Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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10th International Conference; Stockholm, Sweden; 2019

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Poster Session #52
EAB Poster Session
Sunday, September 29, 2019
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, Balcony
1. Habitual Coffee Drinkers Receive Strong Conditioned Responses From Caffeine-Related Stimuli
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MINA FUKUDA (Doshisha University), Kenjiro Aoyama (Doshisha University)
Abstract: In the present study, an experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the smell and sight of coffee on coffee drinkers with high and low consumption. Decaffeinated coffee can induce a shortened simple reaction time effect, and if classical conditioning causes this effect, it can be predicted that the degree of the effect of the caffeine-related stimuli would depend on the degree of acquisition of classical conditioning. That is, in high-consumption coffee drinkers, the degree of acquisition would be high. Sixty-six undergraduate students were randomly allocated to either a coffee or water presentation group and they completed a simple reaction time task. In the analysis, participants were divided into two groups (high and low) based on the degree of coffee consumption. In the results for the reaction time and subjective arousal, the coffee consumption effect was not detected when the degree of consumption was categorically divided into two groups. However, when the degree of consumption was examined continuously, it was found that the higher the consumption, the stronger the caffeine-like effect (shortened reaction time) in the coffee-presentation group. In conclusion, the present study strengthens the hypothesis that classical conditioning causes the effect of caffeine-related stimuli.
 
2. Behavioral Treatment of Stereotypy in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Comparative Analysis
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Vicki Spector (Claremont Graduate University), SABINE SCOTT (Pomona College), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College), Jenna Gilder (Claremont Graduate University), Benjamin R. Thomas (Claremont Graduate University), Caitlyn Gumaer (Claremont Graduate University), Alanna Dantona (Claremont Graduate University)
Abstract: Stereotypy is one of the defining characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th edition). The current study used a multiple baseline design across participants with a multi-element design to compare the two most highly effective interventions for stereotypy, matched stimulation (MS) and response interruption and redirection (RIRD). Results showed that for five of the six participants, stereotypy decreased from baseline levels as a function of the MS intervention, and MS was a more effective intervention than RIRD for all but one participant. Evidence of generalization across setting and maintenance of treatment effects was limited. The importance of conducting comparative analyses and the implications of this study in an applied setting are discussed.
 
3. Social Discounting and Reciprocity: A Comparison of Monetary Discounting and Allocation Tasks
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
NATALIE BUDDIGA (University of Nevada, Reno), Samantha Hemphill (University of Nevada, Reno), Matt Locey (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Discount functions indicate how the value of a reward decreases with changes in some other variable. In the case of probability discounting, value decreases with decreases in the probability of receiving the reward. Whereas with social discounting, value decreases with increases in the social distance of the person receiving that reward. A weak correlation has been found between probability and social discounting – potentially due to how increases in social distance track decreases in the probability of reciprocation (from that socially distant individual). The current study aimed to better explore this relationship through comparing performance on three questionnaires: standard social and probability discounting questionnaires and a novel reciprocal social discounting questionnaire. The reciprocal social discounting questionnaire asks the participant to infer what monetary amounts they believe an individual at a particular social distance would forgo for them, the participant (e.g. “Which would Person 1 prefer: $75 for themselves OR $75 for you?). Results from 35 participants indicate a closer correspondence between reciprocal and standard social discounting than either other pair of discounting questionnaires. These results inform a potential relationship between measures of perceived reciprocation and an individual’s social discount rate.
 
4. Differential Reinforcement of Relational Discriminative Behavior in Pigeons Using Stimuli Pairs Differing Sizes and Colors
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
NAOYA KUBO (Komazawa University)
Abstract: This study investigated whether the performance of pigeons can simultaneously be differentiated into size and color-based relative discriminative behavior. During training in conditional discrimination tasks, three pairs of green crosses, ones of orange stars, and ones of blue clouds were presented. Each of the three pairs differed in size and color strength. Responses to larger and darker (or lighter) stimuli than other stimuli (3-4+, 3-5+, 4-5+) were reinforced under one conditional stimulus, and responses to smaller and lighter (or darker) stimuli than other stimuli (3+4-, 3+5-, 4+5-) were reinforced under other conditional stimulus (the digits denote level of stimulus size and color strength). After training, tests were conducted to examine whether size and color relational discrimination were established. Each test presented test pairs (1/2, 1/3, 2/3, 5/6, 6/7, 5/7) of the crosses, the stars, and the clouds. The size test pairs only differed in stimulus size, the color test pairs only differed in color strength. The test showed that the birds responded to stimuli based on the similarity of size or color strength of S+ stimulus during the training. These results suggested that stimulus control by size and color was established, but it was difficult to establish pigeons’ relational discrimination.
 
5. Effects of Amount of Reward on the Rate of Cognitive and Physical Effort Discounting
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
PAWEL OSTASZEWSKI (SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities), Wojciech Bialaszek (Faculty of Psychology, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities)
Abstract: The majority of research on discounting has focused on delay and probability, with little systematic research on the effect of amount of reward on the rate of effort (cognitive and physical) discounting. The current work consisted of two studies, in each of which reward was varied across five amounts: 30, 270, 2,500, 22,000, and 200,000 PLN (new Polish zlotys). For the Cognitive Effort discounting task (N=89), participants had to imagine crossing out the digits 6 and 9 on 5, 30, 90, and 200 pages, each containing 20 rows of random numbers. For the Physical Effort discounting task (N=88), participants had to imagine squeezing a hand grip device 25, 100, 400, and 1,000 times. The data were analyzed at the molecular (indifference points) and molar (Area under the Curve) levels. There were significant amount effects for both discounting tasks: Cognitive Effort (F(2;204)=240.396; p<.001; ?2=.734); Physical Effort (F(2;190)=35.083; p<.001; ?2= .295). For the Cognitive Effort task, degree of discounting decreased monotonically with amount, whereas for the Physical Effort task, degree of discounting leveled off at the three largest payoff amounts.
 
6. Local Analysis of the Effects of Changeover Delay on Choice in Concurrent Variable Interval Schedules
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
TAKAYUKI TANNO (Meisei University), Tomotaka Orihara (Meisei University)
Abstract: The local effects of changeover delay (COD) and reinforcer presentations on choice performance were examined. Food-deprived eight pigeons were exposed to a multiple (dependent-type) concurrent variable interval (VI) VI schedules of reinforcement. The overall VI value was fixed at 120-s and relative reinforcers to one alternative were changed to 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 for each component. The COD value was 0-s in one condition and 2-s for another condition, each of which lasted for 30 sessions. The results showed (1) the matching law between relative reinforcers and relative responses, (2) higher local response rates and lower changeover rates during COD, and (3) preference pulse for the just reinforced alternative. These results indicate the discriminative properties of changeovers and reinforcer presentations on choice behavior (Cowie & Davison, 2016). A combined model of this discriminative property with the shaping property of reinforcement (i.e., the copyist model, Tanno & Silberberg, 2012) was discussed.
 
7. Equivalence and Momentum: Evaluating Whether Persistence-Enhancing Effects of Reinforcement can be Transferred to Novel Stimuli
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Joseph Lambert (Vanderbilt University), Courtney Colton (Vanderbilt University), CASSANDRA STANDISH (Appalachian State University)
Abstract:

Stimulus equivalence is a special case of generalization in which stimuli acquire novel functions due to histories of reinforcement which have indirectly related them to other, topographically distinct, stimuli. Although work on this topic has typically focused on transfers of operant functions (e.g., conditional discriminations), some research demonstrated that Pavlovian (stimulus-stimulus) functions can also be transferred to novel stimuli through the same process (e.g., skin conductance can be elicited by stimuli which participate in frames of equivalence with shock). However, little is known about the parameters across which the transfer of Pavlovian functions is possible. For example, Behavioral-Momentum Theory (BMT) explains that context-specific operant response persistence is the product of a Pavlovian conditioning process involving reinforcement but it is unclear whether this effect can be transferred to novel stimuli via stimulus equivalence. Three college students completed a three-part experiment to explore this possibility. All demonstrated equivalence during Experiment 1. One of three demonstrated patterns of persistence consistent with BMT during Experiment 2. Persistence did not transfer to novel stimuli during extinction in Experiment 3 (IOA and fidelity scores fell above acceptable ranges for all experiments). These results suggest equivalence may not always facilitate the transfer of all stimulus functions.

 
8. Conflicting Relations Paradigm: The Effects of A Stimulus Equivalence-Based Approach to Changing Bias
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Robert Henery (University of Minnesota), JENNIFER J. MCCOMAS (University of Minnesota)
Abstract: The stimulus equivalence paradigm has been used in a small number of studies to examine attitudes and responding towards socially relevant stimuli. The present study was a systemic replication of the training and testing protocol from Mizael, de Almeida, Silveira, & de Rose (2016) with a novel study population that included 8 East African and 7 Native American elementary age children. The school that these children attended reported frequent and hostile interactions between these groups of students. All 15 children learned relations during matching tasks demonstrated symmetry and transitivity been outgroup faces and positive stimuli. Fourteen of the 15 children demonstrated equivalence class formation, successfully replicating the results of the Mizael et al. (2016) study. All 15 children also completed an array of stereotyping and prejudice measures before and after delayed match-to-sample training (DMTS) and testing to detect any generalization of the DMTS training effects beyond the experimental context. Participant performance on those measures suggested little, if any, generalization of training effects. Results are discussed in terms of the utility of the stimulus equivalence paradigm for addressing the challenges related to stereotyping and prejudice.
 
9. Detection of Dangerous Points and Behavioral Modification From Environmental Change by Behavior Analysis Procedure Under the Safeguarding Supportive Systemat a Tunnel Construction Site
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
RIEKO HOJO (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan), Kyoko Hamajima (National Institution of Occupational Safety and Helath, Japan), Shigeo Umezaki (National Institution of Occupational Safety and Helath, Japan), Koichi Ono (Komazawa University), Shoken Shimizu (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan)
Abstract: Accidents at tunnel construction sites in Japan rapidly decreased because of development of construction technology and/or promotion of machinery construction. However, it elicits fatal result if once accident occurs because safety at many tunnel work-sites is still dependent on workers attentiveness. It is important to analyze behavior pattern of workers and to apply some intervention procedure for increasing and decreasing safety and unsafe behavior, respectively. Though our final goal is effective introduction of the Safeguarding Supportive System which was established in our project to tunnel construction site, we videotaped behavior of tunnel worker as a pilot study. We detected dangerous points of tunnel site from the videotape, which were intersection points of workers and/or machines. Then intervention trial, which changed environment using a procedure of behavioral analysis, was applied to tunnel construction site for decreasing dangerous intersections. Results in the present study suggested that the intervention procedure effectively affected behavior change of workers. Also, results showed that it was sometimes possible to change behavior by change of environment, not only direct approach. We concluded that behavioral analysis procedure might be one of the most effective measure to contribute to safety in tunnel construction sites.
 
10. Discounting of Reward Value by Dedicated Effort
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
HIROKO SUGIWAKA (Doshisha University), Hiroto Okouchi (Osaka Kyoiku University)
Abstract:

Effort discounting refers to the decrease in subjective value of a reward as a function of effort for the reward. In previous experiments of effort discounting, the reward recipients were exclusively the participants themselves. Sometimes, however, people may dedicate more effort not for themselves, but for someone else, for instance, significant others. In the present experiment, discounting of hyperbolic monetary reward by a job, handing out various number of advertising packs of tissues, was measured for each of 23 undergraduates when the recipient was the first dearest person (the #1 condition), the 20th dearest person (the #20 condition), a mere acquaintance (the #100 condition), or her/himself (the self-reward condition). Effort discounting rates for all four conditions were well described by hyperbolic functions (see Figure attached). The more social distance decreased, the shallower the effort discounting was. Interestingly, the steepness of effort discounting in the #1 condition was not significantly different from that in the self-reward condition, suggesting that people make effort for their intimates as they do for themselves.

 
11. Does Baseline Reinforcement History Mediate Sequence and Magnitude of Resurgence During Extinction? A Translational Investigation
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
CASSANDRA STANDISH (Vanderbilt University), Joseph Michael Lambert (Vanderbilt University), Holly G Pericozzi (Vanderbilt University ), Eugenia Perry (Vanderbilt University )
Abstract: Resurgence occurs when a previously reinforced behavior reemerges after an alternative behavior is placed on extinction. Resurgence of problem behavior may occur if an effective treatment is not implemented with fidelity. Recent research shows that incorporating multiple-mand instruction into a serial training format can produce both a recency effect and a primacy effect. The recency effect was demonstrated in a translation study, whereas the primacy effect was demonstrated with socially significant behaviors via applied research. One reason for this discrepancy might be a difference in reinforcement exposure during baseline sessions. In this translational study, we tested whether differential exposure to baseline schedules of reinforcement could mediate within-subject primacy and recency effects via two-component multiple schedules of reinforcement across three participants. Our first participant demonstrated a recency effect in both conditions. However, response persistence and magnitudes were considerably greater in the long-baseline condition, relative to the short-baseline condition. This outcome appears to align more with predictions made by Behavioral-Momentum Theory than those made by a Resurgence-as-Choice interpretation. Interobserver agreement and procedural fidelity scores fell within acceptable ranges for all participants across all phases of this study.
 
12. Activity-Based Anorexia Effects on Food Motivation as Measured by a Progressive Ratio Schedule
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Ana de Paz (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia), Pedro Vidal (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia), RICARDO PELLON (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia)
Abstract: Restricted food to a single period a day and free access to a running wheel are key conditions for developing activity-based anorexia (ABA) in laboratory rats, characterized by a progressive lost in weight and an eventual reduction in food intake. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon suggests that activity acquires reinforcing properties that interfere with food intake by reducing it. Effects of ABA on the reinforcing value of food were assessed in forty female Wistar rats through a progressive ratio schedule and the parameters derived from Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement models. Rats were assigned to an ABA group or one of the four following controls: same food exposition but without access to the running wheel (FC), yoked in terms of weight by food restriction (WC), running without diet (AC), “ad libitum” without running (AL). Results do not seem to indicate a decrease in the effectiveness of food as a reinforcer during ABA development.
 
13. Remembering of Relatives in a Man With Alzheimer´s Disease With the use of Conditional Discrimination Training
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
ANETTE BROGÅRD ANTONSEN (Oslo Metropolitan University), Erik Arntzen (Oslo Metropolitan University)
Abstract: In this study participated a 72-year-old man with Alzheimer´s disease and a Mini Mental Status (MMS) score of 27. The participant was presented for conditional discrimination procedures in which the stimuli were pictures of close family members, their names and family relationships. The purpose of the study was to identify stimulus control issues related to remembering his relatives and reestablish stimulus control. The results showed how the participant did systematical incorrect responding to some of the relatives stimuli. In addition, did the results show how systematical changes of the conditional discrimination procedure reestablished correct stimulus control.
 
14. Ability of the Surrogate Conditioned Motivating Operation to Influence Eating Behavior in Pigeons
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CHRISTA MCDIFFETT (California State University, Stanislaus), Leilani McCalley (California State University, Stanislaus), Eric Gorenflo (California State University, Stanislaus), Shannon Audrain Bianchi (California State University, Stanislaus), William F. Potter (California State University, Stanislaus)
Abstract: Successful demonstrations of the surrogate conditioned motivating operation (S-CMO) have been elusive in psychological literature throughout the years. Of the previous studies that have demonstrated the presence of an S-CMO, replications of these studies have often failed to find the same results. The present study is the third in a series of three experiments, the first of which successfully demonstrated an S-CMO effect, the second of which showed no difference in eating behavior, and the last of which is currently being conducted. After pairing an external stimulus package with increasing levels of deprivation, testing was conducted to determine if eating behavior was influenced by the stimulus package. Results of the first experiment supported the presence of an S-CMO, while results of the second experiment showed no difference in eating behavior. The final experiment is being conducted as a close replication of the initial experiment, in an attempt to determine relevant features that contributed to the difference in results between the first two experiments. This series of experiments hopes to identify the important factors that result in establishing an S-CMO effect.
 
15. See-Do Correspondence in a Pigeon
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
VIRGINIA JEAN MILLESON (West Virginia University), Kennon Andy Lattal (West Virginia University)
Abstract: This study investigated stimulus control of one pigeon’s behavior by that of another pigeon. Three responses of the model pigeon first were trained - stand on a platform, key peck, and nudge a box - in the presence of three different light colors. A second, observer, pigeon was taught, in an adjacent chamber, the same three responses, but not in the presence of the lights. When both pigeons respond appropriately, they will be put in their respective chambers, separated by clear plastic, with the lights visible only to the model. Both pigeons can receive a reinforcer for the response signaled to the model pigeon. The question is whether the model’s behavior would serve as discriminative stimulus for the observer’s response. Both pigeons are trained on the three responses; this link shows one such response by both pigeons: https://vimeo.com/315185852 and this link shows the model’s responses 65% under light control: https://www.dropbox.com/s/9sobi5jqa7yee06/M2U00113.MPG?dl=0 When training is complete, with the model’s behavior >90% under the control of the lights, as shown in the supporting video. We will have data on the observational learning tests by the end of March.
 
16. Examining the “Work Ethic Effect” in Pigeons: Using Reinforcement Schedules Manipulating Distance Between Operanda
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MASANORI KONO (Meisei University; Teikyo University)
Abstract:

Animals choose stimuli that precede preferred events to those that precede less preferred events. In contrast, stimuli that follow less preferred events are more preferable to those that follow more preferred events. The “work ethic effect” has been investigated in many studies, but some have failed to replicate it. It is possible that an important factor of the effect is to expose subjects to a strenuous schedule that results in energy expenditure. This study employed a reinforcement schedule in which the distance between operanda was manipulated as a response effort (Kono, The Psychological Record, in printing). In training, a simple simultaneous discrimination followed shorter response distance in an initial stimulus and a different simple simultaneous discrimination followed long response distance in the initial stimulus. During test trials, pigeons exhibited preference for stimuli that followed low effort schedules. The results were hence contrary to the predictions based on the work ethic effect.

 
 

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