwest Area Education Agency, and Iowa Department of Education, was contacted to consult. During baseline, prior to CBS consultation, Camie displayed over 250 problem behaviors a day as reported in school records. Consultation was initiated by having the CBS conduct a functional analysis and preference assessment. Treatment was matched to the results of the assessments and consisted of a differential reinforcement program. Treatment procedures were implemented by teachers and para-educators with ongoing consultation with the CBS both in person and via telepresence. Interobserver agreement for treatment data was conducted across 100% of data sheets and averaged 100%. Treatment data (frequency of problem behavior) for this study were extracted from school records. Results showed that over six months of treatment, problem behavior was reduced by 90%.

The Effects of LEGO Therapy on Social Competence for Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATHRINE KOEHLER-HAK (University of Northern Colorado), KYLE JOHNSON (University of Northern Colorado), Rebecca Jesionowicz (University of Northern Colorado), Debra Bassett (Cherry Creek School District, Colorado)

Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) characteristically show both acquisition and performance deficits in social competence. As such, children with ASD face daily challenges when navigating the social demands of school, home and community settings. Teaching of social competence to children with ASD has been a main focus of researchers since the application of behavior analysis by Dr. Ivar Lovaas in the 1960s. While the principals of behavioral analysis remain the same, current practices for teaching social competence to children with ASD strive to facilitate social interaction skills that are spontaneous, generalized and maintained. The present study sought to extend the current research on LEGO Therapy for children with ASD. Specifically, the researchers used a single-subject multiple baseline design to evaluate the effects of LEGO therapy on: (a) the spontaneous initiation of social interaction with peers, (b) the increase in duration of social interaction with peers, and (c) the decrease of stereotypical autistic behaviors. Data provide support for the use of LEGO Therapy. Implications for practice in community and school settings are discussed.

22. The Effects of Varying Levels of Response Effort Related to Data Collection on Treatment Fidelity
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GREGORY R. MANCIL (Louisiana Tech University), Ryan Burke (DBT Center of Western Kentucky)
Abstract: Treatment fidelity, degree to which treatment is implemented as intended, is essential to outcome research (Perepletchikova & Kazdin, 2005). Treatment fidelity levels effects the outcomes of treatments (Wilder, Atwell, and Wine, 2006), with lower levels of fidelity having poorer outcomes, particularly when the levels reach below 50% (Vollmer, Roane, Ringdahl, & Marcus, 1999). Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of varying levels of response effort on adherence to data collection procedures, treatment fidelity, and child outcomes. Sessions were conducted at the same time and place each day for 2 male and 2 female participants (teaching assistants). These settings included classroom areas and recreational areas. Each of the four participants implemented the various procedures with his or her independent group of students with autism. Three levels of response effort were varied across participants (i.e., low, medium, and high) regarding response effort required for data collection using a multi-element design. Each participant had higher treatment fidelity for procedures requiring the least amount of response effort and the lowest fidelity for those procedures requiring the greatest amount of response effort. In addition, each group of students challenging behaviors decreased most during low response effort conditions.
23. Effects of Enhanced Instructions on Staff Fidelity to Treatment
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Kristen Mahoney (Wesley Spectrum Services), JACKELYN HART (Wesley Spectrum Services)
Abstract: The use of enhanced instructions was examined to evaluate its effects on client outcomes and staff fidelity to treatment procedures. Participants were clinicians who work with individuals diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. A multiple baseline across participants design was used to determine the effects of enhanced instructions on client behavior and staff fidelity to the treatment procedure. Two sets of staff were targeted. One set of staff work in a group social skills program and received instruction on effectively implementing Active Student Responding (ASRs). The second set of staff worked in a program involving 1:1 instruction and received instruction on mand training. The frequency of mands/ASRs during each session and the clinician’s fidelity to the treatment procedure were measured. Following baseline, clinicians in the manding group were trained in a classroom setting. In the next phase, all clinicians were given enhanced instructions prior to the session. Clinicians in the ASR group received follow up in-field feedback.

A Systematic Review of Current Research on Equine Assisted Activities as an Intervention for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KELLY E. SHEEHAN (Slippery Rock University)

Although several literature reviews have been completed in the past regarding equine assisted activities, few are specific to individuals with Autism, and none utilize best practice criteria to determine if equine assisted activities can be viewed as a recommended practice, or if it is eligible for consideration as an evidence-based practice. Many different structures exist for intervention; however, those with single-subject research methodology are identified and critiqued using a systematic framework for evaluation.


Enhancing ABA With Language and Movement

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DEBO'RAH MERRITT (Enid Diagnostics and Counseling )

Children with autism demonstrate an array of behavioral and functional difficulties including well documented problems in motor coordination, socialization, communication, attention, sleep patterns and self-regulation. Clinical evidence suggests that these areas of difficulty will respond positively to language and motor stimulation, particularly when combined with Applied Behavioral Analysis therapy. This presentation will introduce participants to the functional efficacy of multi-modal interventions as well as discussing recent research on their effectiveness with children with autism.


Use of Functional Behavior Assessment With Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Knowns and Unknowns

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Cynthia M. Anderson (Appalachian State University), Billie Jo Rodriguez (The University of Texas at San Antonio), Amy Campbell (Grand Valley State University), LINDSAY BRYANT (Appalachian State University)

Various methods of functional behavior assessment (FBA) have been found useful for developing hypotheses about environment-behavior relations. Changes to the IDEA in 1997 and 2004 increased use of FBA in school settings. There has been a concomitant increase in research on FBA in schools. We reviewed the literature on school-based FBA to determine (1) the extent to which best practice recommendations could be gleaned and (2) needs for future research. We identified 165 published studies documenting use of FBA in a schools setting. Across studies there were a total of 394 participants, 22.8% of whom had a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. We will present results of our literature review documenting (a) types of FBA used in school settings, (b) involvement of researchers versus practitioners in the conduct of FBAs, (c) relation between diagnosis and type of FBA used, and (d) publication trends over time. We highlight the need for more documentation of effective use of FBA in school settings. We also provide recommendations for best practice based on currently available research.

27. Needs And Supports For Students On The Autism Spectrum In Post-Secondary Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BARRY RICHARD BRADY (Wright State University's School of Professional Psychology), Rebecca Clarke (Wright State University's School of Professional Psychology), Jennifer Stoyell (Wright State University's School of Professional Psychology), Raghav Suri (Wright State University's School of Professional Psychology), Erendira Lopez-Garcia (Wright State University's Office of Disability Services)
Abstract: There has been an increase in the number of students who have been diagnosed on the Autism Spectrum Disorder. Recently diagnostic changes have been made eliminating Asperger’s Disorder and Pervasive Developmental Disorder. They have been combined under Autism Spectrum Disorder in the DSM-V. Regardless of the changes made to the diagnostic categories, this population still needs services in academic settings. These needs continue into post-secondary educational environments. Specific challenges that have been identified for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder transitioning from high school to post-secondary school include: difficulties establishing routines, troubles interacting in the classroom with faculty and students, knowing how to access supports, difficulty with problem solving, and social isolation. This poster proposal will explore all these concerns related to these students and provide a description of the services currently available at Wright State University’s Office of Disability Services that provides support to students within the Autism Spectrum. The services are provided by a multidisciplinary team and include coaching for the students, a support group for the students, opportunities for individual therapy, and an active outreach program designed to educate residential halls, police, faculty, and peers about the needs of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
28. The Effects of Modeling Variable Responding and Programming Lag Contingencies on Response Variability
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SEAN PETERSON (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Nicole M. Rodriguez (University of NE Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Ins), Tamara L. Pawich (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment at Florida T)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders often require direct, systematic instruction to learn new skills. Discrete-trial instruction (DTI) is one direct, systematic method that uses repeated practice to teach new skills. DTI has been criticized for producing rote responding (e.g., responding to a greeting in exactly the same way each time; Cihon, 2007). Over the course of a DTI program, a single appropriate response (e.g., “hello”) may be selectively strengthened to the exclusion of other appropriate responses (“hi”, “howdy” “good day”; Lee, McComas, & Jawor, 2002). In the first of two studies, we assessed the effects of having the therapist model variable versus rote responses (using a progressive prompt delay) on response acquisition and variability (as measured by the number of different response sequences and the percentage of trials that differed from the previous trial) of intraverbal-categorization responding during DTI. We compared the two procedures (variable vs. rote modeling prompts) using an adapted-alternating-treatments design within a multiple-baseline-across-categories design. Results on acquisition were mixed; for two of the four participants, acquisition was slower in the variable relative to the rote prompting condition. For all participants, any initial variability observed decreased during treatment in both conditions. In the second study, we evaluated the effects of adding a Lag-1 contingency to the variable-model condition on increasing variability (i.e., reinforcing only responses that varied from the previous one) using a reversal or delayed multiple baseline. Variability increased for all four participants with the Lag-1 schedule, but only after the therapist modeled variable responding using a progressive-prompt delay. These results are discussed in terms of improving the lack variability that can occur with DTI.

Trial-Based Functional Assessment and Treatment of Elopement and Flopping

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MELISSA BOWEN (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Wayne W. Fisher (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Angie Christine Querim (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Kasey Thomas (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Anthony T. Fischetti (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Melinda K. Devore (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Daniel R. Mitteer (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute )

Trial-based functional analyses (FA) have increasingly been employed to determine the variables maintaining problem behavior (Bloom, et. al., 2011), and have generally shown correspondence with results from traditional FAs (Larue, et. al., 2010). The current study utilized a trial-based FA to assess problem behavior when walking near and leaving a playground. During a caregiver lead pre-assessment, a 3-year-old boy with autism, eloped towards a playground. When the caregiver attempted to remove him from the playground, he would flop to the ground. We next conducted an analysis where trials alternated between the therapist walking the child past a playground, the child being prompted to leave the playground following access, and a control trial in which the child had free access to the playground. Results showed elopement occurred almost exclusively when the therapist walked the child near the playground and flopping occurred almost exclusively when the therapist prompted the child to leave the playground. We then taught the boy two functional communication responses to functionally replace the childs elopement and flopping. Elopement and flopping decreased to near-zero levels in their respective test conditions. These two forms of problem behavior represent symmetrical operants reinforced by the same consequence (i.e., access to playground equipment).

30. Situational Management of Episodic Severity
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GEOFF POTTER (The Centre for Applied Behaviour Analysis)
Abstract: Within the context of the development of a multi-element support plan, there is the need to establish rapid control of the behaviour. The rationale for rapid control is to minimise physical injury associated with the behaviour whilst the more permanent effects of positive programming strategies are pursued (LaVigna, Willis & Donellan, 1989). In the past the need to establish rapid control over behaviour has produced a number of approaches based on intrusive and restricted practices. The use of these strategies is reported widely in the literature (Linscheid, 1992), however the use of non-aversive non restrictive strategies to establish rapid controls are under utilised and under-reported in the literature. The present case study describes what is termed in the literature as instructional control, to eliminate mechanical restraint and high level episodic severity in the "running away" behaviour of a young autistic man. Results indicate the young man no longer requires mechanical restraint and "running way" behaviour no longer occurs.

Reduction of Heart Rate and Anxiety Behaviors via Systematic Desensitization and Relaxation Skills Training in a Teenager With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JILL FODSTAD (Indiana University School of Medicine), Emily Hemler (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Joslyn Cynkus Mintz (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine & Kennedy Krieger), Noha Minshawi (Indiana University School of Medicine)

Anxiety-related concerns are prevalent in individuals with ASDs, with estimates indicating that approximately 60% meet diagnostic criteria for a specific phobia (De Bruin et al., 2007; Muris et al., 1998). Exposure-based empirically supported treatments (ESTs) exist for specific phobias in typically developing individuals (Davis & Ollendick, 2005), yet little has been done implementing these ESTs in those with ASDs. Aaron, a 16-year-old male with autism and intellectual disability, had a history of engaging in self-injury, aggression, and anxious behaviors contingent upon loud noises, specifically young children who were screaming or crying loudly. A direct assessment of anxiety/noise avoidance and noise FA were conducted based upon procedures by McCord et al. (2001). After relaxation skills training, a multiple baseline across noise stimuli was used to evaluate a Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (relaxation skill use) + Extinction + Systematic Desensitization/Stimulus Fading intervention. Heart rate and behavioral data were collected. Inter-observer agreement was collected for 50% of the sessions and was greater than 89.5%. Outcomes indicated that the intervention was effective in decreasing anxious behaviors, problem behaviors, and heart rate during exposure sessions with incremental decibel increases. These results generalized to another noise stimulus and were maintained across in-vivo generalization session in the clinic, home, and community settings.

32. Assessment and Intervention for Disrobing Behavior in a Child with Autism in Argentina
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Abstract: Children with autism may exhibit a variety of unwanted behavior. Although disrobing doesnt seem to be an extremely rare behavior, there are only a few studies published on disrobing behavior associated with autism. A 5 years old child with autism consults at FLENI (*) ( for disrobing behavior. This behavior starts abruptly a single day and remains for most part of the day for the next two months until the family attends for assessment and intervention to a behavioral service. Parents declare his child is only accepting to get dressed for less than one hour a day when they go outside. They cant keep him dressed at home. This poster will show the results of the descriptive assessment made and a description of the behavioral intervention realized, along with data of treatment during one week of assessment and intervention at the behavioral service. Disrobing behavior was dramatically reduced, and parents leave the clinic being able to dress his child. Follow up by telephone call was made 3 months later confirming the improvements were maintained in time. (*) FLENI is a non-profit organization, that provides health services for adults and children with neurologic disorders in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Teaching Visual Discrimination to a Child With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BLAIRE MICHELIN (Western Michigan University), Katie Ouellette (Western Michigan University), Sarah Lichtenberger (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)

According to Green (2001), it has been demonstrated that teaching simple visual discrimination has been shown to help cultivate the development of conditional discriminations. Green (2012) also stated that some individuals with autism show difficulty in acquiring conditional discriminations, but these individuals can acquire conditional discriminations after training on simple discriminations. The purpose of this study was to teach visual discrimination to a child who is diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. The child has not demonstrated visual discrimination and has delayed progress through the classroom curriculum. Visual discrimination was taught using a most-to-least prompting hierarchy with no vocal discriminative stimuli. The relevant research has shown that teaching this child simple visual discriminations will help to acquire conditional discriminations. Research in stimulus control labs have developed methods for establishing simple and conditional discriminations but are rarely applied in practice. This study should contribute to the growing research of teaching visual discrimination in an applied setting.

34. Using a Discrimination Training Procedure to Reduce Vocal Stereotypy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATHLEEN HOLEHAN (Western Michigan University), Olivia Banks (Western Michigan University), Sarah Lichtenberger (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to decrease vocal stereotypy in children diagnosed with a language delay by using a discrimination training procedure. Vocal stereotypy was defined as a repetitive behavior that does not serve an adaptive function (Brusa-Richman, 2008). Previous studies have demonstrated the ability to reduce vocal stereotypy by training conditions in which stereotypy is not reinforced during an instructional time followed by free access to stereotypy (Doughty, 2007). In this procedure the absence of stereotypy in the presence of an orange stimulus (card) for a target duration was reinforced with free access to stereotypy in the presence of a purple stimulus (card). It was predicted these data will show a decreased amount of vocal stereotypy in the presence of the orange stimuli and a stable amount of stereotypy in the presence of the purple stimuli. This procedure aims to provide evidence for the reduction of vocal stereotypy under stimulus control.

Establishing Auditory Discrimination in Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINA HENDERSON (Western Michigan University), Joseph T. Shane (Westen Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)

The ability to discriminate stimuli in the environment is a prerequisite skill necessary to acquire other crucial learning skills (Green, 2001). A pre-test showed that children in an early intervention pre-school classroom could not discriminate auditory stimuli, though they did demonstrate basic visual-discrimination skills. Prior research has shown that children with autism learn to discriminate non-verbal stimuli more quickly than verbal stimuli (Eikeseth & Hayward, 2009). The current study uses a basic auditory-discrimination procedure to foster more complex discrimination skills. The children were first taught basic auditory-discrimination skills using contrasting sounds. Once that skill was acquired vocal stimuli were added. Data was collected on the children's performance on listener-responding procedures. This study adds to previous research that suggests an intermediate step is sometimes needed to establish receptive-language skills in children with developmental disabilities (Chow, 2010). Acquiring these skills will increase the rate of learning and allow the children to progress though the curriculum.

36. Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing To Condition Procedure Materials as Reinforcers
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KIRSTEN POWERS (Western Michigan University), Sarah Lichtenberger (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: In this study, stimulus-stimulus pairing was used to condition neutral stimuli to function as reinforcers. Stimulus-stimulus has been shown to condition books as reinforcers and as a result increase appropriate play and attending to the book (Longano & Greer, 2006). The purpose of this study was to increase attending and decrease aberrant behaviors during procedures with children with developmental disabilities. The study was conducted with a child who is diagnosed with autism in an Early Childhood Special Education classroom. Baseline data was collected on the progress of a current procedure in the child's schedule. A multiple stimulus preference assessment to determine highly preferred stimuli was conducted. After preferred stimuli were determined, the stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure was implemented. The author alternated between training and testing trials. During training trials, the tangible materials used in a specific procedure was paired with the preferred stimulus. It is expected that by establishing materials used in procedures as reinforcers, problem behaviors will decrease and attending to the materials will increase. This study adds to stimulus-stimulus pairing research and introduces a method for altering antecedent conditions to decrease problem behaviors during procedures.

Effects of an Observing Response on Attending and Discrimination in Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ROXANNE GAYLE (Western Michigan University )

Matching-to-sample is a skill that generally needs to be acquired early on in discrete trial training curriculum in order for children to learn more complex discrimination skills and progress to other educational goals (Fisher, 2007). When a child makes an incorrect response during a matching-to-sample procedure, most commonly least-to-most prompting (e.g. progressing from modeling the response to physically prompting) is used until the target response occurs (Fisher, 2007). The problem is that prompting may not require the individual to attend or discriminate between the stimuli and/or may cause prompt dependence. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect on correctness of responding during a matching-to-sample task by increasing attending to stimuli in children diagnosed with autism. An observing response (DORs) was used to prompt participants to make discriminated responses between three stimuli while making a match-to-sample response. The child was required to touch the sample stimulus and corresponding comparison stimuli before the opportunity to respond independently was presented. Using an AB design, trials to mastery criterion (three consecutive sessions of 80% or better) was assessed. This intervention may provide the behavior analysis community with more evidence and support on observing responses to promote discrimination and attending to stimuli when teaching matching procedures.

38. A Comparison of Stimulus-Stimulus Pairings to Increase Functional Mands
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
COLETTE GILLIS (Western Michigan University), Jessica Ann Korneder (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Stimulus-stimulus pairing (SSP) procedures with a direct reinforcement (DR) component have been shown to increase functional mands for targeted items (Yoon, 1998). This study continued to assess previous research of a modified SSP procedure with a DR component to increase independent vocal mands among children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. In addition, this study compared the effects of different number of pairings during the SSP training by recording the frequency of spontaneous emissions of the target vocalizations. Two different reinforcers were used for each participant. One was paired on a 5:1 vocalization to pairing ratio and the other on a 1:1 ratio. Following each 7 minute pairing session, there was a 5-minute DR component, where any emission of the target vocalization resulted in immediate delivery of the reinforcer. Mastery criteria were set as making the desired vocalization in 80% of opportunities across two consecutive DR sessions. This study aims to continue the research on the most effective way to use SSP to teach functional mands.
39. Activity Schedules to Increase Independent Play in the Home
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LEASA ANDROL (Western Michigan University), Jennifer Freeman (Western Michigan University), Kelsey Laursen (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Parents have reported the need for their child to remain engaged in an activity so that they have time to tend to other responsibilities. The goal of the current study was to use visual activity schedules to teach two children to play independently at home. Visual activity schedules have been shown to increase independent play skills in children with autism (Betz, Higbee, & Reagon, 2008). The study was conducted with two boys and their mothers. One boy was five years old and had a developmental delay diagnosis, while the other boy was eight years old and had a diagnosis of autism. Baseline data were collected on the boys’ ability to remain engaged in independent play for at least ten minutes. The children were then taught to follow visual activity schedules that included three simple activities. After this procedure was mastered, the simple activities were replaced with three closed ended games that required more time to complete. Once the boys demonstrated mastery with the new activities, the visual schedules were introduced at home. Each mother was trained to implement visual activity schedules and the procedure was modeled for them. Engagement in the activities was measured during each phase of the study.
40. Increasing Functional Eye Contact Before Instruction
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KARA JOKELA (Student), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University), Joseph T. Shane (Westen Michigan University)
Abstract: Attending is a frequent deficit in children with autism. Attending before instruction helps increase the likelihood of a correct response. A common characteristic of attending is eye contact. Eye contact is also a crucial component of communication. The goal of the current study is to have eye contact function as a discriminative stimulus for the next instruction as a form of communication. A common form of teaching eye contact to children with autism is through prompting methods such as, a pinch where the child tracks the object to the tutors eyes, and slowly fade out the pinch. In this study eye contact will be acquired solely through time delays without prompting. The author intends to present a method of requiring eye contact before an instruction is given.
41. Response Interruption Redirection, Penalty, and Differential Reinforcement to Decrease Stereotypy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA ANN KORNEDER (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Behaviors such as toe walking, hand flapping, nonfunctional vocalizations, and bouncing or rocking in a chair are all labeled as stereotypy. Stereotypy occurs at high rates in children with and without developmental delays (Smith & Van Houten, 1996) and interferes with the acquisition of new skills (e.g., Dunlap, Dyer, & Koegel, 1983; Morrison &Rosales-Ruiz, 1997). These behaviors also stigmatize children and interfere with social interactions (Jones, Wint, & Ellis, 1990; Wolery, Kirk, & Gast, 1985). The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of response interruption redirection (RIRD), penalty, and differential reinforcement in reducing vocal and motor stereotypy of children who display automatically reinforced high rates of stereotypy. The combination of techniques decreased stereotypy to below 30 percent of intervals.

An Analysis of Specific Skill Acquisition, Rate of Acquisition, and Problem Behavior as Indicators for Placement in Desirable Academic Settings for Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
JOSEPH T. SHANE (Western Michigan University), Jennifer Lynn Mrljak (Western Michigan University ), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)

Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) has become widely accepted as a highly efficacious treatment option for children with autism. A substantial number of studies have shown significant improvements in participants who received Discrete Trial Training (DTT). However, studies with large numbers of participants consistently report a proportion of students who fail to make much progress with the standard EIBI treatment package. A concern, therefore, of everyone providing early intervention should be to determine why these children do not make adequate progress. Theories and rationales for slow progress are numerous. Some children may have lower cognitive abilities, some may exhibit high rates of interfering problem behaviors, and some appear to lack effective reinforcers, along with other barriers to learning. This poster will discuss the authors attempts to isolate certain characteristics that may be indicative of long-term success or failure in an EIBI program. Data were analyzed from children who were placed into desirable academic settings following graduation from a DTT classroom, and compared to data from children who transitioned to less desirable, more restrictive settings. Discussion of the key differences, and further research into this area, should allow the field to determine how to best help the typical low performers.


Gradual Guidance and Independent Activity Schedules for Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALI MARKOWITZ (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)

Past research on activity schedules have suggested that independent activity schedules increase on-task and on-schedule behavior for children with autism (MacDuff et al. 1993). This study will be conducted in an Early Childhood Special Education Delayed (ECSE) classroom with two children diagnosed with autism. These children demonstrated several skills with adult prompts but these skills did not generalize to unprompted conditions. This study focuses on the use of gradual guidance and activity schedules to help increase independence. In the first phase, the children will be taught to complete closed-ended tasks independently. The second phase introduces the activity schedule with one task. Finally, the third and fourth phases introduce a two-sequence schedule and three-sequence schedule respectively. The independent activity schedules are predicted to increase the childrens on-task behavior and generalize to different sequences and new activities. This study will add to the body of research on the advantages of using independent activity schedules to increase on-task behaviors and generalize acquired skills.

44. Teaching Stimulus Generalization to Children Diagnosed With Autism Using Multiple Discriminative Stimuli and a Single Response
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DAVID NICHOL (Western Michigan University), Kelli Perry (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Generalization of a single response occurs when a response is elicited across subjects, settings, people, and/or time without the exact conditions from the training environment being present (Stokes and Baer, 1977). When working with young children with autism, we have to include training for generalization in our programming as it often does not occur naturally (Baer, Wolf, and Risley, 1968). One training area that practitioners can overlook is generalization of commands or discriminative stimuli, such as ‘touch’, ‘find’, and ‘show me’ when training discrimination of objects. The current study sought to improve generalization skills in children with autism using multiple discriminative stimuli to elicit a single response. Acquisition of these skills can facilitate student’s progression and success in a less restrictive, more normalized school environment where instruction is presented in a variety of different formats.
45. The Combined Effects of Picture Activity Schedules and Extinction Plus Differential Reinforcement on Problem Behavior During Transitions
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
GINA CROSS (Western Michigan University), Sarah Lichtenberger (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: A picture activity schedule is a tool used to promote independent engagement and performance of classroom activities and decreasing dependence on adults when teaching children with developmental disabilities. Previous research involved training complex response chains through picture activity schedules to increase on-task and on-schedule behavior (Bryan & Gast, 2000). This procedure was implemented to examine the effectiveness of a picture activity schedule when completing transitions from one area to another. First, the activity schedule was presented containing pictures of a certain areas in the classroom that are listed under the to-do section. After each transition was completed, a physical prompt was immediately delivered to move the picture of the activity to the done section and the child received a small reinforcer. Results from previous studies indicated that the use of picture activity schedules increased the number of instances of on-task behavior over time and these behaviors have generalized across people, settings and situations. It is predicted that the use of a picture activity schedule combined with extinction plus DRA will increase instances of compliance during transitions from one activity to another and these behaviors will be generalized across people, settings and situations.
46. Facilitating Discrimination by Requiring an Observing Response
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
HIRONOBU MATSUOKA (Western Michigan University), Joseph T. Shane (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Currently all students at our practicum site are learning to use an icon exchange system based off of the Picture Exchange Communication System (Bondy & Frost, 1994). Students exchange icons corresponding to the items they are motivated for, and receive those items. This sequence of behaviors is sometimes difficult for students to learn, especially when learning discrimination of icons. We found our students were often not observing the icons before or during the exchange. This kind of problem is sometimes seen in other procedures such as matching-to-sample. Some studies reported that requiring an observing response improved accuracy during matching-to-sample tasks. Based upon these studies, we think an observing response in the early phases of the icon exchange system may facilitate discrimination in later phases. The purpose of the current study is to establish an observing response during an icon exchange chain, to reduce problems encountered later. We will require our participants to observe icon before they exchange icon and test whether establishing this observing response will facilitate learning discrimination of icons. We will report on data during the training phases, and later performance on discrimination phases.
47. Photographic Activity Schedule for Tooth brushing and Peer Manding
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER WARD (Western Michigan University), Kelly Stone (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Children with autism can easily become prompt dependent when teaching various skills, such as tooth brushing or peer manding. This intervention will utilize photographic activity schedules to teach two children with autism and a history of discrete trial training tooth brushing or peer manding. We will implement photographic activity schedules as described by Krantz et al. We will measure the quantity and type of prompts required during the baseline and teaching phases and we expect that this procedure will decrease prompt dependency.
48. Contriving Motivation to Increase Mands for Missing Items in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JEREMY WALKER (Western Michigan University), Sarah Lichtenberger (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The concept of transitive conditioned motivating operations has demonstrated to be a useful tool in teaching mands, or requests, to individuals with developmental disabilities (Hall & Sundberg, 1987; Albert et al., 2012). In the present study, an interrupted chain procedure was used to teach independent mands for missing items to children with autism. Participants included three children with autism enrolled in an Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) classroom who routinely emitted mands in the presence of items but not when they were out of sight. Initially, participants were taught to perform three behavioral chains related to activities previously identified as reinforcing. After pre-training, motivation was contrived by removing one item from each chain needed to complete the activity and gain access to the terminal reinforcer. Baseline data were collected on the number of independent mands for missing items. During the training phase, mands were taught for missing items at the point of interruption using a time-delay vocal prompt procedure. Following mand training, probe measures were conducted to assess independent manding for the same items under novel conditions (different technicians, settings, chains). It is predicted that for each participant independent mands increased during training sessions and across subsequent generalization conditions.

Using Intervening Activities to Increase Compliant Activity Transitions in Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAILA GOODRICH (Western Michigan University), Joseph T. Shane (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)

The present study evaluates the effects of intervening activities on duration of noncompliance and frequency of challenging behavior during activity transitions in children with autism. Two students in an early childhood developmental delays classroom participated in this study. The study began with a preference assessment to identify preferred activities and continued with an assessment of challenging behavior during transitions between activities to identify the types of activity transitions that are challenging for these children. For each of the participants, the highest frequency of challenging behavior occurred during transitions from high-preference to low-preference activities. The study continued with an investigation of the effects of providing an intervening activity for ending high-preference activities and transitioning to low-preference activities. Noncompliance durations during transitions from high-preference to low-preference activities were reduced as a result of the intervening activity condition. Possible interventions for challenging behavior during transitions for children with autism are discussed in detail.

50. Stimulus Fading Procedure to Establish Discrimination During Phase 3 of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAITLYN PEITZ (Western Michigan University), Joseph T. Shane (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Discriminating between pictures is a key component when using PECS, and without discrimination PECS is not functional as communication device (Frost & Bondy, 2001). The purpose of this study is to teach discrimination between pictures of preferred and non-preferred items during phase 3 of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). This will be done by changing the non-preferred icon along one physical dimension, and slowly fading it back to normal as the child progresses through the procedure. Stimulus fading procedures exaggerate some physical dimension (e.g., color, size, intensity) of a relevant stimulus to help a person make a correct response (MacDuff, Krantz, & McClannahan, 2001). The study was conducted with a child, diagnosed with autism, in an Early Childhood Developmentally Delayed (ECDD) classroom where PECS is used as the primary method of communication for the students. Data will be presented on the childs performance on phase 3 of PECS. It is expected that the stimulus fading procedure will provide an alternative method to teach discrimination with PECS in the ECDD classroom.
51. A Comparison of Sensory Integration to Applied Behavior Analysis in the Treatment of Food Selectivity
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATHRYN M. PETERSON (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Valerie M. Volkert (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Cathleen C. Piazza (University of Nebraska Medical Center's, Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: The prevalence of feeding disorders in children with autism is estimated to be as high as 85% (Ahearn et al., 2001; Laud et al., 2012), with food selectivity (i.e., consumption of a limited variety of foods) reported as the most common problem. Although applied behavior analytic (ABA) treatments have the most empirical support as treatment for feeding problems (Volkert & Piazza, 2012), professionals often recommend and caregivers often use sensory-integration-based treatments. In the current investigation, we compared the effects of sensory integration (the Sequential-Oral-Sensory approach [SOS]; Toomey, 2009) to ABA in the treatment of food selectivity in children with autism. Thus far, we have enrolled four participants who were diagnosed with autism and food selectivity. We assigned two participants to ABA and two to SOS and evaluated the effects of each treatment in a multiple probe design. Results demonstrated that SOS did not lead to improvement across any dependent measures (acceptance, mouth clean [swallowing]), while ABA led to marked increases in responding across all measures.

Simple and Conditional Visual Discrimination Training for Children With Autism With Exceptional Learning Difficulties

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH LICHTENBERGER (Western Michigan University), Katie Ouellette (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)

Simple and conditional discrimination repertoires are critical components of many skills necessary for daily functioning, including communication, academic, and daily-living skills (Green, 2001). When visual discrimination is not under instructional stimulus control it can result in a delay in the acquisition of new skills. The purpose of this study was to teach simple and conditional visual discrimination to children with autism without using vocal discriminative stimuli and by introducing one stimulus at time, by first presenting only the stimulus designated as correct (S+) and slowly introducing distractor stimuli (S-) to increase the complexity of the task. The procedure was implemented with children who have been enrolled in a special education preschool classroom for at least 6 months and who have not demonstrated visual discrimination under instructional stimulus control and who are showing extremely delayed progress through the classroom curriculum. The procedure used a variety teaching methods based on the learners progress. Trial-and-error, within-stimulus prompt fading, and physical prompts were all used to aid in the acquisition of discrimination skills.




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