Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


Fourth Annual Autism Conference; Chicago, IL; 2010

Event Details

Previous Page


Poster Session #1
AUT Poster Session 2
Friday, January 22, 2010
6:00 PM–8:00 PM
Columbus Hall
1. An Insight Into Autism in Africa
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
MORGAN CHITIYO (Southern Illinois University at Carbondale), Lawrence K Ametepee (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Jonathan Chitiyo (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Beatrice A Adera (Penn State Harrisburg)
Abstract: The prevalence rate for Autism appears to be on the rise in the United States. This has triggered a flurry of research in the area resulting in us getting closer to an understanding of this otherwise esoteric condition. Today, different research-validated interventions such as ABA have been developed which have helped many children overcome the challenges stemming from this disorder. Despite this positive trend, few studies about autism in Africa have been published. This presentation will provide the participants with an insight into what is currently known about autism in Africa. The participants will be able to identify the characteristics of autism among children in Africa, the prevalence rate, demographics, and some possible moderating variables that may be peculiar to children with autism in Africa. Specifically, the presenters will identify behaviors that have been observed among children with autism in different African countries and discuss possible moderating variables such as poverty and the impact of Western culture. This presentation is based on an examination and synthesis of extant research about autism in Africa. The presentation will help researchers interested in the subject to tailor ABA interventions to meet the needs of children with autism in Africa.
2. Behavior Analysis Training System (BATS)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KELLY STONE (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: This is a recruitment poster for the graduate training program under the direction of Dr. Richard Malott at Western Michigan University. The BATS program is based on the service provider/practitioner model, and has a strong emphasis in the area of autism. The overall goal of the Behavior Analysis Training System is: To facilitate the improvement of the quality, accuracy, & timeliness of the overall system by improving performance within and across all subsystems through increasing system accomplishments, minimizing disconnects, and responding to them in a timely manner, and improving the quality and accuracy of system products.
3. Reducing Stereotypy by Improving Teacher’s Implementation of Discrete Trial Teaching: A Systematic Replication
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LUCY VANESSA MARINEZ (The Aurora School), Jennifer Bush (The Aurora School), Lauren Fouts (The Aurora School), Carlos F. Aparicio (The Aurora School)
Abstract: Discrete-trial teaching (DTT) individualizes and simplifies teaching for children with autism. A recent study improved the implementation of DTT in three teaching aides by delivering instructions, feedback, and rehearsal. It showed that increasing the accuracy of implementation of DTT resulted in systematic decreases in student stereotypy across three teacher-student dyads, but it did not conduct a functional analysis to identify the function of stereotypy, leaving unclear the behavioral mechanisms by which improved DTT reduced stereotypy. The present paper is a systematic replication of that study that aimed to identify the function of stereotypy behavior. During baseline, staff members conducted the student’s programs as usual. Then, a functional analysis was conducted to identify the function of the student's stereotypy. After that, a trainer executed the Dib and Sturmey (2007) four-step procedure to increase the accuracy of teacher’s implementation of DTT. Our results were consistent with findings showing that this procedure is effective in increasing the accuracy of teacher’s implementation of DTT. In the conclusions we will discuss the importance that identifying the function of stereotypy has for the interpretation of the Dib and Sturmey results.
4. The Role of Continuous and Discontinuous Measurement in the Discrete-Trial Teaching Procedure
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
HEATHER M. CHANDLER (The Aurora School)
Abstract: The discrete-trial teaching procedure is often used to treat children with autism. Trials consist of presenting a discriminative stimulus and the student is prompted to respond, which produces a reinforcer or an error correction. Two methods are used to measure the student’s performance. The continuous method measures responding and prompt level in every trial which is difficult for the teacher. A less costly method is the discontinuous measurement where data are only recorded for a subset of trials. The influence of these methods on skill acquisition and maintenance within behavioral treatment programs was recently assessed. The present study is a follow-up of that study. Multiple skills in different behavioral programs were trained in children with autism. Half of the skills were measured in every trial and the other half were measured only in the first trial. Rigorous mastery criteria were used to assess differences between discontinuous and continuous measurements of performance. The results were analyzed and discussed supporting evidence against which some of the claims made regarding the influence of continuous and discontinuous measurement can be evaluated.
5. An Applied Behavior Analysis Summer Program in the Natural Environment: Factors That Affect Program Development
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DENNIS CROWLEY (Macon County Mental Health Board), Kristen Deeanne Braun (Macon County Mental Health Board), Debbie Floyd (Macon County Mental Health Board), Amy Shymansky (Washington Park District)
Abstract: This project examined the evolution of programming and some of the factors that affect program effectiveness and participant progress across multiple summer sessions for two participants. The two participants were served during four consecutive summer sessions, beginning in 2006. A county-based community mental health board funded and designed short-term services for children with clinical diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders, other developmental disabilities or co-morbid conditions and utilized applied behavior analysis (ABA) as the treatment of choice (service delivery model presented in Jacksonville, 2009; Phoenix, 2009). Thirty-eight total participants have been served across the four summer sessions in their natural environments (e.g., home, daycare). Inspection of the children’s individual programming illuminates how factors such as participant skill level, in-home tutor characteristics, and number of service hours per week, affect programming decisions and participant progress. The two participants received services in different settings (i.e., home versus daycare), which is discussed relative to program efficacy. Interobserver percentage agreement is discussed, ranging from 75% to 100%. Qualitative parent and staff reports are also presented. Performance data and qualitative reports suggest that tutor characteristics tended to be a salient factor affecting participant progress.
6. Enhancing Reliability Measures of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CLARISSA S BARNES (Southern Illinois University), John M. Guercio (TouchPoint Autism Services)
Abstract: The ADOS (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) is a diagnostic tool used in the assessment of autism spectrum disorders. Some clinical problems have been noted by administrators of the test related to the coding of some of the items in the schedule. A number of the items on the inventory involve the coding of observations that are somewhat subjective, making inter-rater reliability an issue. The following project used two reliability observers trained in applied behavior analysis. Observations of children’s behavior were conducted using the existing guidelines for the administration of the ADOS assessment. A second condition was implemented whereby each of the areas of the test was modified to include operational definitions of each of the areas of observation. The results indicated a disparity in the inter-observer reliability scores that were obtained for both of the conditions. Outcome data on the inter-observer reliability scores for the observers under both conditions will be reported as well as implications for future research.
7. Sprouts: An Intensive Early Intervention Program
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MANDI K MARTINEZ-DICK (ISU-The Autism Program), Rachel Miller (ISU-The Autism Program), Karla J. Doepke (Illinois State University)
Abstract: Intensive behavioral intervention is recognized as an established treatment for autism spectrum disorders by the National Standards Project (National Autism Center, 2009). As part of The Autism Program of Illinois State University, the Sprouts program has been developed to meet the needs of children ages 3-5 with a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder. Sprouts uses applied behavioral analysis, discrete trial training, pivotal response training, and the picture exchange communication system. Sprouts targets the following areas: communication, pre-academic skills, independence, social interactions, play skills, and functional routines. In addition, Sprouts coordinates services with other service providers and prepares children to transition to kindergarten. Each child in the Sprouts program receives 2 1/2 hours of intervention five days a week, including two hours of group intervention and 30 minutes of individual intervention. Additionally, parents participate in a weekly support group. Curriculum used in this program includes the STAR program (Arick, Loos, Falco & Krug, 2004) and Storybook-based Curriculum (Fetherston & England, 1998). The children also receive speech and language services two days a week. To assess the effectiveness of the program the ASIEP-3 evaluation system, Vineland-II Adaptive Behavior Scales, and BASC-SOS classroom observations will be used. These data will be presented.
8. IBI Changes in Child Abilities Have a Positive Impact on Family Activities: Initial Data From the Family Well Being Checklist, a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Ccale of Family Functioning
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JOHN HOCH (University of Minnesota), Nancy G. Schussler (Behavioral Dimensions Inc.), Erin M. Cote Holton (Behavioral Dimensions Inc.)
Abstract: IBI service providers track child progress, but do not monitor the effects of improved child skills on family functioning. The reductions in problem behavior and increases in child functioning due to IBI services can positively impact family functioning across in-home and community activities. Many instruments compare family relationships with normative samples (e.g., the Parent Stress Index). The Family Well Being Checklist was generated to create a measure of change in family behavior across contexts. Parents rate (on a five point scale) the changes they have experienced in the past year in their ability to perform behaviors important to family functioning. The questionnaire includes 28 items divided into five categories: community events, family activities at home, social events, parent well being activities, and parent relationships. An initial factor analysis of categories based on N=90 checklists showed a two factor solution with areas clustering as hypothesized. Thirteen families completed the checklist at intake and after one year of service; these showed an increase in participation in community events (p<.05, t=2.25). Data collection and analysis are ongoing. Results aid in communicating the importance and benefits of IBI services to funding agencies and governmental bodies.
9. The Real Value of Therapy Hours—Objectively Measured and Demonstrated
Area: AUT; Domain: Experimental Analysis
JILL GILKERSON (LENA Foundation), Jeffrey A. Richards (LENA Foundation), Dongxin Xu (LENA Foundation)
Abstract: Specialists recommend that children diagnosed with autism participate in at least 25 hours per week of intervention. Although research has shown that intervention time is correlated with improved outcomes, before now there has been no way to efficiently measure the language environment a child experiences inside and outside of therapy. The LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) system automatically analyzes up to 16 hours of audio recording data, generating estimates of the number of 1) adult words spoken to or near the child, 2) turn-taking interactions the child engages in with an adult, and 3) vocalizations the child produces. The present study included 209 daylong recordings from 48 children 16-48 months of age diagnosed with autism. For each recording, parents indicated the times of day the children were in therapy. Statistical analyses compared age-standardized language input, interaction and production during therapy hours compared to the rest of the day and compared to non-therapy days. Results indicate that count estimates for adult words, conversational turns and child vocalizations were significantly higher during therapy time compared to time outside therapy. Practitioners could use this technology to demonstrate optimal language environments to parents and to monitor the implementation of intervention strategies in the home.
10. An Examination of the Brief Autism Mealtime Behavior Inventory (BAMBI) as an Accurate Measure of Feeding Problems Among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SHELLY N. HARKER (Marcus Autism Center), William G. Sharp (Marcus Autism Center), David L. Jaquess (Marcus Institute), Laura Donnan (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit behavioral inflexibility that can negatively impact multiple areas of adaptive functioning. Feeding is an important area commonly disrupted among these children; however, limited research has examined specific topographies and rates of atypical feeding behaviors exhibited among this population. Previous studies examining feeding difficulties specific to children with ASD have relied primarily on indirect methods of assessment, such as informant questionnaires. The Brief Autism Mealtime Behavior Inventory (BAMBI) is a promising measure designed specifically to identify the topography and rate of feeding difficulties unique to children with ASD. Although determined to be reliable and valid for measuring overall mealtime problems, the standardization process of this measure did not involve direct observation of mealtime behaviors or a comprehensive assessment of dietary variety. Furthermore, cut-off scores or severity ranges were not identified. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the clinical utility of the BAMBI by examining the relationship between obtained scores, dietary variety measured by a food preference inventory, and feeding behaviors obtained through direct observation among a sample of 32 children with ASD. Findings are discussed in relation to the assessment and treatment process for children with ASD and severe feeding problems.
11. Play as a Developmental Domain: Guidelines for Assessment and Intervention
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SUZANNE FOSTER-SANDA (Northeastern University), Ellen McClure (Northeastern University), Caley Arzamarski (Northeastern University), Jacquelyn Briesch (Northeastern University), Sarah Wertheim (Northeastern University), Rachel Horvitz (Northeastern University), Karin Lifter (Northeastern University)
Abstract: Play has important implications for child development, particularly for young children with autism spectrum disorders (Pierce-Jordan & Lifter, 2005). Typically regarded as a natural activity base in the service of other domains, we propose the consideration of play as an independent developmental domain for the purpose of assessment, intervention, and curricula development. Practitioners will be introduced to empirically-derived descriptions of play as they relate to evidence-based assessment and intervention strategies. The link from assessment to intervention will be highlighted by understanding play development as an evidence-based curriculum in which developing children express qualitatively different capacities and skills over time (Lifter, 2000). This poster will describe guidelines for using the curriculum from the Developmental Play Assessment (DPA) to: 1) inform assessment activities; 2) develop targeted play goals; 3) implement child-focused interventions; 4) and monitor children’s responsiveness to play interventions. Strategies for modifying targeted play activities to match children’s developmental levels and individual needs will be addressed. Evidence from ongoing research efforts (e.g., Lifter et al., 2005; Bissinger, 2009) will demonstrate how increased regard for play as a developmental domain can account for developments and interventions in the play, language, and social skills of children with autism.
12. Parental Stress: its Links With Socioeconomic Factors and the Steps Before Gaining Access to Intensive Behavioral Intervention
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MELINA RIVARD (Universite du Quebec a Montreal), Céline Mercier (Département de médecine préventive, Université de Montréal), Claudel Parent-Boursier (Université du Québec à Montréal), Gilles Lemaire (Centre de readaptation Monteregie Est), Sylvie Gladu Gladu (Directrice des services professionnels, Centre de réadaptation Montérégie Est)
Abstract: Although the intensive behavioral intervention (IBI) is recognized as a best practice for children with ASD, due to constraints in resources, few of them have access before entering school to IBI services that correspond fully to the model, in terms of precocity of intervention, length, number of hours per week and sufficient specialist services. Many children and families remain for long periods on waiting list for services, and have to wait beyond the age of ideal point of entry to receive the IBI. This lack of accessibility to effective and early intervention contributes to exacerbate the distress of families and could have a negative impact on the efficacy of IBI and on the integration at school of children with ASD. This study evaluated the stress and distress of families before receiving IBI and documented the link with socioeconomic factors, the time passed on waiting list for services, while controlling for degree of severity of autistic symptoms in the children. These preliminary results enlighten pre-treatment variables that can impact its subsequent effectiveness. The data collection for the first year is completed this October.
13. Investigation of Web-Based Curriculum Builder on Treatment Integrity in Parent Implementation of Behavior Analytic Intervention
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Sherry A. Oldenburg (North Dakota Center for Persons with Disabilities), JOSHUA K. PRITCHARD (JKP Analysts, LLC), Brent A. Askvig (North Dakota Center for Persons with Disabilities), Megan J. Doerr (JKP Analysts, LLC)
Abstract: As the rate of autism diagnoses explodes, so too does the number of children with autism in areas with no access to professionals capable of providing treatment. In an age in which development and sophistication of computer, video, and communication technology is rising exponentially, it is not surprising that companies are developing on-line curriculum development, management, and training solutions for parents to combat the lack of access to behavior analysts. However, there is an important concern: can this solution train parents to provide a high enough level of treatment quality? In this investigation, we provide four families in rural North Dakota access to a popular web-based treatment platform and examine the impact of it on their provision of behavior analytic treatment to their children. In instances in which treatment integrity is insufficient, we utilize remote video conferencing by a behavior expert on a weekly basis to determine the effect this supplemental consultation has on treatment provision. As we are in the preliminary stages, we will review the current literature on telemedicine, and in that context discuss the data collected to date and possible implications on the future treatment for children with autism, specifically that utilizing tele-health technology.
14. A Treatment Provision Model For Behavior Analytic Services To Underserved Geographical Regions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Molly L. Dubuque (JKP Analysts, LLC), COURTNEY H. BAKER (JKP Analytics, LLC), Joshua K. Pritchard (JKP Analysts, LLC)
Abstract: One of the greatest barriers to autism treatment today is access to qualified behavior analytic providers. Many children diagnosed with autism are in geographical locations so distant from the closest provider that the consultant’s travel cost is prohibitive. To add salt to the wound, funding sources are now available for many of these families but there are no professionals available to fill the positions! JKP Analysts, LLC has initiated a remote consultation model using Tricare’s Autism Demonstration funding stream to provide applied behavior analytic treatment to under-served areas. By hiring and training local autism tutors and supplementing a typical workshop model with weekly video-conference supervision, treatment has been successful. As a requirement and benefit of working as a local tutor, they are provided with the on-line courses to qualify for the BCABA exam. We will describe the importance of developing local talent to combat geographic barriers and some of the details of this solution for underserved populations as well as some of the requisite technologies and skills. Data from current cases highlighting the deceleration of behavioral excesses and acquisition of academic skills will be displayed. Discussions of barriers and tips on how to successfully emulate this model will be provided.
15. HANDS in Autism Training: Participant Self-Report of Training Efficacy
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
NOHA MINSHAWI (Indiana University School of Medicine), Iryna V. Ashby (Christian Sarkine Autism Treatment Center at Riley), Naomi Swiezy (Christian Sarkine Autism Treatment Center at Riley)
Abstract: Transportability of ABA-based interventions in educational settings is of great value. The HANDS in Autism summer program trains teachers and classroom staff to implement ABA-based interventions using coaching and mentoring in an analogue classroom setting. The training introduces school personnel to new concepts and techniques, as well as improves their application of previously learned skills. Participants in the week-long training provided feedback at the end of the training and at three month follow-up on 20 strategies covered. Participants rated whether a concept was new to him or her, whether the strategies were being applied at follow-up, and whether the use of previously-learned strategies had improved. At follow-up, nine of the 20 strategies taught were reported as being used by at least 70% of participants. Of those nine strategies, five were reported to be improved upon by at least 50% of participants and only one was reported as new to 50% of participants. Less than 10% of participants reported that they required prompting or review in order to implement these strategies. These data indicate that participants are learning and applying new skills, and improving upon previously learned material based upon this training. Study implications and future directions are discussed.
16. An Innovative Approach to Improving Transition Outcomes for Young Adults With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DEBORAH FISHER (Jewish Foundation for Group Homes), Gila R. Shusterman (Jewish Foundation for Group Homes)
Abstract: Young adults with autism transitioning from the funded educational system typically rely on school-based placement processes to identify and help them enroll in a vocational, academic, or traditional day habilitation program. Unfortunately, many are not able to achieve this before they age out of educational entitlements. Some individuals are still developing the competencies needed to be successful in the desired program. Sometimes a family’s perceptions of their child’s needs and abilities are not well-aligned with the young adult’s actual potential for participation in vocational services or employment. The Meaningful Opportunities for Successful Transitions (MOST) program is a new, innovative transitional program that provides young adults with autism and other developmental disabilities, and their families, a year of intensive, transition-focused services and case management to facilitate successful transitions to appropriate settings. MOST serves as a portal to the adult disability services community by introducing resources and collaborating with community agencies. MOST participants receive support in developing skills and competencies in independent living, transportation, and community integration, as well as opportunities for paid and volunteer employment. This poster will provide case studies of three MOST participants, including a description of their incoming skills, interventions, and transition outcomes.
17. Qualitative Analysis of Aggressive Behavior in a Residential Program for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CLARISSA S BARNES (Southern Illinois University), Sadie L Lovett (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The prevalence of unwanted behavior in the autism population is an area that has received some attention in the literature. An area that has not received a great deal of attention is specificity related to the severity of aggressive responding in groups of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that reside in congregate group living arrangements. The present study seeks to examine the intensity of aggressive responding across a sample of 70 adolescents and adults with ASDs. The methods employed involved administering the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) to staff members working with the individuals that were targeted for ratings. The staff that provided the ratings served in a supervisory capacity and had worked with the individuals in question for extended periods of time. The results of the surveys will be presented along with a continuum to stratify those individuals that fell in the mild, moderate, or severe range with respect to their aggressive responding. Results and implications for future research will be presented as well.
18. A Long Way to Go: Autistic Children in China Need Applied Behavior Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
HANG WU (University of Kansas)
Abstract: This presentation introduced the current social environment of autistic children in China in terms of the tools of professional diagnosis, transformation of treatments, community service, the professional education and government support. The presentation also reviewed the introduction and development of Applied Behavior Analysis as a professional field in the past decade in China. In addition, this presentation addressed the problems Chinese Autistic families still have to face: First, there were no formalized education programs for children with autism in the Chinese universities, even though there were some treatment programs in larger city hospitals and private schools. ABA was not well developed as a professional field in Chinese universities. Second, since there is a lack of systematic statistics, no reliable data can be provided to indicate the magnitude of the problem. Third, appropriate diagnostic tools are needed to help children with autism. As a populous country with a number of Autistic children, China needs to develop these diagnostic tools as soon as possible.
20. HANDS in Autism Training: "Assessment of Knowledge-Expanded" as a Measure of Knowledge of Educators
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
IRYNA V. ASHBY (Christian Sarkine Autism Treatment Center at Riley), Naomi Swiezy (Christian Sarkine Autism Treatment Center at Riley), Noha Minshawi (Indiana University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Knowledge and use of evidence-based interventions, like ABA, by educators who work with individuals with an autism spectrum disorder is a primary component in disorder treatment (National Research Council, 2001). Based on the importance and need of a training that would assist with such knowledge and skill acquisition, Helping Answer Needs by Developing Specialists (HANDS) in Autism developed a 5-day long program for teachers (both special and general education), paraprofessionals, SLPs, OTs, and other educational professionals that focuses on teaching practical application of ABA-based interventions in educational settings through hands-on coaching and mentoring in addition to traditional didactics. To measure the level of knowledge of participants with a varying background prior to the training, as well as their acquisition and retention of theoretical and practical knowledge immediately after the training and several months after it, Assessment of Knowledge-Expanded (AOK-E), a 37-item scale, was designed that covers such areas as assessment and programming, goal development, teaching and behavior interventions, data collection and analysis, socialization, and generalization among other topics. Analyses of the AOK-E of 72 participants across two years and their implications, as well as demonstration of the efficacy of training based on these results will be discussed.
21. An Applied Behavior Analysis Summer Program in the Natural Environment: Assessment, Programming, and Outcomes
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DENNIS CROWLEY (Macon County Mental Health Board), Kristen Deeanne Braun (Macon County Mental Health Board), Amy Shymansky (Washington Park District), Debra A Floyd (Macon County Mental Health Board)
Abstract: A county-based community mental health board funded and designed short-term services for children with clinical diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders, other developmental disabilities, or co-morbid conditions and utilized applied behavior analysis (ABA) as the treatment of choice (service delivery model presented in Jacksonville, 2009; Phoenix, 2009). Thirty-eight participants were served across four summers in their natural environments, with twenty participants served in 2009. Participants range in age from 2 to 14 years. This project examined the types of programming, how the participants’ programs were developed, and the efficacy of the summer program. Assessment procedures, which included a home visit, interview, behavioral observation, testing, served as the basis for the individual children’s program development. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale data were collected in 2009 and also utilized during the assessment process. Generally, programming focused on increasing social skills, academic knowledge, and adaptive functioning skills. In addition, several children required adjunctive programming to decrease problematic behaviors. Outcome data were collected for each participant relative to the individual’s targeted objectives and program. Qualitative parent and staff report were also collected for each individual. Preliminary examination of the summer 2009 data suggests that all children showed gains across the eight to ten week session.
22. Examining the Relationship Between Oral Motor Exercises and Speech Production Ability in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MARY JANE WEISS (DDDC, Rutgers University), Laura Prestia (The McCarton School), Barrie Jakabovics (The McCarton School), Ivy J. Feldman (The McCarton School), Cecelia McCarton (The McCarton Center), Thomas L. Zane (The Center for Applied Behavior Analysis at The Sage Colleges)
Abstract: A wide variety of treatment approaches are available for children with autism, many of which are not evidence-based. It is important to research the potential utility of many commonly used but not yet empirically supported treatments. One approach commonly used to treat apraxia and articulation problems in learners with autism is oral motor exercises. Oral motor exercises are said to improve the ability to make sounds. Theoretically, passing the exercises should predict sound production, and failing the exercises should predict the inability to vocalize the sounds. In addition, it should be associated with the ability to make the sounds in functional contexts such as reading word lists and engaging in conversation. This poster will examine the relationship between capacity for articulation/functional production of sounds and the ability to do oral motor exercises in ten learners with autism.
23. Advantages and Limitations of PECS Instruction for Children with Autism: a Synthesis of Extant Literature
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
ROBIN H LOCK (Texas Tech University), Lan Liu-Gitz (Texas Tech University), Stacy L. Carter (Texas Tech University)
Abstract: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is the subject of an ever-expanding body of research. Although highly promising results have been reported, conflicting findings concerning efficacy, treatment fidelity and generalization into home and school settings remain problematic. This synthesis of extant literature used multiple paradigms to analyze PECS for children with autism. The analysis included examining concepts using metalanguage, dissecting communication according to function using Skinner’s Verbal Analysis of Behavior, and cross-examining PECS targeted communication acts through components of language. By linking all three paradigms, the analysis revealed that PECS intervention matches well with children who lack joint attention, who fail to demonstrate a clear understanding of the reciprocal nature of communication, and/or who lack a clearly identifiable means of communication. The design of the PECS program tightly links the communication act with immediate reinforcement. In turn, it makes PECS highly effective in teaching “request” in children with autism. But the efficacy of PECS is limited when measured with traditional language evaluation. Data from existing research also support these conclusions. This synthesis offers explanations of implementation problems and provides suggestions for alleviating them in educational settings through appropriate matching of the intervention to the characteristics of the child.
24. The Effects of Precision Teaching on the Acquisition of Math Skills Across Three Learning Channels in Students Diagnosed With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MARGARITA METOYER (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Tara A Glavin (Hope Institute Learning Academy), Melissa Twarek (The Hope Institute), Megan N Morien (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Jenna K Nikula (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: With the surging need in the United States for evidence-based educational practices, as discussed by Moran and Malott (2004), effective instruction techniques have increasingly been adapted as part of school curricula in recent years. Precision Teaching (PT), founded by Ogden Lindsley (1992), has been used to evaluate fluency in academic subjects by using practice, measurement, and recording of specific behavioral outputs, also known as learning channels (Haughton, 1980). The field of PT has various studies evaluating learning channel fluency in typical populations (Nancarrow, 1983), and math drill effects on math performance (Raggio & Bitgood, 1982). However, there is limited research on the comparison of celeration within learning channels and the acquisition of math fluency in students with a diagnosis of autism. The present study examined the effects of Precision Teaching (PT) on the acquisition of math skills across three learning channels. See/Say worksheets, Hear/Say timings (Haughton, 1980) and Say All Fast Minute Every Day Shuffled (SAFMEDS) cards (Graf & Lindsley, 2002) were used throughout the study with 9 participants diagnosed with autism, enrolled in The Hope Institute Learning Academy and Satellite Program in Chicago for elementary school and high school students diagnosed with developmental disabilities.
25. Predictors of Adaptive Behaviour Outcomes Following 12 Months of Intensive Behavioural Intervention (IBI) in Children With ASD and Severe Intellectual Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JO-ANN M. REITZEL (McMaster Children's Hospital), Jane Summers (Behaviour Therapy Consultation Service), Lonnie Zwaigenbaum (Alberta Health Services), Peter Szatmari (McMaster University), Daniel Lee (McMaster University), Julia Frei (University of Ottawa), Stelios Georgiades (McMaster University), Eric Duku (McMaster University)
Abstract: While many children with autism have made impressive gains with Intensive Behavioural Intervention (IBI), not all children experience clinically meaningful improvements (Smith et al, 2000; Sallows and Graupner, 2005; Perry et al., 2008).There is a great deal of heterogeneity among children with autism, and young children with differing ASD symptomatology and intellectual disability (ID) are not often studied in relation to response to IBI. Furthermore, little is known about the predictors of adaptive behaviour outcomes. Twenty-seven children (mean age at intake = 51 months) with independent diagnoses of autism and severe ID participated. They received 12 months of IBI in a community-based IBI program. Preliminary results indicated that cognitive functioning and mastery of the Early Learning Measure were predictive of Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale (VABS) Composite and Communication Domain scores, but not the Daily Living and Socialization Domain scores. Age at intake to IBI and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) scores were not predictive of the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS) Composite Score or the VABS Domain scores. Improvement on VABS Adaptive Behaviour Composite and Communication Domain scores are important indicators of improvement in day to day functioning for children with ASD, and may be clinically significant indicators that IBI is effective treatment for the child.
26. An Update of the Data on the Developmental Patterns of Specific Language and Learning Skills of Typically Developing Children as Measured by the ABLLS-R
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
JAMES W. PARTINGTON (Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Joshua K. Pritchard (University of Nevada, Reno), Megan J. Doerr (University of Nevada, Reno), Melissa Nosik (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Practitioners who work with children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often asked to compare the developmental levels of a child with ASD to those of typically developing children. Data will be presented on the patterns of acquisition of basic language and learning skills of typically developing children ranging in age from six months to five years of age. These data will provide criterion-based measures that can be used to help identify specific skill differences between children with ASD and typically developing children.
27. How to Increase the Number of Therapists for ASD Children: Manual Development and Quality Control
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
YOSHIAKI NAKANO (Tokyo Seitoku University), Mari Kashio (Nakayoshi Kids Station)
Abstract: There is an urgent need to provide underserved children with autism with 20-40 hours of intensive treatment. We developed a compact but comprehensive training manual for novice therapists. The 190-page manual has twelve chapters; what is autism; selecting target response; defining target response; reinforcement and punishment; challenging behaviors and functional analysis; decreasing challenging behaviors by differential reinforcement, extinction, time-out, response cost, and overcorrection; discrete trial training; prompting and fading; shaping and chaining; stimulus discrimination training; generalization; and facilitating generalization. The training involves lecturing and practicum. A trainee and a senior therapist visit and administer a three hour intensive treatment for a child at home two to three times a week. The trainee observes teaching and managing by the senior therapist, records the child’s responses to the senior therapist’s intervention, teaches a few tasks with supervision and feedback, records the child’s responses to his/her own teaching, uses a log book, expands teaching to a maximum of three hours, and has a final exam by senior therapists and a supervisor. After graduation the novice therapist independently practices individual programming and teaching, and participates in a weekly one-hour clinic meeting with a child, parents, all team members, and a supervisor. Responses of five trainees and graduation assessment data will be presented.
28. Providing Choice Opportunities to a Child With ASD During a Home-Based Intensive Behavioral Program (OCIDEP) In Turkey
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
BURCU ULKE KURKCUOGLU (Anadolu University), Gonul Kircaali-Iftar (Tohum Autism Foundation)
Abstract: OCIDEP is an early and intensive behavioral intervention program for children with ASD mainly based on Lovaas (2003). OCIDEP has been carried out as home- and center-based interventions since 2006 in Turkey. Each child in the program is served by two paraprofessional or professional educators, one consultant, and one program coordinator. Discrete trial teaching procedure with errorless teaching components is utilized to teach imitation, matching and sorting, receptive and expressive language, play, self-help, and arts and crafts skills. Furthermore, different types of choice opportunities such as activity choice and material choice are provided in the program. The purpose of this poster is to share how the choice opportunities are provided to one young boy with ASD throughout the home-based OCIDEP implementation. The participant has been provided with six different types of choice opportunities during various skill-building and free-time activities. At the poster presentation these choice opportunities with examples, opinions of the educators regarding providing these opportunities, and future recommendations are planned to be shared with the conference attendees.
29. Development of a Rapid, Interactive Screener for Young Children At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Rapid-ABC
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Opal Y Ousley, Ph.D. (Emory University School of Medicine), Rosa Arriaga (Georgia Institute of Technology), MICHAEL J. MORRIER (Emory University School of Medicine), Gregory Abowd (Georgia Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by deficits in reciprocal social interactions, communication, and restricted repetitive behaviors (APA, 2000). Parents report delays in development before 24 months of age (Chawarska et al., 2007), yet professionals often do not provide a diagnosis until between 48-60 months of age (Wiggins et al., 2006). Research into the early concerns of parents shows that language and social delays are the primary concerns prior to 24 months (Chawarska et al., 2007; Pinto-Martin et al., 2008). Yet, pediatricians often do not assess for an ASD on a regular basis, with only about 8% reporting to do so (Dosreis et al., 2006). The American Academy of Pediatrics (2007) recommends screening all young children for an ASD at 18- and 24-months of age. Current screening tools (i.e., M-CHAT, CSBS: Infant-Toddler Checklist) rely on parent report and do not include an interactive component. This poster will describe the development of Rapid-ABC, an interactive, 4-minute screening tool for healthcare providers to implement during well baby check-ups. Results indicate the Rapid-ABC can distinguish children at-risk for ASD from typically developing infants/toddlers, and children who fail the Rapid-ABC qualify for a diagnosis of ASD through confirmation using the ADOS-T (Luyster et al., 2009).
30. Word Learning in Children with Autism: the Role of Gestural Cues and Social Referencing
Area: AUT; Domain: Experimental Analysis
KRISTINA PATRICK (Northwestern University), Amy E Booth (Northwestern University)
Abstract: Word learning in typically developing children is facilitated by gestural cues and other socio-pragmatic information. We asked whether word learning in children with autism might be impacted by their delayed ability to use and follow gestures. Children between two and ten years old who were diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder were taught novel words for unfamiliar objects while the experimenter gazed at, pointed to, touched, or manipulated the target while at the same time ignoring a paired foil. Children were successful at mapping the words to their referents in the point, touch, and manipulate conditions, but not the gaze condition, when tested immediately after training. Performance in all conditions fell precipitously after a delay of approximately one week, but children continued to perform particularly poorly in the gaze condition. Somewhat surprisingly, these results suggest that children with autism are capable of taking advantage of gestural cues in a word learning context as long as they involve a manual component. The fact that looking at the target during training did not correlate with word learning further suggests that, as is the case among typically developing toddlers, these gestures do not reduce merely to attention-grabbing devices in this population.
31. Feeding Problems of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
BOOYEOL CHOI (Yonsei University), Jeong Hyun Choo (Yonsei Univ.), Kyong-Mee Chung (Yonsei University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the feeding behaviors of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder(ASD). The participants were 127 caregivers who have children with ASD aged from one to 12(100 boys and 27 girls). A feeding questionnaire developed by the author and Childhood Eating Behavior Inventory (CEBI) were administered. The results from CEBI Showed that 41 participants (32.3%) fell in the clinical level of total score, and 80 participants considered their children to have feeding problems. The results from the feeding questionnaire demonstrated that food selectivity (26%) was the most frequent and feeding problems were followed by problematic behaviors (18.1%), chewing problem (15%), and extended mealtime (8.7%). Four types of problematic behavior were reported: spitting (22.8%), playing with food (18.1%), running away (15%), and vomiting (15%) were reported. Caregivers tried to cajole (18.9%), to feed when children want (11.8%), to reprimand children (6.3%), and to feed children frequently (5.5%) to deal with children’s feeding problems. These results showed that many children with ASD have feeding difficulties and various behavior problems during mealtime. Yet, caregivers do not seem to know how to deal with feeding problems effectively. Presently there is a need for parent training in diverse coping tactics to deal with feeding problems. Parent-training could help caregivers learn coping strategies for children’s feeding problems.
33. Beginning of the ABA Development in France
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
VINCA RIVIERE (Universite Charles De Gaulle), Mélissa Becquet (Université Lille3)
Abstract: The French Government agreed to the opening of a center in the north of France in June 2008. In this center (called the “Camus Center”), twenty children aged zero to 22 years-old are treated by applied behavior analysis 35 hours per week. The program is realized in all of the children’s life settings (e.g., home, school). This agreement was given for two years. This experimentation is very important in France because applied behavior analysis is considered as mistreatment. Medical professionals don’t understand why applied behavior analysis treatment is used as a single treatment instead of using several therapies with different professionals. They think that it’s very expensive because each child requires a lot of therapists. This center collaborates with the URECA Laboratory (behavior evolution and learning laboratory) from Lille 3 University. The aim of this experimentation is to show the importance of BCBA certification to develop early intervention and promote applied behavior analysis.
34. Demonstrating Program Effectiveness in a Parent-Mediated Infant Toddler Program using the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills -Revised (BLLS-R)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JAMIE HUGHES (Summit Autism Services), Karen E. Flotkoetter (Summit Autism Services)
Abstract: Research indicates that empiric-derived interventions, such as applied behavior analysis (ABA), during a child’s early development (zero to three years) may: 1) prevent or reduce the long term impact of a child’s developmental disability on his ongoing growth and development; 2) increase the probability he will be able to participate in typical developmental, academic and social activities in natural environments; and 3) improve the likelihood he will no longer require specialized services. A parent-mediated infant toddler program (e.g., Toddler Parent Training Program) was developed to better meet the needs of infants and toddlers diagnosed with autism or at risk for autism, receiving services through several early childhood intervention service (ECI) programs in south Texas. This program placed a heavy emphasis on the development of play and functional communication skills, parent training in reducing problematic behaviors, and generalization of acquired skills across caregivers in the child’s natural environment. The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills - Revised (Partington, 2008) is a criterion-referenced assessment, curriculum guide, and skills tracking system for children with language delays. The ABLLS-R was administered to each child enrolled in the parent-mediated program. Outcome data demonstrate significant positive results for at risk infants and toddlers with an increase in overall independence across all skill areas and an increase in the likelihood of placement into a less restrictive environment upon transition out of the ECI program. The program design and data collection methods will be presented to illustrate the usefulness of a parent-mediated intervention.
35. The Effects of a Direct Instruction Language Program on Parent and Teacher Reports of Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SUZANNE MAIN-WEGIELNIK (Andrus Children's Center), Jessica Blutstein (Andrus Children's Center)
Abstract: Developmental delays in language acquisition and social communication have consistently been identified as primary deficits in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). A recent and growing body of research has shown promising results for the use of direct instruction (DI) programs in schools for the remediation of oral language skills, specifically in children diagnosed with ASD (Ganz & Flores, 2008). The current study examines the relationship between parent/teacher reports of behavior and ongoing participation in a DI program for language deficits in a sample of children diagnosed with ASD in a special education elementary setting. The current study, using a single subject design, measures the child’s acquisition of language skills, parent reports of behavior before and after the child’s participation in the DI program, and teacher reports of behavior measured weekly. It is hypothesized that children will exhibit a decrease in maladaptive behaviors and an increase in pro-social behaviors as they continue to master language skills presented in the DI language programs.
36. Measures of Impulsive Behavior and Autism Traits in an Adult Non-Clinical Sample
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MELISSA LIVERMORE (UNC Wilmington), Ruth M. Hurst (UNC Wilmington)
Abstract: This study investigated relationships between autism traits and impulsivity in a non-clinical sample of 415 young adults. Autism traits were measured using the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a self-report measure designed to quantify the degree to which an adult with normal intelligence has traits associated with the autism spectrum. Impulsivity was assessed using a one-dimensional behavioral measure, the delay discounting task (DDT), and a multidimensional self-report measure, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS). Contrary to expectations, AQ scores were not significantly correlated with measures of delay discounting or the BIS, although several correlations between AQ domains and BIS factors were discovered. Additionally, no significant differences in performance on the DDT were detected between an AQ High Score group (participants who endorsed the most autism characteristics) in comparison to an AQ Low Score group (participants who endorsed the least autism characteristics). As anticipated there were no significant correlations detected between the BIS and DDT suggesting that these measures are not assessing the same dimensions within the construct of impulsivity. Future research should continue this investigation to better understand how the construct of impulsivity may relate to autism spectrum disorder characteristics in adults.
38. Computerized Self-Control Training Procedures
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Sarah M. Dunkel-Jackson (Southern Illinois University), JAMES W. JACKSON (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Self-controlled choice-making is an essential skill required for individuals with disabilities to decrease impulsive responding and increase adaptive functioning. While table-top, self-control training procedures can be effective at supporting optimal choice-making, their implementation can be time and labor intensive. Furthermore, these traditional methods may lack the strict treatment fidelity and reinforcer availability (e.g., movies, songs, and websites) that more modern, computerized methods provide. The current presentation demonstrates a flexible, computerized self-control training program dedicated to increasing the self-controlled repertoires of individuals with disabilities. Implementation barriers and successes will be discussed.
39. A Statistical Comparison of Effect Size Metrics for Single-subject Experimental Designs Used in Autism Research
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
OLIVER WENDT (Purdue University)
Abstract: This poster will report the results from a statistical comparison of different effect size metrics to quantify treatment effect in single subject experiments (SSEs) of autism research. SSEs are typically examining pre-treatment versus post-treatment performance within a small sample of participants, or treatment versus no treatment conditions across individuals. The adoption of evidence-based practice (EBP) demands greater accountability and more reliable, objective results which has led to increased scrutiny of how SSE research is analyzed. Objective outcome measures are emphasized, especially “magnitude of effect” indices or “effect sizes” (ES). Including ES in published research displays the relative strength of various treatments. ES are also needed to summarize outcomes from SSEDs for inclusion in meta-analyses. Two general types of statistical-summary strategies have been proposed for assessing magnitude of effect in SSEs, non-regression and regression approaches. Regression approaches determine efficacy of SSEDs by using linear-regression techniques to model repeated observations. The resulting R2 regression ES can be converted to Cohen’s d, a popular ES in group designs. Non-regression approaches use the amount of non-overlapping data as an indicator of performance differences, i.e., the extent to which data in baseline versus intervention phases do not overlap is an accepted indicator of treatment effect.
40. A Parent Education Program to Further Enhance the Developmental Growth of Infants At-Risk for Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CASANDRA NGUYEN (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Erin McNerney (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract: Children are being diagnosed with autism at very young ages. Current research has focused on identifying specific markers, or skill deficits in infants that may be indicative of a child being at-risk for a diagnosis of autism. In order to address these deficits, intervention needs to begin as early as possible. The present study presents the preliminary findings of a parent education program to help “at-risk” infants reach appropriate developmental milestones. Participants were parents of 28 infants classified as “at-risk” or assessed by the local regional center to demonstrate global developmental delays. The intervention program provided parents with information regarding typical infant development, and taught parents behaviorally-based strategies to facilitate communication and social-interaction skills. Parents were taught strategies to encourage development of skills that previous literature has suggested are hallmark signs of a later diagnosis of autism. This study presents the overall program model and outcome data on parents’ fidelity of implementation of specific strategies taught, and children’s gains in communication and social skills. Results demonstrated that overall gains were observed in the 28 children across the following developmental areas: expressive language skills, receptive language skills, cognitive skills, and social/emotional skills.
41. The Learning Team Approach
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MELISSA TWAREK (The Hope Institute), Tara A Glavin (Hope Institute Learning Academy)
Abstract: Interventions for students with autism must be designed to meet the specific learning and behavioral needs of the student, implemented on a timely basis, provided by a highly qualified teacher or specialist, and monitored to determine progress and achievement of desired outcomes. The development of Learning Teams draws from several notable processes including Response to Intervention (RtI), Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Professional Learning Communities (PLC). Learning Teams meet at least 3 times weekly to review current levels of student performance and compare this to projected levels of achievement or who are already achieving above the goal level may be in need of an Individual Learning Plan (ILP) to facilitate optimum growth. The ILP is a document that sets forth progress goals for a student who is achieving below predicted levels as evidenced by standardized tests, curriculum-based assessments, teacher observation and other relevant data. The ILP includes the intervention(s) and specifies duration and frequency of the interventions. We will study the effectiveness of the Learning Team approach based on the number of ILPs developed for academic and behavioral needs of students with autism, compared to the number of ILPs that were successful. The results of this study will further support the current body of research stating that a team approach to interventions for students with autism is more successful than individual staff approaches. Learning Teams development is meant to augment the IEP process, further differentiating instruction and supports to assure that the student is optimally successful in achieving IEP goals.
42. Parenting Stress in Families with Children with Autism: a Theoretical Perspective from ABC-X Model
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
CHUNYAN YANG (University of Delaware)
Abstract: Parenting children with autism is a highly stressful commitment. Whereas a variety of programs have been developed to improve the well-being of children with autism, few support parents in stressful situations. This poster presentation reviews empirical studies on parental stress in families with children with autism. The purpose is to understand the complexity of stressful situations parents face and to explore effective ways to support families. Based on ABC-X model of family stress theory (Hill, 1949), diverse perspectives about parenting children with autism are overviewed. Studies of families with children with autism are reviewed to support the core components in the theory (stressors, family’s definition and resources). Three main stressors are identified: disruptive autistic symptoms, high educational involvement, and heavy financial burden. Various stress coping strategies used by parents and social resources supporting families are discussed from an international perspective. Practical recommendations for professionals working with parents of children with autism are also provided. They include stressor-targeted prevention and intervention strategies, parent education, and social network support. The importance of parent educational programs is highlighted because of its pervasive influence to all three core components of ABC-X family stress model.
43. Project TASK: an Inclusive Kindergarten Model for Students with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JUDAH B. AXE (Simmons College)
Abstract: The purpose of Project TASK was to develop and evaluate a comprehensive program for kindergarten children with autism. Across the four years of the study a total of 42 children with autism from the model program and 21 students with autism recruited from four local school districts participated. Measures included standardized assessments for receptive and expressive language, cognitive functioning, social behavior, adaptive behavior, and academic achievement. Direct observations of child and teacher behavior (e.g., engagement, social interaction, prompt level) were conducted once a month for a minimum of 6,100 minutes per year for each student. Outcomes from Project TASK include an increase in scores on standardized assessments across all areas and improved levels of appropriate engagement in observed classroom activities as compared to the comparison subjects. Inter-observer agreement measures for the direct observations yielded mean levels of at least 90%. Initial results indicate reading mastery and social skills instruction; behavioral interventions and the use of naturally occurring learning opportunities to practice IEP objectives were effective in promoting achievement of kindergarten children with ASD in inclusive settings. This project may contribute to the establishment of more effective educational programs for children with autism spectrum disorders with reduction in the cost of services.
44. ABA Teaching in Inclusive Classrooms: Explicit Instruction for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DEBRA A. LEACH (Winthrop University)
Abstract: This poster presentation provides a framework for using ABA teaching strategies in inclusive classrooms to provide the explicit instruction students with ASD may need. The framework is based on the original ABA dimensions presented by Baer, Wolf, and Risley in 1968 and draws on the teaching approaches from a variety of ABA interventions that have been developed for students with ASD since that time. Procedures for conducting assessments to develop appropriate goals for social interaction, communication, behavior, academics, and independent functioning are included. A template for developing ABA teaching plans is included along with several sample lesson plans for practitioners to use or modify. Suggested methods for data collection and analysis that are useful and meaningful within the general education classroom provide a variety of options to monitor progress in an efficient, effective manner. The poster also includes instructions for how to set up a collaborative team including the general education teacher, special education teacher, parents, paraprofessionals, and related service providers.
45. Community of Kindness: an Approach for Integration of Those with ASD
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
T. J. GLAHN (The Children's Foundation)
Abstract: Students with ASD need to learn to be successful within diversified types of communities. All communities across settings should incorporate a central premise that guides the climate to produce a universal community driven by evidence-based educational practices; practices that systematically and routinely impart leadership skills congruent with a Community of Kindness. This premise provides a climate of kindness that permits each community member to learn and utilize specific leadership strategies. Community of Kindness understands the need to teach all community members the importance of cohesive leadership and community membership. The inclusion of the individuals with ASD depends on the instructional components of each community to impart and support: - The ability to compromise - Self-monitoring skills to promote self-change - Mutual agreements to negotiate, not demand - Power of alternatives for accepting there are alternate ways These identifiable skills and patterns of responding utilizing specific leadership skills has been documented throughout the social skills programmes imparting these measurable skills across four students with ASD. The outcome data and student records will be presented. And yes, KINDNESS can be and should be empirically embraced and imparted by developing leader qualities in all students.
46. Communication Repair Used by Verbal Students with Low-Functioning Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
YOSHIHISA OHTAKE (University of Okayama)
Abstract: This session will present the results of an investigation of the repair strategies used by elementary-aged verbal students with low functioning autism (N = 8) when they faced spoken request, gestural request, not attending and not responding, and wrong response. The data collection was conducted in request contexts contrived by the communication partner during free play and continued until six episodes for each of the four types of communication breakdowns had been collected. The students were assessed on two occasions with approximately a year in between. The results indicated that, in the both assessment occasions, they were more likely to repair communication breakdowns and use a lengthy communication when the type of breakdown was spoken request. In addition, they were more likely to modify the original communication forms and include communication forms referring to what they want when the type of breakdown was wrong response. On the basis of the findings, the author will discuss the importance and the ways of contriving communication breakdowns, understanding the repair competences, and teaching effective repair strategies for students with low-functioning autism.



Back to Top
Modifed by Eddie Soh