Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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45th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2019

Program by : Saturday, May 25, 2019


 

Paper Session #38
Diversity submission Diversity and Cultural Trends in Behavior Analysis
Saturday, May 25, 2019
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Swissôtel, Lucerne Ballroom Level, Lucerne 1/2
Area: PCH
Instruction Level: Basic
Chair: Daryl E Stewart (University of Kansas)
 
Diversity submission LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Bi-Sexual, Transgender, Queer/Questioning) Cultural Competency: History, Disparity and Prevalence in Behavior Analysis
Domain: Theory
SARAH CAMPAU (May Institute)
 
Abstract: As in other disciplines and society at large, LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Bi-Sexual, Transgender, Queer/Questioning) individuals have become a more visible part of the cultural landscape. By definition this includes persons who identify outside heterosexual or gender norms. Behavior analyst encounter a statistically high prevalence of individuals who fall under the LGBTQ umbrella. Individuals with autism identify outside of cis-heterosexual norms at a higher rate than persons who are neurotypical. With contemporary data this program will demonstrate not only a significant disparity in the quantity of behavior analytic LGBTQ literature compared with other practices, but also a stark lack of LGBTQ friendly literature in behavior analysis. For the optimal understanding by the audience this presentation will include basic terminology and education about the LGBTQ community. Cultural competency in sexual orientation and gender expression should be required for behavior analysts to best serve LGBTQ individuals and work to form better relationships with a community being served in large numbers.
 
Diversity submission Cultural Influences on Psychotherapy Techniques
Domain: Theory
PARSLA VINTERE (CHE Senior Psycholgical Services; Elaine Kaufman Cultural Center)
 
Abstract: Contemporary Western psychotherapy approaches, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, utilize techniques that are influenced by Eastern philosophy to treat anxiety. The present paper looks at two influential figures in the history of psychology – Sigmund Freud, representing Western approach and Shoma Morita, representing Eastern approach. While Freud’s psychoanalysis is well known all over the world, Morita’s therapy may not be. Both Freud and Morita had similar educational and occupational backgrounds and they were contemporaries. There are similarities in their theories, but what set them apart was deeply imbedded in their cultural experience. Thus, culture is looked at as a determining factor in the development of treatment techniques. Both theories are still influencing the field of psychology. The similarities and differences in structuring treatments dealing with anxiety for the two theories will be examined and their relation to contemporary Western psychotherapy discussed. Behavioral contingency analysis is used to examine the treatment structure of Freud’s psychoanalysis, Morita therapy and ACT.
 
Diversity submission 

History of Women in Behavior Analysis: Addressing Women’s Issues at the Association for Behavior Analysis International Conferences

Domain: Theory
DARYL E STEWART (University of Kansas), Edward K. Morris (University of Kansas), Christina Nord (University of Lethbridge)
 
Abstract:

Women’s issues in behavior analysis are widely regarded, today, as having had a resurgence (e.g., the Women in Behavior Analysis Conferences). The resurgence is important. Diversity, equity, and inclusion are the basis of a well-functioning organizations and societies -- ones that are likely to survive. However, the assertion about the resurgence lacks evidence. Our presentation offers some evidence. We present the results of a content analysis of the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI) conference programs between 1975 and 2018 (e.g., women’s committees, special interest groups, symposia, presentations). Given the recent evidence (e.g., 2015-present), the resurgence is real, but is not at a higher level of activism than during the first 15 years of the ABAI conferences. Next, we offer an analysis of the early and later activism – and lack thereof in between -- based on the contributions of specific individuals (e.g., Judy Favell, Elsie Pinkston) and cultural changes (e.g., the second wave of the feminist movement; the Equal Rights Amendment, the #MeToo movement). Finally, we consider how past practices might inform and be adopted selectively to advance a currently more diverse, equitable, and inclusive community of women in behavior analysis, in the ABAI organization, and in society at large.

 
Diversity submission 

Becoming Offended and Other Things We Do To Control Other's Behavior

Domain: Theory
DERIC E. TONEY (University of Nevada, Reno)
 
Abstract:

In complex social interaction and relationships, it is common for individuals to “become offended,” hurt, or insulted by a speaker’s verbal behavior. This type of event commonly occurs across all types of relationships and can cause great distress for those involved, making it worth investigating from a behavioral perspective. To do so, there are a number of features to explore. First, an understanding of the relevant variables that allow the speaker’s verbal behavior to be responded to as if it were “offensive.” A few examples of variables that contribute to this are relationship-specific contingencies, situational variables, frequency, nonverbal behaviors, paralinguistic features, and content (Toney & Hayes, 2017). Since none of these features are unconditioned aversive stimuli, the conditioning that allows for the development of these stimulus functions should be investigated. Second, it is important to consider the function of becoming offended. Traditionally, such an analysis is overlooked as attention is primarily given to the speaker’s offensive behavior. Yet, behaviors involved in becoming offended operate within their own separate contingencies that are worth investigating. In this paper, the author will explore relevant features and issues of this type of interaction and discuss potential ways a behavior-analytic approach could benefit our understanding.

 
 
 
Symposium #42
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Are Women Academics Receiving Fair Treatment in Behavior Analysis
Saturday, May 25, 2019
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Fairmont, Lobby Level, Cuvee
Area: CSS/PCH; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Hugo Curiel (The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley)
Discussant: Heather M. McGee (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: Anita Li, M.S.
Abstract:

There has been growing interest in the representation of women and other minorities in the field of behavior analysis given the inception of the Women in Behavior Analysis conference and the special issue on Women in Behavior Analysis published in Behavior Analysis in Practice, an ABAI-affiliated journal. This symposium reports data regarding representation of women in academia within behavior analysis by examining research productivity and publicly available salaries. The first paper entitled, “Participation of Women in Behavior Analysis Research: Some Recent and Relevant Data,” reports an increasing trend of women publishing in major behavior analytic journals compared to historical data. The second paper, “The Gender Pay Gap for Behavior Analysis Faculty: It’s Big and Bad,” reports a shocking discrepancy amongst female and male professors employed at ABAI-accredited universities based in the United States relative to other disciplines. We discuss implications of these findings for women in academia and in the field of behavior analysis.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): academia, diversity, wage gap, women
Target Audience:

Professors, graduate students, instructors of behavior analysis, and supervisors of individuals pursuing behavior analytic certification

Learning Objectives: 1. Audience members will be able to report on historical figures on women's participation in research in applied behavior analysis. 2. Audience members will describe strategies to incorporate research in applied settings. 3. Audience members will describe strategies to reduce the wage gap and participation of women in both academia and practice.
 
Diversity submission Participation of Women in Behavior Analysis Research: Some Recent and Relevant Data
ANITA LI (Western Michigan University), Hugo Curiel (The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley), Joshua K. Pritchard (Factari), Alan D. Poling (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: An examination of article authorship and editorial board membership for six behavior-analytic journals from 2014-16 revealed that, compared to findings from prior years, women’s participation has increased substantially over time. This finding is heartening and continued efforts to ensure that everyone has the opportunity to succeed in, and be served by, behavior analysis are richly merited.
 
Diversity submission The Gender Pay Gap for Behavior Analysis Faculty: It’s Big and Bad
Anita Li (Western Michigan University), NICOLE GRAVINA (University of Florida), Joshua K. Pritchard (Factari), Alan D. Poling (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: We examined publicly available faculty salaries for men and women faculty members in 16 ABAI-accredited university programs. Overall, 50.6% of the 89 faculty members were women, although there were twice as many men as women at the full professor level. Our data suggest that ABAI-accredited training programs pay women less than men at all academic levels. Both in absolute terms and relative to the wage gap reported in other area of psychology, the difference in mean wages for women and men in our sample is enormous. This state of affairs is an embarrassment for our discipline and should distress all right-thinking behavior analysts. As individuals and as a collective, women have received unequal and unfair treatment for millennia. It’s time for a change.
 
 
Poster Session #79
CSS Saturday Poster Session
Saturday, May 25, 2019
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Exhibit Level, Riverside Exhibit Hall
Chair: Thomas G. Szabo (Florida Institute of Technology)
87. Using Behavioral Economics to Evaluate Differences in Delay Discounting With Individuals Convicted of Criminal Offenses
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
COURTNEY MOORE (University of Kansas, Center for Community Health and Development, Department of Applied Behavioral Science), Jomella Watson-Thompson (University of Kansas, Center for Community Health and Development, Department of Applied Behavioral Science), David P. Jarmolowicz (The University of Kansas), Shea M. Lemley (The University of Kansas)
Discussant: Thomas G. Szabo (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract:

Criminal behavior is a persistent social problem. Nationally, nearly 68% of individuals released from prison return within three years (National Institutes of Justice, 2014). There is increased interest, including by researchers and federal agencies (e.g., National Institute of Justice) to examine the neurocognitive deficits of offenders. However, additional research advancing the science and practice of examining decisions to commit or abstain from crime, is needed. Individuals who have been convicted of criminal offenses often have co-morbidities or co-occurring conditions such as alcohol and substance abuse, disease, and/or mental illness (Jaffe, Huang, & Hser, 2012). Behavioral economics provides a promising approach for evaluating a variety of reinforcer pathologies including substance abuse, problem gambling, alcohol abuse, and obesity (see, MacKillop, et al. 2011). However, few studies have specifically examined behavioral economics methodology with individuals who have been convicted of criminal offenses. In the present study, participants were recruited from a community-based re-entry program in Kansas City, Missouri. Participants completed computerized assessments including a delay discounting task. Data are presented on delay discounting rates among different types of offenders. Delayed discounting values were analyzed based on offender types including violent offenses, non-violent offenses, sex offenses, and drug offenses. Based on pilot-testing of the computerized assessment, overall the hyperboloid functions seemingly fit the data well for the discounting of money by individuals who had been convicted of multiple offenses (r2=.94), or committed more severe crimes such as sex (r2=.90) and drug-related (r2=.89) offenses. The monetary valuation for sex, drug, and multiple offenses decreases with the delay in time. Additionally, it was found that criminal offenders, particularly those with more severe offenses, displayed similar patterns of delay discounting as identified in previous studies for other maladaptive behaviors (e.g., drug use, gambling). The lessons learned and practical recommendations for advancing behavioral economic research toward reducing criminal behavior and recidivism are presented.

 
88. A Behavioral Economics Study on the Valuing of Polystyrene Alternative Food Containers
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
ANNE LAU (ABC Group Hawai'i), Sara Ann Dinkelo (ABC Group Hawai'i), Kelly Deacon (ABC Group Hawai'i)
Discussant: Thomas G. Szabo (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: “Styrofoam”, or more specifically polystyrene, is a type of plastic that is commonly provided in restaurants as a cheap, disposable container to carry food home, or simply eat out of. Despite the fact that it is made from non-renewable fossil fuels, detrimental to the environment and the health of humans, use is high. There are, however, alternative containers that could help eliminate microplastics from our beaches, oceans, and the tummies of animals- including us. So, why don’t we use those alternatives? The delayed and indirect problematic contingencies may not compete well with the immediate and seemingly more direct rewards. We may discount the problems associated with our use of non-essential, single-use plastics, including polystyrene. As patrons to a restaurant, we may also feel that we don’t have a choice in the matter. This study will seek to determine the number of restaurant patrons that will pay the cost difference between polystyrene and a compostable alternative, when the option is presented for them immediately at the point of purchase.
 
89. Caregiver Substitutability of Evidence-Based Practices: A Behavioral Economic Evaluation
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
SHAWN PATRICK GILROY (Louisiana State University), Jodie Waits (Louisiana State University)
Discussant: Thomas G. Szabo (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract:

Increases in the use of alternative, unsupported treatments have been observed in multiple countries, including the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom (Eisenburg, Davis, et al., 1998; Coulter & Willis, 2004; Segar, 2011). When used as an alternative to empirically-supported treatments, these treatments represent a suboptimal use of time and resources. Using the Amazon Mechanical Turk (mTurk) platform, this study evaluated the demand for an empirically-supported treatment for child behavior problems with and without the availability of an alternative, treatment option unsupported by research. Participants were caregivers who endorsed difficulties with child behavior and a willingness to pursue behavioral treatment. Preliminary results indicated that a high degree of caregivers elected to substitute an evidence-based treatment for an alternative, unsupported treatment to varying degrees. These findings represent a novel extension of the applied behavioral economic framework and support continued efforts to use operant demand methodology to inform policy regarding evidence-based treatments.

 
90. Delay Discounting of Reinforcer Loss Evident in Climate Change Policy Preference
Area: CSS; Domain: Basic Research
MASON TODD (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Lacie Campbell (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Thomas G. Szabo (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Unprecedented rises in atmospheric CO₂ and other emissions following the industrial revolution are markedly impacting Earth’s geographical and ecological systems. Delay discounting models have traditionally emphasized a hyperbolic decrease in the subjective value of an appetitive commodity over time; however, many outcomes related to climate change may be more appropriately framed as a decrease in the subjective value of reinforcer loss over time. The purpose of the present study was to compare participants delay discounting of climate change (reaching atmospheric point of no return) to monetary discounting of reinforcer loss observed in prior research. We administered a climate change discounting survey and a monetary discounting task to over 300 college student participants. Curve fit analyses suggest that the climate change discounting task produced hyperbolic discounting that resembled and may operate at greater intensity than traditional monetary discounting. We did not observe a correlation between discounting of climate change and monetary discounting, suggesting that trait impulsivity may not provide an appropriate account of behavioral economic factors that could influence or inform policy related to climate change. Implications for national policy reform are discussed.
 
91. Delay Discounting and Social Processes in Relation to Commodity Valuation
Area: CSS; Domain: Basic Research
Will Fleming (University of Nevada, Reno), ALEXANDRA HELEN WILLIAMS (University of Nevada Reno), Allysan Thomas (University of Nevada Reno), Kasey Carajan (University of Nevada Reno ), Matt Locey (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Thomas G. Szabo (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract:

Delay discounting has been shown to be related to psychological flexibility, social discounting, and substance-use disorders, suggesting that addiction and social processes are related. While relations between delay discounting and the valuation of various commodities have been extensively examined, relations between such commodities and social discounting have not. This study aims to assess such relations, primarily those between social discounting, delay discounting, psychological flexibility, and valuations of food, alcohol and firearms. Eighty U.S. adult participants were recruited using Amazon MTURK and administered questionnaires using Qualtrics. Adjusting-amount procedures were used to measure delay discounting, social discounting, and commodity valuations (i.e., where participants had to choose between an adjusting, smaller amount of money for anything or a fixed, larger gift card for a particular class of commodities). Social discounting was also measured using a monetary-choice questionnaire and a novel slider assessment procedure. Results support previous findings between delay and social discounting and magnitude effects on commodity valuation. However, the tendency for shallow social discounters to value firearms higher than steeper discounters and the lack of relation between delay discounting and firearm valuation suggests important differences between the two forms of discounting and further contextualizes the utility of such procedures.

 
92. Empirical Evaluation of Game Components Based on Learning Theory: A Preliminary Study
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
CHANGSEOK LEE (Yonsei University), Seo-I Lee (Yonsei University), Hee Won Kim (Yonsei University), Mincheol Jang (Yonsei University), Yujin Kim (Yonsei University), Suhyon Ahn (Yonsei University)
Discussant: Thomas G. Szabo (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Gamification is a technique that applies game factors to non-game fields. Identifying game factors that make people engage in a game has gained significant attention in gamification, especially in health and education field. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between high ranking and low ranking games in 3 factors generated from learning theory. 450 female/male adults ages from 20 to 49 completed Questionnaire for Identifying Game Components (QIGC), which consists of 46-items aimed to measure 3 factors generated from operant conditioning (e.g., antecedents, rewards & natural rewards). In the Roll Playing Game (RPG), which is the most played genre, five high ranking mobile RPG games and five low ranking mobile RPG games were selected. The results showed that high ranking games include more options for natural rewards, immediate and high quality rewards, and are evaluated better in terms of design, sound, accessibility, user interface and management. These results suggest that learning theory is a useful framework to understand and identify gamification factors and apply them to the non-game field.
 
93. Developing a Questionnaire Based on Learning Theory for Identifying Game Components
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
Mincheol Jang (Yonsei University), SEO-I LEE (Yonsei University), Changseok Lee (Yonsei University), Hee Won Kim (Yonsei University), Yujin Kim (Yonsei University), Suhyon Ahn (Yonsei University)
Discussant: Thomas G. Szabo (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract:

Most questionnaires in the game fields were developed based on experiences and opinions, limiting their usage in terms of understanding human behaviors and identifying effective factors to make game successful. The purpose of this study is developing a new scale for game developers based on learning theory, in order to identify game elements that affect game behaviors among users. Through previous research analysis, interviewing game experts and applying ABC framework based on learning theory to items, total of 46 items were developed: 10 items of natural rewards from playing games, 13 items of reward systems within games, 23 items of game design and construct element. And, 450 adult participants ages from 20 to 49 completed the questionnaires for the games they were familiar with. The exploratory factor analysis showed two factors (intrinsic and extrinsic reinforcement) in natural rewards, three factors (predictable reward, unpredictable reward, and punishment) in reward systems, and three factors (game management, influencing, and game design) in game design and components. The confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable fit indices (CFI, TLI and RMSEA). Also, internal consistency falls in the acceptable range. These indices indicate that the new scale is a reliable and valid instrument. Finally, implications were discussed.

 
94. The Effects of Systems and Contingency Analysis and Intervention on Task Completion
Area: CSS; Domain: Basic Research
ADRIENNE MUBAREK (The Chicago School ), David Pyles (The Chicago School)
Discussant: Merritt Schenk (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Cultural selection in behavior analysis has been posited as a form of behavioral selection to explain and discuss group behavior. Some research in this area has discussed cultural selection as a “metacontingency,” or aggregate product, that is the results of interactions of a group of individuals. The aggregate product is said to be the reinforcing contingency that maintaining certain individual behaviors within the group. This study compared group performance in terms of the aggregate product, the level of the individual, and then both combined. During each session, two groups of three individuals were asked to build a Lego set (one set per group). At the end of each session, the participants were awarded point based on accuracy and duration. Depending on the condition, the participants saw either their individual earnings and duration, the groups individual earnings and duration, or both. Results for both groups showed that the combined condition was most effective at addressing performance. This may support the need to consider providing consequences based on aggregate performance, along with individual performance measures, to maximize desired outcomes.
 
95. Studies on Metacontingency Relations in Brazilian Law
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
VIRGÍNIA CORDEIRO AMORIM (Universidade Federal do Pará - UFPA; Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso - UFMT/Cuiabá), Lenise Ghisi (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso – UFMT/Cuiabá), Nadia Rodrigues (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso – UFMT/Cuiabá), Emmanuel Z. Tourinho (Universidade Federal do Pará)
Discussant: Merritt Schenk (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Metacontingency has been used as a unit of analysis in several studies on Brazilian laws. This study evaluated the methods used in those investigations in order to identify what kind of information they add concerning: a) reference to behavioral / cultural relations to ground the Law proposition, b) the relations described in the law; c) the control that the law provides of practices regulated by it; d) cultural intervention potentially supported by the Law; and e) cultural interventions effectively carried out under the protection of the law. Sixteen theses or dissertations identified in the repositories of ninety-six graduate programs in Psychology in Brazil and four scientific articles cited by them were examined. The analysis of these studies may provide subsidies for original approaches to legislation on different topics, in light of the concept of metacontingency.
 
96. Using Contingency Contracts to Decrease Problem Behavior of Adolescents Adjudicated for Sexual Offenses
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
ANNA EDGEMON (Auburn University), John T. Rapp (Auburn University), Kristen Brogan (Auburn University), Jodi Coon (Auburn University)
Discussant: Merritt Schenk (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Contingency contracts are one form of contingency management that have been shown to decrease smoking in adults (Dallery, Meredith, & Glenn, 2008),  increase academic productivity of disadvantaged youths (Kelley & Stokes, 1982), and increase physical activity in undergraduate students (Irons, Pope, Pierce, Van Patten, & Jarvis, 2013).  Contingency contracts may also be effective for decreasing problematic behavior (e.g., verbal aggression, physical aggression, noncompliance) displayed by adolescents who are incarcerated (Gendreau, Listwan, Kuhns, & Exum, 2014).  Effective implementation of contingency contracts with this population may result in decreased problematic behavior from the adolescents as well as decreased aversive consequences for both adolescents (e.g., time out, loss of privileges) and staff (e.g., involvement in incident report).  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of contingency contracts to decrease problematic behavior of three adolescent males who had been adjudicated for sexual offenses. Suggestions for future research are included.   Keywords: contingency contracts, contingency management, adolescents
 
97. Behavioral Skills Training to Increase Interview Skills of Adolescent Males Who Have Been Adjudicated
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
ANNA EDGEMON (Auburn University), John T. Rapp (Auburn University), Kristen Brogan (Auburn University), Soracha A O'Rourke (Auburn University), Sally A Hamrick (Auburn University)
Discussant: Merritt Schenk (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

Behavioral skills training has been shown to teach firearm safety skills to children (Miltenberger et al., 2004), to teach blackjack skills to adults (Speelman, Whiting, & Dixon, 2015), and to teach accurate pouring to college students (Hankla, Kohn, & Normand, 2017). Behavioral skills training may also be effective for teaching interview skills to adolescents who have been adjudicated. Improved interview skills in this population may result in future employment, leading to decreased likelihood of recidivism (Visher & Courtney, 2007; Visher, Debus, & Yahner, 2008; Yahner & Visher, 2008) and increased access to reinforcers such as social interactions and income. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of BST to improve the interview skills of adolescents who had been adjudicated. Effects of BST were evaluated in a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across behaviors design. Procedures implemented were adapted from Stocco, Thompson, Hart, and Soriano (2017).

 
Diversity submission 98. Sexual Harassment Prevention Training: Review and Discussion of Effectiveness Research and Potential Behavior Analytic Contributions
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
ZOEY ISABELLA ULREY (University of Southern California), Jonathan J. Tarbox (University of Southern California; FirstSteps for Kids)
Discussant: Merritt Schenk (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

There is an increasing awareness of the imbalance of power that exists between men and women, exemplified by wage gaps, lower incidence of women CEOs, and prevalence of sexual harassment towards women in all settings. Sexual harassment is a prevalent problem in the workplace, despite the availability of harassment trainings required in many companies. Because behavior analysts have the expertise to change behavior, general societal problems such as sexual harassment can and should be addressed by behavior analysts. This poster will review research on sexual harassment trainings done in institutions. A small amount of research has examined perceptions of the effectiveness of trainings, but insufficient research has been done on how trainings decrease sexual harassment behaviors. Based on the research and common procedures for trainings on sexual harassment, limitations will be addressed and directions for future research will be presented. Potential improvements for sexual harassment training procedures, based on proven behavioral training procedures in other areas, will be discussed and proposed.

 
99. Increasing Detained Adolescents' Tolerance of Delays and Denials
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
SORACHA A O'ROURKE (Auburn University), Sarah M. Richling (Auburn University), Kristen Brogan (Auburn University), Cassidy McDougale (Auburn University), John T. Rapp (Auburn University), Kelli Thompson (Auburn University), Barry Burkhart (Auburn University)
Discussant: Merritt Schenk (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Delay tolerance is based on systematically increasing the duration of exposure to the undesired stimuli. Research suggests juvenile sexual offenders are more likely than non-adjudicated juveniles to present with reports of anxiety, aggression, and misconduct. Engaging in such behaviors while in residential facilities can lead to loss of privileges, interfere with other treatments, and contribute to negative staff-student relationships. The current study evaluated the effects of a progressive time delay to increase tolerance to aversive situations for three detained adolescents. Targeted problem behaviors included repetitive verbal negotiation following restricted access to preferred activities, excessive cleaning in the presence of unorganized stimuli, and inappropriate vocalizations under conditions of low attention. Results indicate this behavior analytic intervention was successful in increasing two adolescents’ ability to tolerate non-preferred situations. Data collection is ongoing for the third participant. Clinical implications of the use of behavior analytic treatment procedures for adolescents adjudicated for illegal sexual behavior are discussed.
 
100. Behavioral Intervention for Disruptive Behavior in Adolescents and Adults With Addiction Problems
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
FELIPE DIAZ (Guadalajara University), Jonnathan Gudiño (Guadalajara University), Jaime Gutiérrez (Guadalajara University), Maria Acero (Guadalajara University), Karina Franco (PENDING)
Discussant: Merritt Schenk (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

Disruptive behavior in childhood and adolescence requires immediate attention due to the high incidence of this behavior and its direct association with aggressiveness and antisocial behavior. The purpose of this research was to apply a behavior modification program for disruptive behavior in adolescents and adults. The participants are five adolescents from a youth integration center and five adults in the south-southeast regional justice center. Record sheets are used for the occurrence of behaviors and an application for a mobile device for behavioral registration. The initial records operationalist the disruptive behaviors of the program and were carried out by two observers who met at least 80% of agreement. A stimulus preference evaluation was conducted and subsequently a multiple baseline design consisting of a behavioral contract and token economy. The program lasted four weeks and a follow-up phase. The predicted results include the decrease in disruptive behavior after the intervention in both groups. The results will be discussed in relation to the importance of intervening on disruptive behaviors in populations that are difficult to access and with behavioral problems such as aggression and addictions. Identify strategies and early intervention for this type of behavior will be proposed.

 
101. Toward the Development of a Systematic Analysis of Implicit Bias: Refining Measurement Tools
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
JANICE TA (University of Nevada, Reno), Jovonnie L. Esquierdo-Leal (University of Nevada, Reno), Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno), Jose Ruiz (University of Nevada, Reno), Kasey Carajan (University of Nevada, Reno), Andrew Erin Arballo (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Merritt Schenk (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Since the early 1980s, researchers have been interested in understanding and measuring implicit bias. Although a number of tools, such as the IRAP, have been developed to measure implicit bias, few (if any) have developed a systematic process for selecting stimuli. The purpose of the present study was to test a recent methodology developed at UNR for selecting stimuli to be utilized within the IRAP. This study was divided into two parts. The first part of the study used a relational history survey, which required participants to describe statements and images (e.g., rural and urban settings) using one-word adjectives, synonyms, and verbal properties. The top ten most commonly used descriptions were compared to experimenter-determined stimuli and then included in a second selection phase. By drawing upon the previous research in behavior analysis, we utilized a sorting methodology to determine which words should be incorporated into the IRAP. Results pertaining to the differentiation between experimenter-determined stimuli and stimuli determined by a representative sample will be discussed.
 
 
 
Symposium #105
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission The Way Forward: Behavior Analysis and the Contingencies of Inclusion
Saturday, May 25, 2019
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Fairmont, B2, Imperial Ballroom
Area: CSS/PCH; Domain: Translational
Chair: Vivian Mach (Morningside Academy)
Discussant: Adam Hockman (The Mechner Foundation)
CE Instructor: Joanne K. Robbins, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Behavior analysts are in the unique position to build bridges that cross cultures and to respect diversity in meaningful measurable ways. We can reach across professions, across disciplines, and across age groups to address patterns that harm any population. We can translate procedures from other fields, and design and sequence measurable objectives without relying on psychological constructs. This symposium will share an analysis and solutions for challenges that arise from exclusionary cultural diversity practices and the great need to provide diversity training. Behavior analysts can contribute to policy and practices that affect the LGBTQ community. We discuss the need to develop culturally competent assessment and treatment interventions for those diagnosed on the autism spectrum. We examine the current and historical make up of the leadership in our own international organization. The constructional approach is presented to help define and facilitate how behavior analysis can move us forward in addressing these issues.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): bias, constructional approach, cultural diversity, discrimination
Target Audience:

College professors BCBA practitioners

Learning Objectives: Participants will be able to name three free or low cost resources that are available for teaching adults and youth about LGBTQ needs. Participants will be able to state two examples of differences between the etiology of autism in different cultures. Participants will be able to state which emotion is a by-product of the distancing contingency.
 
Diversity submission 

Cross-Cultural Implementation of Applied Behavior Analysis for Treating Individuals Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder

(Service Delivery)
STACEE LEATHERMAN (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), James C. Moore (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Ileana Torres (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Robyn M. Catagnus (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

The worldwide impact of autism creates a need to develop culturally competent assessment and treatment interventions that can be implemented in a variety of cultures. The literature on interventions for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has identified behavioral interventions as being very effective in Western cultures. However, there is little research about behavioral interventions in non-Western cultures. Culture can affect a person’s beliefs about the cause or origin of ASD, which types of treatment the person seeks, and the goals/outcomes the person expects. Western ABA providers working with individuals with ASD from diverse cultures need to develop and maintain multicultural competencies to better understand the needs of the people with whom they work and to be able to modify interventions to be more effective in non-Western cultures. This paper discusses the impact of culture on the diagnosis and treatment of ASD, barriers to accessing ASD treatment services in non-Western cultures, the existing research gap regarding the cross-cultural implementation of ABA, current ABA efforts to address diversity issues in the field, and recommendations for future research.

 
Diversity submission 

Free and Appropriate Education for All: LGBTQ Youth and Inclusive Schools

(Service Delivery)
SEAN MICHAEL WILL (PEER International; Denton ISD)
Abstract:

Inclusive practices for students, teachers, and families help create an inviting school culture. All families need to experience a safe and welcoming environment. Stereotypes of gender may limit life experiences, limit access to meaningful consequences, and limit available alternatives. In 2016, the first-ever national survey was administered to parse high school students by sexuality. The two new questions added to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control survey asked students about (1) their sexual orientation and (2) the gender of their partners. These data show that 1.3 million teens, about 8% of all high school students in America, report being lesbian, gay, or bisexual. This presentation will present a behavior analytic approach to define bullying and other social interactions that lead to exclusion. We will share resources that promote inclusion and teach students to create allies, and to recognize the undesirable role of the bystander. Behavior analysis provides us with the framework to design and arrange these complex social contingencies.

 
Diversity submission 

Diversity and Representation Within the Field of Behavior Analysis

(Theory)
ALFRED TUMINELLO (Touchstone), Dominique Michellee Rougeau (Mental Health Connections of SWLA/Crossing Roads ABA)
Abstract:

As a field, Applied Behavior Analysis is expected to be able to produce socially significant changes in the lives of individuals from diverse social, cultural, and economic backgrounds. While behavior analysts strive to provide the best care to their clients, only minimal support may be available to help behavior analysts develop the skills needed for effectively bridging gaps that exist when providers and clients share little in terms of cultural understanding. This challenge is particularly well illustrated when reviewing the sociocultural backgrounds of those comprising major leadership groups, such as the Behavior Analysis Certification Board and Association for Professional Behavior Analysts, as well as when accounting for the frequency of related presentations at major conferences. Without a concentrated effort to both develop field-wide leaders from diverse communities and promote appropriate diversity and sensitivity training for practitioners, consumers of ABA services may find it difficult to find behavior analysts with whom they can effectively communicate. As our field naturally results in contact with people from all walks of life, it is important for practitioners at every level to have a solid understanding of the issues surrounding diversity within the Association for Behavior Analysis International.

 
Diversity submission Contingencies of Inclusion and Exclusion: A Constructional Approach to Cultural Diversity
(Theory)
JOANNE K. ROBBINS (Morningside Academy; PEER International)
Abstract: Concepts of freedom and equality have been at the core of the debate on how we should live and treat one another since the inception of this country. Skinner (1971) thought the concepts important enough to devote an entire book to the subject. In that book he argued that radical behaviorism could make a contribution to understanding the key issues framing debates concerning freedom, and could offer ways to help achieve the often elusive goals of equality and the "good" life. The purpose of this paper is to consider an analysis of an issue currently described as cultural diversity; an analysis derived from the principles of contingency analysis. Presented here is the constructional approach as formulated by Goldiamond in an attempt to treat these problems such as bias, prejudice, and discrimination as disturbing patterns that are maintained by their consequences, and viewed as patterns of social or societal behavior that can be rationalized given the available alternatives.
 
 
Symposium #126
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Consideration of Demographic and Cultural Variables in Behavioral Research and Practice
Saturday, May 25, 2019
4:00 PM–5:50 PM
Hyatt Regency West, Lobby Level, Crystal Ballroom B
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Tara A. Fahmie (California State University, Northridge)
Discussant: Elizabeth Hughes Fong (Saint Joseph's University)
CE Instructor: Tara A. Fahmie, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Demographic and cultural variables undoubtedly influence the global adoption and success of behavioral services, but limited research exists in this area. The authors of Study 1 identified reasons for the appointment cancellations of 43 children in an outpatient ABA program. Common barriers included those related to socio-economic status (e.g., work conflicts, instability in living situation), emphasizing the importance of considering stakeholder characteristics in service delivery. The authors of Study 2 conducted a review of articles recently published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and found that demographic variables were generally underreported. The authors will describe obstacles to and rationale for fully reporting demographic variables in future publications. The authors of Study 3 analyzed the efficacy and social validity of a training program to teach function-based approaches to parents and practitioners in Chennai, India. The authors will discuss the cultural variables relevant to this region that were considered during the development phase of their study. The authors of Study 4 successfully extended tele-health services to families located in South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. Both efficacy and social validity data will highlight the outcomes of the authors’ global outreach efforts. Finally, Elizabeth Fong will discuss these four studies in relation to our need for a more effective science of cultural and demographic influences.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): culture, demographics, telehealth, treatment acceptability
Target Audience:

Practicing behavior analysts

Learning Objectives: 1. Participants will identify a minimum of three demographic variables that may influence treatment adoption or adherence. 2. Participants will describe the manner in which training can be tailored to cultures outside of the US 3. Participants will acknowledge the importance of social validity measures in the dissemination of behavioral services to diverse populations.
 
Diversity submission 

Barriers to Appointment Attendance Among Families Receiving Applied Behavior Analysis Services for Problem Behavior

STEPHANIE LIOLLIO (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract:

Research has shown that children diagnosed with developmental disabilities exhibiting severe problem behavior benefit from Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) therapy. Because ABA therapy often places a heavy emphasis on caregiver involvement and consistency of treatment practice, the effectiveness of therapy may be compromised if excessive cancellations occur. The current study identified common reasons for appointment cancellations. This allowed us to examine potential barriers that may be intervened on to increase the likelihood of treatment success. Attendance records of 43 children being seen in a weekly outpatient ABA program that focused on parent training for problem behavior were reviewed. Frequency of cancellations were measured, grouped into categories, and ranked from highest to lowest. Preliminary data collected over twelve weeks indicated that scheduling conflicts, illness, and scheduling miscommunications were the most frequent reasons that cancellations occurred. These variables were discussed in terms of possible interventions that could be used to decrease cancellations and subsequently increase success of intervention for parents at high-risk of experiencing barriers to appointment attendance.

 
Diversity submission 

On the Reporting of Demographic Variables in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis

STEPHANIE JONES (West Virginia University), Claire C. St. Peter (West Virginia University)
Abstract:

Describing participants’ demographic variables (ethnicity/race, socioeconomic status (SES), gender/sex, age, etc.) may be important for identifying how such variables may impact behavioral interventions and for identifying patterns across research articles. We evaluated the extent to which studies published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis for the last five years included demographic variables of participants. Any mention of information regarding age, gender or sex, ethnicity or race, SES, diagnosis, functioning level, scores on standardized tests or assessments, educational levels, and culture for any participant in the study was coded. The data were analyzed as the percentage of experiments mentioning a broad demographic variable (e.g., SES), and number of individuals mentioned in an experiment with a specific characteristic within the broader demographic category (e.g., low income). Generally, demographic variables were underreported, which may limit the broader impact of those publications. Obstacles to and rationale for fully reporting demographic variables are explored.

 
Diversity submission Investigation of a Training Manual for Teaching Behavioral Skills to Parents and Professionals in India
TARA A. FAHMIE (California State University, Northridge), Maithri Sivaraman (Tendrils Centre for Autism)
Abstract: In regions such as India, where one-to-one behavior analytic intervention is not easily accessible, parents and service providers may advocate for children with disabilities better if they have foundational training in the behavior analytic approach to problem behavior. The purpose of the present study was to develop and test the effectiveness of a manualized training in increasing behavior analytic perspectives and skills used to manage problem behavior. We noted several cultural adaptations used in both the manual and the training. Forty-six parents and service providers from Chennai, India participated in the study, and were assigned to either an immediate training (n=22) or a waitlist control (n=24) group. The training produced overall increases in participants’ knowledge and approach to the assessment and treatment of problem behavior. Moreover, all participants rated the acceptability of training highly in our measure of social validity. Guidelines for international dissemination are discussed.
 
Diversity submission Outcomes of a Global Telehealth Parent-Training Project
LOUKIA TSAMI (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Ozlem Toper Korkmaz (Uludağ Üniversitesi), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Teaching parents to conduct functional analyses (FAs) and to implement functional communication training (FCT) is a highly effective approach for treating problem behavior maintained by social consequences (Derby et al., 1997). Studies have found that delivering this assessment and intervention package via telehealth technologies is effective and acceptable to parents in the United States (Wacker et al., 2013b). In the presentation, we will discuss the outcomes of families located in South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East who we coached via telehealth to implement FAs and FCT with their children with autism. Two behavior therapists located at a U.S. university conducted weekly 1-hour appointments with the use of interpreters for the non-English speaking families. The majority of the parents used smart phones to communicate with the clinicians. The parent-implemented FAs successfully identified the function(s) of problem behavior, and FCT reduced problem behavior and increased communication responses for all children. Moreover, the caregivers rated the procedures and use of telehealth as very acceptable. Overall, these results suggest that behavior analysts located in the United States can offer behavioral services via telehealth to individuals with autism around the world.
 
 
Business Meeting #147
Diversity submission UNCOMFORTABLEx: Inaugural Meeting
Saturday, May 25, 2019
7:00 PM–7:50 PM
Swissôtel, Event Center Second Floor, St. Gallen 1-3
Chair: Megan Erin Sullivan Kirby (University of South Florida; UNCOMFORTABLEx; Virginia Association for Behavior Analysis)
Presenting Authors:

Uncomfortable conversations about uncomfortable topics in a social media forum: What could go wrong? With over 5,500 members as of October 2018, and chapters around the world standing up for human rights, social justice and an end to harassment, it's time to meet up in person! B. F. Skinner may have called us the "uncommitted." However, we think of ourselves as brave new leaders using behavioral science at a grassroots level to advance a new progressive movement (Mittaini & Aspholm, 2016). Join us!

Keyword(s): advocacy, human rights, social justice, Uncomfortable BCBA
 

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