Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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40th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2014

Program by Continuing Education Events: Saturday, May 24, 2014


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Workshop #W50
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
CANCELED: The Cipani Get Me Game for Children With ASD: Developing a Parental Repertoire
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W176a (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Ennio C. Cipani, Ph.D.
ENNIO C. CIPANI (National University), ALESSANDRA LYNN CIPANI (University of California, Riverside)
Description: Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise a diverse group of learners: some comprehend language well, but can fail to perform even simple requests. One might say they are disinterested and lack "motivation" to follow adult directives. For others, spoken language seems like a jumble of incomprehensible sounds. I have devised a two-phase structured skills training program that can be deployed by parents (and school personnel): the Cipani Get Me Game (GMG) is a structured training format to sequentially develop two sets of skills in children. It does so by developing the instructional repertoire of the parent(s). First, it is important for any child to be able to be responsive to instructions/directives given to him or her by a parent and/or teacher. In this game, instructional responsiveness is targeted as the sole objective in phase 1 (for both groups). Children with high functioning autism or other high incidence disabilities as well as children with severe and profound intellectual disabilities need such a skill. Therefore, phase 1 directly targets the child's ability to follow an instruction, irrespective of the language deficit in the child. In phase 2, the development of a progressive comprehension of language is the target.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) utilize a diagnostic test to determine language comprehension of a target child; (2) train a parent in the skill repertoire needed for phase 1 implementation of the Cipani GMG; (3) train a parent in the skill repertoire needed for phase 2 implementation of the Cipani GMG, including use of superimposition and stimulus fading of discriminative elements of verbal instruction; and (4) utilize a diagnostic test to determine when the child is able to acquire skills from a group instruction format.
Activities: In addition to the lecture, criterion-referenced test items measuring the attendees' understanding and comprehension of the procedures is embedded in the PowerPoint presentations. Also, to reiterate, role-playing demonstrations are plentiful throughout the training. Rehearsal of such procedures by attendees may be afforded (volunteer basis only, depending on time constraints). Handouts to facilitate training of parents will be provided.
Audience: BCBAs and licensed psychologists who are involved with in-home programs who also conduct parent training. This training is ideally suited for the attendee wanting to develop behavioral skills in a child's parent, starting with a structured training format for building instructional responsiveness to their directives.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W51
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
No More Diapers: Using a Behavioral Approach for Toilet Training Success!
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W185bc (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Mary Lynch Barbera, Ph.D.
MARY LYNCH BARBERA (Barbera Behavior Consulting)
Description: Independent toileting is one of the most important life skills for children with autism and other disabilities. Whether a child is toilet trained impacts many areas of life including school placement options, access to childcare, and the ability to participate in some leisure activities. In this workshop, Dr. Barbera will review past and current literature in this area and will present the results of a 2013 toilet training survey she conducted of parents and caregivers. Participants will learn about using a behavioral approach to toilet training and the role of parents, therapists, and educators in the toilet training process. Strategies for assessing toileting needs, developing toilet training plans, implementation of research-based strategies, and the need for making data-based toileting decisions will be presented. Participants will leave the workshop with a Toilet Training Toolkit, which will include an assessment tool, sample data sheets, and strategies to start or re-start toilet training immediately with a variety of children.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) discuss the pertinent toilet training literature; (2) state the purpose and role of a toilet training manager; (3) state the three steps usually needed for toilet training and discuss the reasons why dry pants checks and positive practice have often not been utilized in recent years; and (4) complete forms including the assessment form, plan, and data sheets.
Activities: Lecture, video review, role-playing, and small group activities.
Audience: The primary audience for this workshop is BCBAs, licensed psychologists, and educators. Direct therapists, students, parents, and anyone involved or interested in toilet training are also welcome.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W52
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Building General Repertoires for Children With Autism: Instruction That Adds Value
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W176c (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Jacquelyn M. MacDonald, M.S.
JACQUELYN M. MACDONALD (The New England Center for Children), KELLY L. MCCONNELL (The New England Center for Children), RENEE C. MANSFIELD (The New England Center for Children), CHATA A. DICKSON (The New England Center for Children)
Description: Behavior change is helpful to an individual only to the extent that this change is seen across relevant environments. Although the importance of the generality of behavior change has been emphasized by behavior analysts for more than four decades, there remains work to be done to encourage practitioners to apply recommended methods to improve learners' performance across settings, and to support them in this application. In this workshop we will (1) discuss the meaning of the terms "generalization," "generality," and "general repertoire"; (2) discuss the importance of considerations of use as part of the initial planning for teaching a skill; (3) review strategies for establishing general repertoires; and (4) facilitate exercises whereby attendees will practice these strategies. Strategies to be discussed include those offered by Stokes and Baer in 1977, as well as general case analysis, matrix training, and generalization mapping. Skill areas specifically addressed will include observational learning, imitation, community skills, and social skills.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) identify the differences in meaning between the terms "generalization," "generality," and "general repertoire"; (2) identify skills that could meet the criteria for behavioral cusp, as defined by Bosch and Fuqua (2001); (3) explain why it is important to plan for generalization from the start of instruction; (4) conduct a general case analysis; (5) design a matrix for matrix training; (6) define observational learning and distinguish it from imitation; and (7) describe a strategy for teaching a student to learn from observing another.
Activities: This workshop will include a balance of lecture, workbook activities, sharing in dyads, practicing skills discussed in the lecture with assistance and feedback, and sharing work with the larger group.
Audience: The target audience is teachers, practitioners of applied behavior analysis, licensed psychologists, and BCBAs (especially those in the first 5 years of their practice).
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Autism Education, Generality, Generalization
 
Workshop #W53
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Designing an Adult Program to Provide a Meaningful Adulthood for Individuals More Impaired by Autism
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W181b (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Elizabeth Martineau, Ed. S.
ELIZABETH MARTINEAU (Nashoba Learning Group), HEATHER M. BAIROS (Nashoba Learning Group), STEPHANIE DANIELS (Nashoba Learning Group), TOM PETRINI (Nashoba Learning Group), JESSICA TILLEY (Nashoba Learning Group)
Description: As the incidence of autism has increased over the last decades, high quality ABA programs have grown to meet the needs of a sizable segment of the school-aged population impaired by autism. However, the legal imperative to educate all individuals, and the funding available to do so, ceases when individuals turn 21 or 22 (depending on the state). As the young adults with moderate to severe autism who have received quality ABA school programming begin to turn 22 in increasing numbers, solutions need to be developed to allow these individuals to realize their potential and use the skills they have gained to participate in meaningful work, community engagement, continued life skills development, and recreation and leisure activities. For the majority of these individuals continuation of skilled and comprehensive behavior support is required to allow meaningful participation in activities. Nashoba Learning Group (NLG) developed and launched Adult Day and Work Programs in March of 2013 in Massachusetts to efficiently and effectively provide the support these individuals need for a successful adulthood. Our program is growing rapidly and is serving our graduates as well as graduates of other local ABA school programs. This workshop will review the design of NLG's adult program, including curriculum and activities, staffing, behavior plan development, and sample annual goals and objectives. We will review our operating expenses and how we have worked with public and private sources to fund our program. Activities required to develop and start up a program will be outlined as well as challenges that we have faced. The workshop is designed for individuals interested in creating adult programs and in providing services to adults as well as for individuals serving those of transition age who wish to optimize instruction to provide the best preparation for adulthood.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) describe the steps required to create an adult program, (2) discuss key success factors, (3) identify the funding needed to start and maintain a quality program, (4) describe how to reconcile the costs of providing a quality program with available resources, (5) identify a workable design for program activities, and (6) identify behavior management plan priorities.
Activities: Participants will engage in a variety of activities throughout the workshop. We will begin with an overview of NLG's adult program and activities provided to adults. We will review the workplan needed to achieve program launch and the ongoing activities required for program success. The need for fundraising and strong cost negotiation with funding agencies will be reviewed. Critical success factors for the program will be identified. Participants will see video of participants engaged in activities and review and receive copies of template documents, such as behavior management plans and annual goals and objectives.
Audience: This workshop is designed for BCBA-level clinical directors, as well as program administrators and licensed psychologists. Presenters will assume that participants are familiar with a variety of ABA techniques and with individualized curriculum design and behavior plan development. Participants should have a strong interest in developing adult programs that provide participants with meaningful work, community, and life skills development activities.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Adult programs, Adults, life skills, work supp0rt
 
Workshop #W54
CE Offered: BACB
CANCELED: Use of Technology and Tablet-Based Data Collection in Community-Based Instruction for Individuals With Autism
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W184bc (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Thomas L. Zane, Ph.D.
GLORIA M. SATRIALE (Preparing Adolescents and Adults for Life (PAAL)  ), AVI GLICKMAN (Mission for Educating Citizens with Autism), THOMAS L. ZANE (Institute for Behavioral Studies, Endicott College)
Description: The use of readily available technology is transforming the way we approach education. At this moment, there are more than 1,200 applications (apps) available in the iTunes store targeting education for individuals with autism. Advances in technology are reinventing typical uses of devices, creating new "adaptive" uses that are decreasing stigma and increasing generalized use of technology across environments. Portable devices such as iPads, iPods, iPhones, or PDAs have the potential of taking teachers out of the equation in the instructional interaction. Furthermore, increasingly available technology provides more opportunities for electronic data collection with real-time data graphing, analysis, and archiving. Apps for iPhone, iPad, iPod, and Android platforms have been shown to enhance skill acquisition, independent functioning, and behavioral improvement for adolescents with autism and other developmental disabilities. During this presentation, participants will learn to use a tablet-based data collection system and the following apps: iRewards (token economy), GeeTasks (scheduling), MyTalk (communication), and Visual Impact Pro (task analyses). During the workshop, participants will learn to create programs with these apps, leaving with competence in developing and applying each for targeted skill development. The participants will practice with the tablet-based data collection system, score videotapes, and master the graphing functions.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) describe the functions of each of the apps demonstrated, (2) use each app to develop a particular program for an individual, (3) demonstrate the use of the app in an analog scenario, and (4) describe the components of the tablet-based data collection system.
Activities: This workshop will involve lecture, demonstration, and hands-on use of each app. Participants will actually load the apps onto their own devices, open the apps, and develop software programs applicable to clients and students in their care (this will involve most of the 3-hour workshop). The workshop will also involve hands-on use of the tablet-based data collection system, with the goal of successfully taking data with it and implementing the graphing function. (Registered participants will be contacted in advance of the workshop with detailed instructions for preparation.)
Audience: This workshop is appropriate for BACB certificants, behavior analysts, special education teachers, administrators, program developers, and parents who develop and implement instructional programs to teach academic, social, vocational, and ADL skills. In addition, the target audience includes all teachers, professionals, and parents who take data on learning and behavioral targets.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): autism, data collection, technology
 
Workshop #W55
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Practical Strategies for Teaching Higher Order Social Skills to Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W179a (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Jennifer Yakos, M.A.
CECILIA KNIGHT (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD)), JENNIFER YAKOS (Institute for Behavioral Training)
Description: One of the defining features of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a marked impairment in the ability to engage in social interactions with others. The development of appropriate and successful social behaviors is often one of the most critical yet challenging skill repertoires for individuals with ASD to establish. This is especially true for higher order social skills such as detecting and responding to subtle social cues, engaging in reciprocal conversations, understanding humor, and negotiating compromise. This workshop will provide instructors with practical strategies for teaching higher order social skills. Discussion will include a review of specific advanced social behaviors that are commonly problematic for individuals with ASD, as well as ABA instructional strategies that utilize both contingency-based teaching and rule-governed behavior training. Examples of teaching methodologies for a variety of higher order social skills will be presented, including video clip demonstration of techniques commonly effective with ASD learners. Small group training activities will also be conducted to allow for direct rehearsal of targeted instructional strategies.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) identify common higher order social skill deficits exhibited by individuals with autism spectrum disorder, (2) identify effective ABA teaching procedures for higher order social skills training utilizing both contingency-based and rule-governed behavior instruction, (3) demonstrate several ABA instructional strategies for higher order social skills training, and (4) identify beneficial tips for effective social skills instruction and common mistakes to avoid.
Activities: Workshop format will include lecture, small and whole group discussion, small group activities, and guided practice.
Audience: This workshop is appropriate for BACB certificants and licensed psychologists, behavior analysts, clinicians, teachers, and therapists interested in teaching advanced social skills and social language skills to individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Parents and graduate students may also benefit.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): advanced instruction, social communication, social skills
 
Workshop #W56
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Teaching Perspective Taking to Individuals With Autism: Research and Practical Strategies
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W183c (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Adel C. Najdowski, Ph.D.
ADEL C. NAJDOWSKI (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD)), ANGELA M. PERSICKE (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD))
Description: Perspective-taking skills are crucial for successful social interactions, yet children with autism spectrum disorders often have difficulty with perspective taking, including detecting what others are thinking, feeling, and wanting, as well as interpreting their use of nonliteral language (e.g., deception, sarcasm, and disguised mands). This seminar will (1) briefly touch upon the influence of relational frame theory (RFT) in the assessment and treatment of perspective taking (please note this is not an RFT workshop), (2) provide a review of behavioral research for training skills in this area, and (3) present practical strategies and curriculum targets for teaching this repertoire.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) identify the basics of how RFT relates to perspective taking, (2) identify key components of a comprehensive perspective-taking curriculum, (3) identify prerequisites for teaching perspective-taking skills, and (4) identify behavioral procedures with empirical support for teaching perspective-taking skills.
Activities: Participants will review research, watch videos, identify which deficit areas exist for presented vignettes, and discuss strategies for intervention.
Audience: This workshop is appropriate for clinicians interested in delivering intervention for perspective taking to children and adolescents with autism, including BACB certificants and licensed psychologists. Schoolteachers and administrators, parents, researchers, professors, and graduate students would also benefit.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): autism, perspective taking
 
Workshop #W57
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Improving Classroom Behavior Support Practices Through Applied Behavior Analysis for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W183b (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Robert F. Putnam, Ph.D.
ROBERT F. PUTNAM (May Institute), MEGAN R. JOY (May Institute)
Description: This workshop will provide behavior analysts with an evidence-based approach to designing effective classroom interventions for students with ASD. It includes the use of functional assessment as a method to systematically evaluate the classroom environment in order to design, implement, and evaluate effective classroom-wide behavioral support practices. Once the environment is assessed, the model incorporates both indirect (i.e., lecture, written training materials) and direct (i.e., modeling, performance feedback) instruction. Finally, participants will learn how teachers participate in a data-based decision making process in order to establish more effective practices, procedures, and interactions with students. Data will be presented supporting the need for a comprehensive training method that includes both indirect and direct instruction for teachers to adequately implement classroom-wide behavior support practices.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) apply functional assessment strategies to the selection and implementation of effective classroom-wide practices with students with ASD; (2) use evidence-based methods used to train teachers in classroom-wide behavior support practices; (3) use a data-based decision process used with teachers to modify classroom behavior support practices; and (4) use instructional and behavior support practices that establish more effective interactions between teachers and students and increase on-task behavior.
Activities: Participants will have an opportunity to engage in discussions with other behavior analysts, analyze sample data, draw conclusions about relevant classroom-wide interventions, and role-play providing effective performance feedback to educational staff.
Audience: BACB certificants and licensed psychologists, as well as behavior analysts who provide training and consultation to schoolteachers or paraprofessionals.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Autism, Classroom, General Education, Inclusion
 
Workshop #W58
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Why Typical Peers Matter: Evidence-based Practices
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W184a (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Laura Kenneally, Ed.D.
LAURA KENNEALLY (Advance Inc.)
Description: Students who are placed in self-contained classrooms or segregated private schools have limited opportunities to be with typical peers (Cammuso, 2011). Experts continue to debate the value of inclusion and which placement is best to educate students with autism. As our goal is to teach students to be independent and contributing members of society, they require opportunities for inclusion (Wagner, 2000). This workshop presents examples of how typical peers can make a positive and meaningful difference in students' lives by engaging with them in simple, everyday skills. Participants will be taught simple strategies to help students with autism learn skills from typical peers. The presenters will demonstrate how to set up three types of peer modeling in inclusion programs or to adapt video modeling programs for students who have limited access to typical peers.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) identify simple opportunities and strategies to maximize interactions between students with autism and typical peers, (2) apply successful intervention strategies to increase language and behavioral skills for students with autism via typical peer models, and (3) measure behavior changes relating to specific intervention and treatment to gauge the effectiveness of typical peer models as related to content area 9 (behavior change procedures) of the BACB task list; these include the following: 9-26—use language acquisition/communication training procedures, 9-27—use self-management strategies, 9-28—use behavior change procedures to promote stimulus and response generalization, and 9-29—use behavior change procedures to promote maintenance.
Activities: Instructional strategies include lecture, discussion, video examples, and step-by-step guided practice to set up three different types of social skills programs for a variety of learners from beginners to those with more sophisticated social skills.
Audience: BCBAs, special education teachers, licensed psychologists.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): autism, evidence based, peer model
 
Workshop #W59
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
The Science of Effective Learning Environments: The Importance of Stimulus Control for Students With Autism
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W185d (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Kathleen McCabe-Odri, Ed.D.
KATHLEEN MCCABE-ODRI (Partners in Learning, Inc.), JENNIFER CORNELY (Partners in Learning, Inc.), LAUREN DEGRAZIA (Partners in Learning, Inc.), NICOLE M. RZEMYK (Partners in Learning, Inc.), NICOLE PEASE (Partners in Learning, Inc.)
Description: Many educators struggle with how to teach the learner with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Traditional educational settings often fail to structure classrooms that minimize errors and maximize success for ASD students. Teaching staff may attempt to prompt correct responses, yet fail to establish the environmental antecedent as a discriminative stimulus; thus, these discrete skills fail to generalize into applied, independent behavior. Acquisition rates are low in these settings, while prompting rates and dependency on supports remain high. Despite the use of rewards and corrections in these ineffective classes, the properties for operant behavior change via reinforcement and punishment procedures are not in place. This workshop provides participants with a structured tutorial for classroom applications on how to establish stimulus control, identify antecedent events, and best provide procedures for stimulus discrimination learning. The workshop addresses other key processes for effective learning environments, such as stimulus generalization, the forming of stimulus classes, and the role stimulus equivalence plays in higher order processes such as social behavior. In addition, this tutorial helps participants identify possible barriers to establishing stimulus control, such as masking and overshadowing. The distinction between stimulus prompts and response prompts and their effects on learning rates are examined.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) identify key processes for effective learning environments; (2) apply methods to establish stimulus control, stimulus generalization, forming stimulus classes, and stimulus equivalence to classroom learning situations; (3) identify possible barriers to establishing stimulus control and use techniques discussed to minimize those effects on skill acquisition; and (4) distinguish between stimulus prompts and response prompts to better address the needs of students.
Activities: Instructional strategies include lecture, discussion, small group breakout, video demonstrations, and materials for identifying effective learning strategies and possible barriers to skill acquisition.
Audience: BACB certificants, licensed psychologists, behavior consultants, classroom teachers, and child study team case managers.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W60
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Behavioral Relaxation: Training and Scale
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W175b (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: CBM/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Victoria Stout Kubal, M.S.
VICTORIA STOUT KUBAL (California Consulting and Research Institute), VANESSA STOUT HUAMAN (360 Core Studio)
Description: Relaxation techniques are an integral part of the successful treatment of those exhibiting anxiety-related, pain-related, and/or anger-related behaviors. The sooner a client learns relaxation and other types of self-control techniques, the safer his/her internal and external environments may become. In addition, due to limitations in funding, providers must often demonstrate that extensive treatment progress has been made within a relatively short period of time. Poppen's (1998) Behavioral Relaxation Scale (BRS) is an assessment tool for measuring the progress of an individual demonstrating the 10 overt relaxed behaviors taught to criterion with Behavioral Relaxation Training (BRT). BRT can be an effective part of treatment for individuals with emotional/mental disorders, hyperactivity, schizophrenia, traumatic brain injury, physical limitations, and/or restricted cognitive/intellectual capabilities. This workshop will provide an opportunity to experience Poppen's (1998) Upright Behavioral Relaxation Training (URT) by means of labeling, modeling, imitation, practice, and corrective feedback. Once workshop participants are proficient in demonstrating URT and can verbally describe these 10 relaxed behaviors and corresponding examples of unrelaxed behaviors, they will be taught how to assess URT using the BRS.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) position his/her own body in alignment with the 10 overt relaxed behaviors from Upright Behavioral Relaxation Training (URT); (2) write a description of each of the 10 overt relaxed behaviors from URT in his/her own words and provide corresponding examples of unrelaxed behaviors; (3) give another individual appropriate feedback so that the other individual can correct himself/herself according to the 10 URT postures; and (4) observe, record, and assess another individual's performance of the 10 relaxed behaviors from URT by accurately using the Behavioral Relaxation Scale (BRS).
Activities: Verbal Behavior: Listen to a presentation regarding the physiological effects of relaxation, the history of using relaxation training to treat psychological and physical disorders, and Poppen's (1998) development of Behavioral Relaxation Training and the Behavioral Relaxation Scale. Labeling and Modeling: View a live demonstration of the 10 postures included in Upright Behavioral Relaxation Training (URT). Each relaxed posture will be labeled, described topographically, and demonstrated physically. Modeling and Imitation: Learn how to breathe diaphragmatically, then imitate the other nine relaxed behaviors of URT while viewing an instructor as a model. After each participant has proficiently demonstrated each posture separately, he/she will practice relaxing all 10 areas at the same time. Feedback: Practice silently while the instructors are giving each participant individual corrective feedback. Later, workshop participants will form pairs and alternate practicing URT and giving each other corrective feedback. Criterion Tests: Take URT Written Criterion Test; score one another's criterion test. Take BRS Written Criterion Test; score one another's criterion test. Assessment: Behavioral Relaxation Scale (BRS) scoring methodology will be explained and demonstrated. All observers, including the instructor, will simultaneously score the BRS for the model.
Audience: The target audience includes licensed psychologists and practitioners certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board at the doctoral (BCBA-D), master's (BCBA), or bachelor's (BCaBA) degree levels and who work with the following populations: clients with anxiety disorders, pain-related difficulties, or anger management problems; individuals with traumatic brain injury or developmental disabilities; persons exhibiting hyperactive or repetitive behaviors; clients exhibiting schizophrenic behaviors; and persons who experience an extreme amount of "stress." Professionals with a strong interest in behavioral medicine, clinical behavior analysis, family and child therapy, and/or health and fitness training will also benefit from attending this workshop.
Content Area: Methodology
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): mindfulness, relaxation, self-control, stress management
 
Workshop #W61
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Treating Children With Behavioral and Emotional Disorders: Integrating Emotional and Moral Behaviors to Promote Generalization
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W179b (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: CBM/DEV; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Jeannie A. Golden, Ph.D.
JEANNIE A. GOLDEN (East Carolina University)
Description: Traditional treatment for children with emotional and behavioral problems often follows the medical model with the assumption that behavioral symptoms are the result of underlying psychopathology. In contrast, behavior analysts conduct observations of behavior in a variety of settings to determine the effect of stimulus conditions and setting events, functional assessments to determine the causes and maintainers of behaviors, and careful analysis of learning histories to determine the efficacy of specific reinforcers and punishers. Behavioral treatment facilities for these children often use a contingency-based focus when teaching appropriate behavior that works well for managing children's behavior in a structured setting where individuals follow through with predictable contingencies. However, these children are often not prepared to function in a generalized setting where they are expected to respond to a relationship-based focus for dealing with problem behavior. Additionally, although they may have learned social, academic, and vocational skills, they may be lacking in emotional and moral skills. The presenter will discuss the impact that learning history has on current behavior and ways to develop effective behavioral treatments that are relationship-based and focus on emotional and moral skills. Case examples will be provided, along with opportunities to get feedback on the cases of participants.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) name several emotional and immoral behaviors of children and adolescents who are diagnosed with behavioral/emotional disorders, (2) tell how the learning histories of children diagnosed with behavioral/emotional disorders affect their emotional and moral behaviors, (3) describe several behavioral techniques that can be used to treat children diagnosed with behavioral/emotional disorders, (4) explain the limits of typical behavioral interventions and suggest alternative interventions that can be used to treat children diagnosed with behavioral/emotional disorders, and (5) describe how to apply these techniques to assist children diagnosed with behavioral/emotional disorders in professional settings.
Activities: Participants will listen to didactic information and real-life case histories in homes, schools, and community settings; take notes; ask questions; view a PowerPoint presentation; present their own cases for feedback; and participate in role-play situations.
Audience: Participants may include BACB certificants, licensed psychologists, counselors, health care providers, social workers, and/or teachers who serve children with developmental disabilities, or typically developing children who have emotional difficulties and/or have been given psychiatric diagnoses.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): EMOTIONAL BEHAVIORS, EMOTIONAL DISORDERS
 
Workshop #W62
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
CANCELED: A Contextual Model for Promoting Quality of Life in Elderly Persons With Dementia
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W184d (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Jane E. Fisher, Ph.D.
JANE E. FISHER (University of Nevada, Reno), CYNDY SOTO (University of Nevada, Reno), ALEXANDROS MARAGAKIS (University of Nevada, Reno), OLGA CIRLUGEA (University of Nevada, Reno), SUSAN LONGCHAMP (University of Nevada, Reno)
Description: Cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia produce devastating losses to the behavioral repertoires of older adults. Older adults with dementia are frequently under the care of family members, including spouses and adult children. Family caregivers of persons with dementia are faced with significant and frequent caregiving challenges as a result of the changes to the older adult's behavioral repertoire. This presentation will describe a contextual model for promoting the behavioral health and quality of life of persons with dementia and their family caregivers. Presenters will describe the application of behavior analysis strategies useful for working with elderly persons with dementia and their family caregivers. Recent research on factors that contribute to excess disability in older adults with dementia and strategies for detecting and preventing behavioral and cognitive decline due to reversible adverse events in older adults with dementia will be reviewed. The workshop will include videotaped examples to illustrate material. This will include examples of typical behaviors, possible caregiver responses, and demonstration of effective techniques.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) articulate current issues in the treatment of persons with dementia; (2) cite empirical evidence from pharmacological and psychosocial research supporting a restraint-free model of care;(3) identify assessment and treatment strategies consistent with a restraint-free, contextual model of care; and (4) describe the relevance of the contextual model for the use of psychotropic drugs in persons with dementia.
Activities: Workshop objectives will be met through a combination of lecture, video observation, and group discussion.
Audience: This workshop will appeal to a broad audience. Attendance will be appropriate for BACB certificants, licensed psychologists, and others who wish to gain exposure to the application of behavioral principles to the care of elderly persons with dementia.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Behavioral Monitoring, Caregiving, Dementia
 
Workshop #W63
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Responding to Ethical Dilemmas in Everyday Practice
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W175a (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Rebecca Thompson, Ph.D.
REBECCA THOMPSON (Wisconsin Early Autism Project, Inc.), MARY HOPTON-SMITH (Wisconsin Early Autism Project, Inc.)
Description: This intermediate-level workshop will provide participants with the opportunity to practice applying the BACB Guidelines for Responsible Conduct for Behavior Analysts to ethical dilemmas that arise in the everyday practice of applied behavior analysis. After briefly reviewing the BACB guidelines, participants will break up into small groups to review case scenarios, identify which guidelines are relevant to each scenario, and discuss how they would respond to the ethical dilemmas in each scenario. The small discussion groups will then report back to the entire group to compare their responses to each scenario. This workshop is intended to be interactive and assumes that participants are already familiar with the BACB Guidelines for Responsible Conduct for Behavior Analysts. The presenters will have case scenarios prepared for the workshop, but participants are also invited to come prepared with scenarios they would like to discuss with the group.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) describe each of the guidelines in the BACB Guidelines for Responsible Conduct for Behavior Analysts, (2)identify which guidelines are relevant to a specific ethical dilemma, and (3) describe responses to ethical dilemmas that are consistent with the BACB guidelines.
Activities: Workshop objectives will be met through guided practice and group discussion.
Audience: Licensed psychologists, BCBAs, BCaBAs, BCBA candidates, and ABA clinicians.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Ethics
 
Workshop #W64
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
A Novel Approach to Parent Training: Establishing Critical Discrimination and Responding Repertoires
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W175c (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: CSE/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Robert K. Ross, Ed.D.
STEVEN RIVERS (Beacon ABA Services), ROBERT K. ROSS (Beacon ABA Services), DENA SHADE-MONUTEAUX (Beacon ABA Services)
Description: Parent training procedures can often require significant hours of clinician time to develop and implement. Once target skills are acquired, the parents do not always demonstrate generalization of the skills across behavioral topographies. An analysis of parent repertoires suggests that what parents are lacking may be three critical skills. The first is the ability to reliably discriminate correct and incorrect responses (appropriate from inappropriate behavior). The second is the ability to identify what is and is not a reinforcing response to their child. Last is the ability to demonstrate the discrimination and performance response successively (discriminate when to deliver reinforcement and then the actual delivery or withholding of reinforcement under the discriminated conditions). This workshop uses a behavioral skills training approach to teach participants how to establish the critical discrimination repertoires and the performance repertoire necessary for parents to effectively manage challenging behavior, reinforce adaptive behavior and do it more critically, and respond to novel behavioral situations. In this model, parents are required to demonstrate the target discriminations across a wide range of adapted and problem behavior to competency prior to moving to the next treatment phase. Efficacy data will be presented, video exemplars will be shown, and sample materials will be provided to participants.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) describe critical parent discrimination skills associated with high levels of correct program implementation, (2) describe procedures to teach parents to correctly discriminate between adaptive/desired and maladaptive/undesired behaviors, and (3) develop examples of discrimination training repertoires for parents.
Activities: I. Introductions—background/service model II. Discussion points on the importance/relevance of parent training—(A) review of this training's main focus, (B) critical components of this training model (correct/incorrect, deliver/withhold), and (C) movement through phases contingent on performance for each phase of treatment III. Participant criteria—(A) parent's ability to participate in training session, (B) consent to be videotaped (potential for review), and (C) target behavior maintained by attention IV. Description of treatment phases of parent training model—(A) pre-test (baseline), (B) treatment conditions 1. phases 1–3, and (C) post-test V. Creation of interval data sheets for pre- and post-test phases VI. Creation of data sheets (step by step) for treatment phases—(A) identify target behavior(s) with definitions (for parents and staff) for reference, (B) list child/observer/date/phase/defined characteristics of phase, and (C) trial number, program, target, child/staff responses with definitions VII. Review/identify table-top activity for discrete trial training (DTT) VIII. Format of training sessions—(A) materials required (data sheets, writing instruments, token boards, clipboards, video camera, DTT materials, reinforcers), (B) pre-session set-up and discussions with parent, (C) in-vivo discussion (feedback and check-in regarding trial number), (D) trials conducted per session, and (E) post-session discussions IX. Review video exemplars X. Group role-play with practice data sheets XI. Material packet distribution XII. Data review of past participants (ease of use, rapid acquisition, reductions observed in target behavior) XIII. Questions/discussion
Audience: Practicing behavior analysts (including BACB certificants and licensed psychologists) who provide home-based services and struggle with changing the behavior of parents with respect to behavioral interventions and implementation of teaching procedures.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Discrimination Training, Parent Training
 
Workshop #W65
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Using Essential for Living: A Functional Skills Curriculum With the Essential Eight Skills and the Speaker Initiative
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W185a (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Patrick E. McGreevy, Ph.D.
PATRICK E. MCGREEVY (Patrick McGreevy, Ph.D., P.A. and Associates), TROY FRY (Patrick McGreevy, Ph.D., P.A. and Associates)
Description: Essential for Living is a communication, behavior, and functional skills assessment, curriculum, and professional practitioner's handbook for children and adults with moderate to severe disabilities, including autism. Dr. McGreevy will help participants to improve the quality of their instruction and behavior management by teaching the Essential Eight Skills and the steps and goals of the Speaker Initiative.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) describe when and how to teach must-have functional skills to learners with developmental disabilities; (2) select an alternative, primary method of speaking for non-verbal learners; (3) develop more functional IEPs and ISPs; and (4) measure and document small increments of learner progress.
Activities: Dr. McGreevy will describe the Essential Eight Skills, the Speaker Initiative, and other aspects of Essential for Living. He will also provide in-person and videotaped demonstrations, along with specific exercises for participants.
Audience: The target audience is behavior analysts, including BACB certificants; psychologists, teachers; residential coordinators; and speech-language pathologists.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W66
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Just Do What I Said! Using Performance Engineering to Improve Consultative Practice
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W176b (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: OBM/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Steven Celmer, M.A.
STEVEN CELMER (Virginia Commonwealth University), BLAKE GRIDER (Quality Behavior Solutions, Inc.)
Description: How many times have you been in a consultative relationship and given evidence-based recommendations that will benefit a client only to come back a few weeks later and find that hardly any of your recommendations have been completed? Is it because the employees have a poor work ethic? Or perhaps they've been poorly trained? While these would be easy excuses to make, the answer to these questions is almost always "no." The employees' performance is simply a product of their environment and the contingencies in place. In this workshop, participants will improve their consultative repertoire by learning how to analyze performance and deliberately "engineer" it to achieve their goals. Participants will be given scenarios and asked to pinpoint the environmental sources of poor performance, design solutions specifically tailored to address the case of the problem, and plan for evaluating the effectiveness of those interventions.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) evaluate whether a "performance issue" is worth pursuing within the context of overall consultative goals; (2) use a systematic method to identify the causes of performance issues as deficits in environmental accommodations, effective consequences, or skill training; (3) identify appropriate and tailored solutions that will address the core of performance issues; (4) decide which solutions will be the most practical to pursue given the specific consultative setting; and (5) decide upon measures of improvement to collect that will inform potential changes needed to improve intervention effectiveness and efficiency.
Activities: Workshop activities will include (1) presentation of core content through a blend of informative lecture and case studies and (2) practice with the presented analysis rubric through group evaluation of performance scenarios and discussion of participants' current performance-engineering projects.
Audience: This workshop will be of interest to individuals working in consultative roles in the fields of education and developmental disabilities, including BACB certificants and licensed psychologists. The workshop's primary focus is the professional whose role is to consult with others but who, due to this consultative position, has less control over organizational outcomes because of a lack of direct influence over clients. Examples and discussion will primarily revolve around consultation in educational settings.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Consultation, Developmental Disabilities, Education, Performance Management
 
Workshop #W67
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Acting Out: Learning BACB Ethics Through Interactive Teams
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W182 (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: R. Wayne Fuqua, Ph.D.
JON S. BAILEY (Florida State University), R. WAYNE FUQUA (Western Michigan University)
Description: For a professional to behave in an ethical fashion, she or he needs at least three skill sets: (1) familiarity with the ethical standards that are pertinent to her or his profession (e.g, the Behavior Analyst Certification Board's Guidelines for Responsible Conduct for Behavior Analysts); (2) skills in evaluating everyday professional activities to determine whether they comply with or violate ethical guidelines; and (3) problem-solving and communication skills to tactfully confront and effectively resolve real-world ethical challenges. This workshop will focus on the second and third of these skill sets. Using a team learning approach and real-life examples provided by workshop attendees, participants will develop, rehearse, and receive coaching on strategies to confront and resolve ethical challenges that they encounter in their professional practice. Participants should be prepared to describe an ethical challenge that they have encountered and to do so in a manner that protects the identify of those involved in the ethical issue.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) use the BACB ethics guidelines to evaluate real-world ethical challenges and develop strategies to manage ethical challenges, (2) use communication strategies and other techniques to resolve ethical dilemmas, and (3) evaluate and use constructive feedback from workshop leaders and attendees.
Activities: Working in teams of five to six, participants will identify an ethical challenge and develop a brief skit that depicts a strategy to confront and resolve that ethical challenge. Workshop leaders and other attendees will offer constructive suggestions to improve the efficacy and effectiveness of their efforts to resolve ethical challenges.
Audience: This workshop is designed primarily for practitioners who have BACB credentials and wish to (1) hone their skills to tactfully and effectively resolve ethical challenges and (2) acquire CEUs in the ethics domain as required for BACB recertification. Others, including licensed psychologists, who are interested in acquiring competence in applying BACB ethical guidelines to real-world challenges and resolving ethical challenges in practice and research are also encouraged to attend.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W68
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Teaching Good Learner Repertoires
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W181a (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: PRA/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Steven J. Ward, M.A.
STEVEN J. WARD (Whole Child Consulting LLC), TERESA A. GRIMES (Whole Child Consulting LLC)
Description: A variety of assessments and curricula address important skills, such as daily living skills, language, and academic repertoires. Some students progress very well through these curricula, and others do not. What are the differences between those students who learn efficiently and those who do not? The Inventory of Good Learner Repertoires (Ward, 2008) assesses the ways in which a student learns and, when paired with Teaching Good Learner Repertoires, guides teachers in individualized methods for developing strong learners. Participants in this workshop will learn to assess critical learner repertoires, to design and implement instruction on these repertoires, and to track student progress. Come and learn how to make your students easier to teach!
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) identify and assess learner repertoires for a student he or she knows; (2) gauge student effort, both subjectively and objectively; (3) select ideal targets for improving instructional efficiency; (4) use "dimensions grids" to isolate target repertoires; and (5) gather data on the development of learner repertoires and make appropriate programmatic decisions.
Activities: Lecture, video review, assessment of a specific learner with whom each participant is familiar, completion (and use) of "dimensions grids" to isolate target repertoires, and group case review.
Audience: This workshop is intended for experienced BCBAs, BCaBAs, licensed psychologists, and teachers/specialists with a background in behavioral teaching techniques.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): instructional efficiency, learner repertoires, prompt acceptance
 
Workshop #W69
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Self-Management for a Better Tomorrow
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W181c (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: PRA/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Ryan Lee O'Donnell, M.S.
MARK MALADY (Brohavior; HSI/WARC), RYAN LEE O'DONNELL (Brohavior), SCOTT A. MILLER (University of Nebraska Medical Center), ANITA LI (Florida Institute of Technology), MARC D'ANTIN (Brohavior), NICHOLE L DAVIS (
Lodestone Academy
), MICHAEL FANTETTI (Western New England University, Brohavior  ), ALISON SZARKO (University of Nevada, Reno)
Description: Self-management techniques are some of the strongest tools for achieving meaningful behavior change. Self-management can go from the personal level to the professional level and should be used by behavior analysts to facilitate effective behavior change across a wide range of phenomena. The current workshop aims to present the research foundation for using self-management in clinical practice and in daily life. Self-management techniques will be reviewed, and strategies for implementation to maintenance checks will be covered. The workshop will also teach learners how to recruit peers to assist in self-management projects, as well as to establish peer-support networks for projects. Participants will leave the workshop with new tools and at least five ideas for projects they can start and implement when they return to their natural environment.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participants will be able to (1) select and utilize self-management procedures across various learners, (2) troubleshoot breakdowns in self-management protocols, and (3) conceptually design self-management procedures from a behavioral viewpoint.
Activities: Instructional formats of this workshop include a plethora of Ignite-style presentations, discussion, and small group breakouts. Workshop objectives will be met through instruction and—via small group breakout—practice selecting personal targets, creating monitoring networks, covering graphical displays and change markers, and learning to use a daily per-minute standard celeration chart.
Audience: This workshop is suitable for practitioners (human service professionals, BACB certificants, licensed psychologists, and others) and students of behavior analysis.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Better Tomorrow, Real-World Change, Self-Management
 
Workshop #W70
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
BACB Experience Supervision: Preparing the Next Generation of Behavior Analysts
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W187ab (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: PRA/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Lisa N. Britton, Ph.D.
LISA N. BRITTON (Spectrum Center), AMY CRYE (Spectrum Center), THELMISHA VINCENT (Spectrum Center), KATE MATEO ASIS (Spectrum Center)
Description: The purpose of this workshop is to provide clarification and support to those who will be conducting BACB experience supervision and/or supervision of BCaBAs. This workshop has three main focus areas: (1) identifying the specific requirements for experience supervision outlined by the BACB, (2) discussing best practices in supervision within the human service industry, and (3) emphasizing the key elements of coaching and performance feedback in improving the skills of behavior analysts.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) state the specific requirements for experience supervision identified by the BACB, including timelines for implementation; (2) engage in a coaching/performance feedback scenario with a partner; and (3) provide feedback to others on their coaching/performance feedback skills.
Activities: This workshop will incorporate a combination of instructional strategies including didactic delivery of information, guided notes, videos, discussion, and role-plays to practice key concepts.
Audience: The target audience for this workshop includes BCBA and BCBA-D practitioners who are providing BACB experience supervision to others preparing for careers in behavior analysis.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W71
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Cultural Competence in Delivering ABA to Military Service Members, Veterans, and Their Families
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W187c (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: PRA/TPC; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Kent Corso, Psy.D.
KENT CORSO (NCR Behavioral Health, LLC)
Description: This workshop delves deeply into military and veteran culture in order to help behavior analysts and assistant behavior analysts develop interventions that reflect client preferences, and carry social validity for this population. The workshop will cover the range of clinical problems currently experienced by military service members and veterans, with particular attention to how the experience of serving relates to these clinical sequelae. Attendees will learn about military values, terms, acronyms, and expressions and how to apply this knowledge to improve their understanding of the military and veteran cultural frame of reference (i.e., reinforcement history). Finally, attendees will learn how to practice with family members in a culturally competent manner, which has particular importance for those working with spouses or children of military members (e.g.,TRICARE ECHO Autism Demonstration Program). Attendees may earn three ethics continuing education units for BACB certificants and/or licensed psychologists.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) define terms that are frequently used in military and veteran culture, (2) list the values that are widely embraced by military service members and veterans, (3) list specific methods of delivering applied behavior analysis that reflect military and veteran cultural values, (4) explain the behavioral etiology of many of the current post-deployment symptoms, and (5) describe specific actions behavior analysts and assistant behavior analysts can take to practice in a culturally competent way when working in the TRICARE ECHO Autism Demonstration Program.
Activities: Instructional strategies consist of didactic lecture, video presentation, discussion, and small group breakouts to apply the didactic information.
Audience: Behavior analysts (master's and doctoral level), assistant behavior analysts, and licensed psychologists who work within the TRICARE ECHO Autism Demonstration Program; anyone wishing to pursue work with this population; and those who desire ethics continuing education credits.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): autism, cultural competence, ethics, military/veteran
 
Workshop #W72
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
On Becoming Fully Verbal
Saturday, May 24, 2014
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
W183a (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: VRB/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Gladys Williams, Ph.D.
GLADYS WILLIAMS (Centro de Investigacion y Ensenanza del Lenguaje), RICHARD E. LAITINEN (Self-employed)
Description: The purpose of this workshop is to walk through the hierarchy of language acquisition. Research has shown that basic prerequisites greatly enhance an individual's ability to develop functional language. These skills include discriminating voices, face recognition, eye contact, and visual tracking. In this workshop we will provide an overview of the teaching procedures designed to develop an echoic repertoire and strengthen observational learning. We will discuss several strategies developed to bring vocal emissions under stimulus control. A strong repertoire of tacts is the core of conversation. This discussion will include some basic strategies for teaching tacts as well as a detailed outline of the rapid tacting protocol. In addition, we will teach the steps to develop the skills required to sequence events, structure conversations, and relay stories. In discussing the specific procedures we will highlight their importance in increasing an individual's tact repertoire. Building on that knowledge, we will introduce a structure for gradually increasing the sophistication and complexity of language with the goal of becoming fully verbal.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, the participant will be able to (1) describe the basic protocols of prerequisite skills, (2) describe strategies designed to teach echoics, (3) describe strategies designed to teach tacts, (4) describe the role of secondary verbal operants, and (5) describe a hierarchy of complex language.
Activities: Instructional strategies include lecture, discussion, and small group activities.
Audience: This workshop is appropriate for BACB certificants, licensed psychologists, behavior analysts, teachers, consultants, ABA therapists, administrators, speech-language pathologists, and school personnel.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): functional communication, language, prerequisite skills, social competence
 
Special Event #8
CE Offered: BACB
Society for the Advancement of Behavior Analysis Awards
Saturday, May 24, 2014
11:30 AM–12:50 PM
W375e (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): SABA Awards
Chair: Kurt Salzinger (Hofstra University)
CE Instructor: Kurt Salzinger, Ph.D.
 

SABA Award for Distinguished Service to Behavior Analysis: On Some Ways to Have a Behavior Analyst or Two

Abstract:

On behalf of all of us working to develop behavior analysis throughout Europe, Dr. Hughes said it is his great honor to accept this award. He said he has been lucky enough to work with a host of talented and motivated colleagues from all over the globe who have shared the common goal and value of promoting behavior analysis. In the United Kingdom, they focused on developing training programs that will build a critical mass of competent behavior analysts who are able to contribute across a number of areas to help improve lives. In 2003, Dr. Hughes and Dr. Steve Noone started the first BCBA accredited course in ABA in Europe at Bangor University. The course currently enrolls about 60 students a year, and now 18 similar courses across Europe are training the next generation of behavior analysts. The BACB was an important catalyst to this growth, and Dr. Jerry Shook in particular was instrumental in supporting the efforts in Europe. In this talk, Dr. Hughes describe the conditions that helped bring this about, some of the lessons they learned, and thank some of the people who helped make this happen. Behavior change has become the buzzword for politicians, policymakers, and nonbehavioral psychologists. Recently, Dr. Hughes received almost $3 million (U.S.) in funding from the Welsh European Funding Office to develop the Wales Centre for Behaviour Change. The center will bring together designers, sustainability expertise, neuroscientists, behavioral economists, and crucially, behavior analysts. This represents an exciting area for behavior analysis. However, behavior analysts remain in the minority, and there is much still to do. If we are to continue to grow we must work together, clarify and communicate our values and mission, be nice (especially to those who do not share our perspective), and think bigger in terms of where behavior analysis can have influence, Dr. Hughes wrote.

 
J. CARL HUGHES (Bangor University)
Dr. J. Carl Hughes, BCBA-D, is senior lecturer and consultant behavior analyst at the School of Psychology, Bangor University, Wales, and director of the MSc in Applied Behavior Analysis and the Wales Centre for Behaviour Change. He is also the deputy head for teaching and learning of the College for Health and Behavioural Science. He studied for his BSc in psychology in 1993 and obtained his Ph.D. in behavior analysis and verbal behavior in 2000, following which he took a teaching fellowship at the School of Psychology teaching behavior analysis to psychology students. In 2003, he and colleagues started the first BCBA accredited MSc in applied behavior analysis program in Europe. The program now enrolls more than 60 master’s degree students each year. In 1998, Dr. Hughes took over the organization of the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour Group, UK and Europe (EABG), the longest standing organization devoted to behavior analysis in Europe. Dr. Hughes is a founder and active member of the European Association of Behaviour Analysis, an organization that aims to promote the dissemination and training in behavior analysis across Europe. Dr. Hughes was also on the inaugural board of the newly founded UK-Society for Behaviour Analysis (UK-SBA), the first membership-based body aimed at promoting behavior analysis in the UK. Dr. Hughes has more than 30 peer-reviewed publications in several journals including the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, the European Journal of Behavior Analysis, the American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Behavior Modification, and the Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. Dr. Hughes is an elected adviser for the Cambridge Centre for Behavioral Studies. Dr. Hughes has a number of research interests, including effective teaching methods, behavioral measurement, early behavioral intervention programs, reading instruction, and verbal behavior.
 

SABA Award for International Dissemination of Behavior Analysis: Effecting Social Change in Georgia by Applying Behavior Analysis

Abstract:

Georgia was a Soviet Republic from 1924 to 1991, the birthplace of Joseph Stalin and of Eduard Shevardnadze. The Soviet Union’s collapse threw Georgia into civil war and, eventually, a break from Russian influence. Introducing applied behavior analysis in Georgia in 1997 resulted from an invitation to teach “modern Western” clinical psychology at Tbilisi State University. Our clinical training was behavioral, and our Kansas Ph.D.’s supervised by Donald Baer, with influence from Risley, Wolf, Sherman, Sheldon, Spradlin, and Morris, prepared us to apply behavior analysis in its widest sense to systems, organizations, programs, training, and individuals. Teaching ABA Practicum led us to institutions where children languished without proper care, food, or education. We saw a need, we had the knowledge and skills, and we had to challenge and change the system at government, university, and grass-roots levels. Courageous Georgian colleagues and cooperation of other organizations helped overcome hurdles. The closure of institutions, the emergence of inclusive education, the training of foster parents, caregivers, and teachers, and the support of families with children with special needs all required ABA skills, which we provided. The future is in the hands of a new generation of Georgian psychologists keen to apply behavior analysis widely and effectively.

 
BARRY S. PARSONSON (Applied Psychology International), JaneMary Castelfranc-Allen Rawls (Applied Psychology International)
Barry Parsonson received his master’s degree and post-graduate diploma from the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. Following this, he gained an assistant professorship at Waikato University in New Zealand and established an ABA-focused clinical program in 1973. Donald Baer supervised his Ph.D. in 1977 at Kansas. Later, they co-authored several book chapters on analyzing graphed data. Dr. Parsonson served as department chair and faculty dean at Waikato University and is a past president of the New Zealand Psychological Society. Dr. Parsonson and Dr. JaneMary Castelfranc-Allen established the Children of Georgia NGO after teaching ABA theory and practice in the former Soviet Georgia in 1997-99, and discovering abandoned and disabled children in terrible institutional conditions. A SABA International Development Grant in 2000 funded advanced ABA training and a manual introducing ABA. A revised edition has been translated as an introductory university text. For more than 15 years, Dr. Parsonson and Dr. Castelfranc-Allen have taught and promoted ABA in Georgia and now proudly see ABA practitioners there who are completing BCBA qualifications.  
 

SABA Award for Enduring Programmatic Contributions to Behavior Analysis: Integration of Behavioral and Pharmacological Methods in the Study and Treatment of Substance Use

Abstract:

For more than 35 years, the Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit (BPRU) at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine has been a leading clinical research and research training program applying behavior analysis methods to the study and treatment of substance use. BPRU research has used the perspective and methodology of behavior analysis to study substance use and abuse as operant behavior that is influenced and/or controlled by its context and consequences. Human laboratory studies have examined the discriminative and reinforcing effects of drugs, examining influences on drug self-administration, choice behavior, and other indices of drug abuse liability. Outpatient therapeutic trials have integrated incentive-based behavior therapies with pharmacotherapies to assess their individual and interactive contributions to outcome. The most enduring contribution of the BPRU program is from its National Institutes of Health-supported postdoctoral research training program. With more than 100 graduates, the program has provided a research training and scientific productivity foundation for subsequent generations of scientists in the substance use and human behavioral pharmacology fields. This presentation will summarize and illustrate several areas of research from BPRU’s history.

 
GEORGE BIGELOW (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
George E. Bigelow, Ph.D., is a professor of behavioral biology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, where he is director of the Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit (BPRU) and director of its postdoctoral research training program on the human behavioral pharmacology of substance abuse. His graduate and postdoctoral training was in experimental psychology and psychopharmacology at the University of Minnesota. Dr. Bigelow’s research has focused on the determinants and consequences of human drug self-administration, and on the use of behavior analysis methods in the study and treatment of substance abuse. His research has included many self-administered and abused substances--alcohol, tobacco, heroin, cocaine, and others--and has included controlled human laboratory research demonstrating drugs functioning as reinforcers and the controllability of drug self-administration by its consequences, as well as outpatient clinical trials of incentive-based behavior therapies both alone and when integrated with pharmacotherapies. He, Roland Griffiths and Maxine Stitzer have worked together for nearly four decades in leading the Hopkins/BPRU research and training program, in applying behavior analysis principles and methods to the study and treatment of substance use, and in training the next generations of clinical research scientists in this area.
 

SABA Award for International Publication

Abstract:

Forthcoming.

 
KRISTINE PIOCH (ABAI)
Forthcoming.
 
Target Audience:

Psychologists, behavior analysts, graduate students, and anyone interested in learning about the winner of the SABA Award for International Publication.

Learning Objectives: Forthcoming.
 
Keyword(s): SABA Awards
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #9
CE Offered: PSY/BACB

What's The Motivation?

Saturday, May 24, 2014
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
W180 (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AAB; Domain: Service Delivery
Instruction Level: Basic
CE Instructor: Steve Martin, None
Chair: Susan G. Friedman (Utah State University)
STEVE MARTIN (Natural Encounters, Inc.)
Steve Martin has been a master falconer for more than 45 years, a parrot trainer for 50 years, and began his professional animal-training career when he set up the first-of-its-kind, free-flight, educational bird show at the San Diego Wild Animal Park in 1976. Since then, he has produced or consulted on educational bird shows at more than 80 facilities in 15 countries. In 1984, Mr. Martin began teaching the science of behavior change to animal keepers at zoos and aquariums to enhance the husbandry, medical care, and enrichment of exhibit animals. He has now served as an animal behavior consultant for more than 50 zoological facilities in more than 20 countries. He also has served as a core team member of the California Condor Recovery Team. Currently, he currently an instructor at the Association of Zoos and Aquariums' Animal Training School; an instructor at the Elephant Training and Management School in Hamburg, Germany; a trustee with the World Parrot Trust; and president of Natural Encounters, Inc. (NEI), a company of more than 30 professional animal trainers. He earned his certification as a professional bird trainer and continues to teach workshops for professional animal trainers at the NEI training facility in Florida.
Abstract:

In this presentation, the construct of motivation will be explored. A motivated animal is operationalized as one who engages in the training dialogue with quick response to discriminative stimuli. Historically, force and coercion were the tools used to motivate animals in zoological settings. Fortunately, those methods are being replaced with more positive approaches. But, even with the current groundswell of positive reinforcement training in zoos, much mythology and poor training practices surround the need to motivate animals. These include putting the blame on the animal, misrepresenting scientific principals, as well as lowering animals' weights to unacceptable levels. Mr. Martin's experience has shaped a training technology, based on antecedent arrangement and positive reinforcement that allows him to successfully work with highly empowered animals. This success depends on approaches such as sensitive reading of body language, high rates of reinforcement, and clear communication of criteria. With these approaches, welfare is increased as animals learn to use their behavior more effectively.

Target Audience:

Behavior analysts working with or interested in animals in any training or management capacity.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants should be able to (1) Describe three skills in arranging the environment to make the target behavior easier for the animal to perform; (2)  List three ways to increase motivation in animals without reducing the animal's weight to unhealthy levels; (3) Observe and describe at least one antecedent stimulus or condition to account for poor animal performance so as not to place blame on the animal; and (4) Explain the effective use of conditional reinforcers in association with back-up reinforcers to reinforce desirable behavior.
Keyword(s): animal behavior, antecedent stimuli, motivation, training
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #10
CE Offered: PSY/BACB

Pushing the Envelope: Just How Early can we Identify Anomalous Development in ASD?

Saturday, May 24, 2014
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
W375e (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Instruction Level: Basic
CE Instructor: Jennifer N. Fritz, Ph.D.
Chair: Jennifer N. Fritz (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
PAULINE A. FILIPEK (The University of Texas Health Science Center)
Dr. Pauline A. Filipek is a professor of pediatrics in the Children's Learning Institute (CLI) and Division of Child and Adolescent Neurology at the University of Texas Health Sciences Center in Houston. She received her B.S. and M.D. from Georgetown University; and she completed a pediatric residency (including chief residency) at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center in Worcester and a child neurology fellowship and MRI-based Morphometry Fellowship at Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School. She was recruited to the Children's Learning Institute because of her expertise in clinical and research aspects of children with autistic spectrum disorders and is the director of the CLI's Autism Center. Although her clinical practice is open to children of all ages with autistic spectrum disorders, her specific clinical and research interests surround the earliest identification of warning signs for autism and related disorders in very young infants, even before the first birthday. Dr. Filipek also is the ambassador for Texas to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Learn the Signs. Act Early. Initiative and recently received the Texas Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems (ECCS) and the Texas Autism State Planning grants, both from Health Resources and Services Administration.
Abstract:

The earliest identification of atypical development among very young infants at risk for a later diagnosis of an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is important to facilitate the earliest possible intervention. Existing literature generally presents that anomalous development is not identifiable until the end of the first year of life. However, this is discordant with clinical anecdotes supporting the premise that, in at least some infants, consistent anomalous behaviors may be identified very early, as early as at ages 3-6 months or even before, that may reliably predict an eventual determination of ASD. Dr. Filipek will first present the course of typical development in the first year of life through video segments to focus on the development of social communication as the hallmark target of atypical development. The existing literature pertaining to findings of anomalous development in the first year of life will be briefly reviewed, with specific attention to study designs focusing on infants who are or are not "at risk" versus infants who eventually are or are not diagnosed with ASD. The newest findings will be presented to document the existence of anomalous development as early as at 3 months of age.

Target Audience:

Psychologists, behavior analysts, graduate students, and anyone interested in autism.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants should be able to (1) Discuss the more “subtle” aspects of infant development, particularly those of social communication; (2) Identify signs of anomalous development in very young infants; and (3) Discuss the existing literature pertaining to identification of early signs of ASD in very young infants.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #13
CE Offered: BACB

Rocky Waters or Smooth Sailing: Student-Teacher Relationships and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Saturday, May 24, 2014
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
W196b (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Jan Blacher, Ph.D.
Chair: Florence D. DiGennaro Reed (The University of Kansas)
JAN BLACHER (University of California, Riverside)
Jan Blacher is a distinguished professor of education and the University of California presidential chair at the University of California, Riverside. She holds a Ph.D. in special education/developmental pychology from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Dr. Blacher is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disability, the American Association on Mental Retardation, and the American Psychological Association. She has an international reputation for her research in autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities, and she has published widely in these areas. Her work has examined the effects of out-of-home placement on children and young adults, family functioning when a child has a disability, and the impact of diagnosis, assessment, services, and coping in Latino children and families. Dr. Blacher has two current lines of research, both supported by external funding. One line of research, funded by the Institute for Education Sciences, examines factors affecting transition to school for young children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. A second line, funded by the National Institute on Child Health and Human Development, examines familial relationships when a child has a diagnosis of intellectual delay.
Abstract:

Inclusive school settings for young children with autism spectrum disorder are increasingly the norm. However, we know little about how to ensure a successful transition from early intervention to public or nonpublic schooling. All too often disputes about where and how a child with ASD will be placed when beginning school lead to mediation, fair hearings, or even court. It is important to obtain empirical evidence on aspects of the classroom, the teacher, the family, and the child that could affect these placement decisions and maximize a successful transition. This presentation will draw on data from two longitudinal studies (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Institute of Education Sciences) that specifically address the role of student-teacher-relationships (STRs) in positive school outcomes for children with ASD. Predictors of STRs will be identified for children with ASD as well as for two comparison groups (typically developing children and children with intellectual disabilities). For the ASD group, the role of parent involvement and parent-teacher-relationships in determining STRs also will be highlighted. New data on the role of STRs, child characteristics, and parenting behaviors in children's emergent literacy skills will be discussed, and implications for school practices identified.

Keyword(s): ASD, Parental involvement, School transition
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #14
CE Offered: PSY/BACB

Leadership Seminar: Culture Change in a Medical School: The Role of Behavioral Assessments

Saturday, May 24, 2014
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
W190a (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Instruction Level: Basic
CE Instructor: Thomas L. Schwenk, M.D.
Chair: Lori H. Diener-Ludwig (Zimmet Group)
THOMAS L. SCHWENK (University of Nevada School of Medicine), Melissa Piasecki (University of Nevada School of Medicine), Timothy Baker (University of Nevada School of Medicine)
Thomas L. Schwenk, M.D., is a professor of family medicine, dean of the University of Nevada School of Medicine, and vice president for Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno. Before this role, he was chair of the Department of Family Medicine at the University of Michigan for 25 years. He earned a bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering and an M.D. from the University of Michigan, and trained in family medicine, including a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Faculty Development Fellowship, at the University of Utah. He is board-certified in family medicine and sports medicine. His research primarily focuses on the care of depression and mental illness in primary care. His more recent work has addressed the issue of depression in special populations, including medical students and physicians. He served on the board of the American Board of Family Medicine and was elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies in 2002.
Abstract:

The nature of clinical practice, biomedical research, and medical education in a medical school rewards independent, entrepreneurial, risk-taking behavior by its faculty. These behaviors, while successful in many regards, also result in a fragmented, nonhierarchical, “flat” faculty structure and culture that is somewhat peculiar to medical schools. These cultural forces have been magnified at the University of Nevada School of Medicine (UNSOM) by years of economic and political assaults that left UNSOM with a particularly high level of disengagement, reduced faculty satisfaction anda highly centralized leadership structure that disempowered department chairs and detracted from faculty ownership and investment in UNSOM missions. The speakers will describe strategies used to assess and transform the culture of UNSOM using behavioral systems approaches in order to adapt to changing social demands on the organization (e.g., culturally competent physicians and community engagement). The goals are greater faculty engagement, an emphasis on faculty career development, explicit commitments to achieving individual career and institutional objectives, more decentralized leadership, and a focus on communication, investment, accountability, transparency, and partnership. The use of behavioral assessments will drive socially significant practices within and external to the organization.

Target Audience:

Psychologists, behavior analysts, graduate students and anyone interested in how a culture can be changed by behavior analysis.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the event, participants should be able to (1) Describe the unique characteristics of medical school culture from a behavioral systems perspective; (2) Identify a behavioral analytic approach to assess faculty attitudes; and (3) Discuss the application of a relational response measure for implicit bias in medical students and opportunities for curricular intervention. 
Keyword(s): education, leadership, Leadership Seminar
 
 
Symposium #19
CE Offered: BACB
Encouraging the Emergence of Advanced Language Skills: Contemporary Approaches to Teaching Complex Language Skills to Individuals with ASD
Saturday, May 24, 2014
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
W185d (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: VRB/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Ashley Shayter (Southern Illinois University)
CE Instructor: Jacob H. Daar, M.A.
Abstract:

Verbal Behavior approaches to language acquisition have primarily focused on the basic operants described by Skinner. Despite the utility of these conceptualizations in establishing functional communication skills in individuals with ASD and other language delays, difficulties in applying the concepts of mands, tacts, echoics, and intraverbals to more complex language have been observed. While Skinner's own analysis of verbal behavior extended beyond these four concepts, few training protocols include the more advanced conceptualizations included in Skinner's analysis. Furthermore, the now traditional Skinnerian approaches to verbal behavior therapy generally fail to include contemporary behavior analytic approaches to verbal behavior such as rule-governance and arbitrarily applicable relational responding. The present symposium seeks to extend current training and assessment trends beyond the basic verbal operants with investigations into contextually controlled relational classes to train responses to "WH" questions, to examine the utility of establishing perspective-taking frames, and to analyze the validity and reliability of assessments and training curriculums that incorporate Skinner's other verbal concepts. Specific emphasis will be placed on how these approaches affect treatment outcomes, such as generativity and flexibility, in children with ASD.

Keyword(s): autism, language, verbal behavior, Wh Questions
 

Establishing Social Skills in Autism through Derived Relational Responding

SAMANTHA BRODERICK (Student), Timothy M. Weil (University of South Florida), Jeffrey Oliver (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

Establishing social skills in Autism through perspective-taking is a pivotal behavioral repertoire essential for social interaction and basic reciprocity. These behavioral deficits are the hallmark of Autism Spectrum Disorder and can greatly impact the development of meaningful relationships. Mainstream cognitive developmental literature asserts that the social impairments characteristic of ASD result from an underlying inability to appreciate the viewpoint of others due to biological impairments; however, recent advancements in the behavioral analysis of language and cognition under the rubric of Relational Frame Theory have led to the development of a language based view of perspective-taking based on establishing deictic relational responding in typically developing children. Individuals with autism perform with less accuracy on this protocol, the scores of which correlate with some aspects of social functioning. This paper will present a functional contextual method of training perspective-taking as an alternative to the nativist model of Theory of Mind and discuss its implications for addressing a number of social behavioral deficits present in autism.

 

Who, What, and Where; A contextual approach to teaching "Wh" questions to children with ASD.

JACOB H. DAAR (Southern Illinois University ), Stephanie Negrelli (Southern Illinois University ), Angelina Perdikaris (Southern Illinois University ), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

Criticisms of the verbal behavior approach to language acquisition therapy have often centered on the narrow and non-generalized repertoires produced by such trainings. In particular, the difficulty with which children acquire more complex language skills, such as those necessary to respond to non-polar interrogative questions, i.e. "Wh" questions, is an indication that the common methods used to teach these skills does not adequately convey the necessary relational or contextual functions required to form generalized responding. The present paper will review deficits in the general verbal behavior therapy approach to teaching "Wh" questions, provide a conceptualization of responding to such questions from a contextual behavioral approach, and provide a paradigm for teaching generalized responding to interrogative questions that involves the application of contextually controlled equivalence classes of noun-word and community associations. Related treatment data gathered while working with children diagnosed with ASD will be presented. Implications for future research and limitations of this approach will be discussed.

 

On the Relationship between the PEAK Relational Training System and Standardized Measures of IQ

KYLE ROWSEY (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

The Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge Relational Training System (PEAK) is an assessment and curriculum protocol which utilizes behavior analytic principles to train academic, social, and daily living skills. The PEAK program is based on research in behavior analysis and includes technologies ranging from basic developmental skills to Skinner's Verbal Behavior to modern approaches to language such as Stimulus Equivalence and Relational Frame Theory. PEAK is designed to be used with children and adults with a wide variety of functional capabilities ranging from skills required to begin the learning process to advanced language and social skills. The current study sought to investigate the relationship between scores on the PEAK Assessment and the IQ scores of individuals with developmental disabilities. Participants were administered both the PEAK Assessment and IQ tests and results were compared. The results indicated a significant, positive correlation between scores on the PEAK Assessment and the IQ scores of participants.

 
 
Symposium #20
CE Offered: BACB
Analysis of Verbal Generative Repertoires and Promising Instructional Intervention Models
Saturday, May 24, 2014
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
W185bc (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: VRB/TPC; Domain: Theory
Chair: Marta Leon (Headsprout)
CE Instructor: Andresa A. De Souza, M.S.
Abstract:

Everyday activities as well as great creative achievements such as those that occur in science, mathematics, and art arise from complex repertoires. Generativity and language-pervading topics in areas such as psychology and education-often lie at the heart of both everyday activities and more complex, novel performances. Within behavior analysis, a multitude of studies has derived tool and component skills that should be established in order to arrive at terminal desired performances, such as holding a conversation, reading and comprehending complex written materials, thinking mathematically, and conducting scientific experiments. Analysis of the components can also suggest promising instructional interventions for developing these terminal repertoires. This symposium will present an analysis of components involved in verbal behaviors described in the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS) and in mathematical thinking. These components will be classified in terms of the learning type model developed by Tiemann and Markle (1990) and further refined by Layng (2005, 2007). Additionally, based on these analyses and on the research literature, suggestions for teaching these different verbal and generative repertoires will be offered.

Keyword(s): instructional interventions, language generativity, learning types
 

ABLLS Verbal Repertoires and their Classification According to Types of Learning

ANDRESA A. DE SOUZA (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Ana Carolina Sella (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Nicole M. Rodriguez (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract:

Service providers for children with autism and other developmental disabilities rely on behavioral assessments to determine not only clients initial repertoires, but also to develop effective treatment. The ABLLS is among the behavioral assessments that are used frequently by professionals to evaluate existing repertoires and support treatment decisions in terms of target behavior choices. This conceptual paper will present an analysis and classification of different verbal repertoires that are defined in the ABLLS according to the different Types of Learning described by Sota, Leon, and Layng (2011) and Tiemann and Markle (1990). The ABLLS areas that will be analyzed and classified include receptive language, vocal imitation, requests, labeling, intraverbals, and syntax and grammar. Within each one of these areas, tasks will be classified according to the following general Types of Learning: psychomotor, simple cognitive, and complex cognitive. Each one of these Types of Learning will be subdivided into more specific categories, and these categories will be operationally defined as a means to develop systematic criteria for classifying the different target verbal behaviors. Additionally, we hope to provide a tool that can be used for the analysis and classification of other verbal behaviors not directly addressed in this analysis.

 

Language-Teaching Best Practices and Types of Learning: An Analysis of ABLLS Verbal Repertoires

ANA CAROLINA SELLA (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Andresa A. De Souza (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Nicole M. Rodriguez (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract:

The search for evidence-based practices to teach language for children on the autism spectrum is a growing endeavor given the number of children who are diagnosed each year. Suggestions regarding best practices for teaching language to children with autism and other developmental disabilities can be found in a myriad of scientific articles, newsletters, blogs, among other means of communication; however, only a few practices are evidence-based. The choice between different language-teaching procedures depend on the clients existing repertoire, the amount of time and resources available, and the terminal goals described in individualized educational plans. Once terminal repertoires are described, it is necessary to match teaching procedure choices to student needs. The different types of learning described in the instructional design literature can provide guidelines on how to make choices among existing language teaching procedures, since they point to stimulus-stimulus and stimulus-response relations that need to be taught. This conceptual paper will propose practices for teaching receptive language, vocal imitation, requests, labeling, intraverbals, and syntax and grammar based on (a) the literature on language teaching evidence-based practices and (b) an analysis and classification of ABLLS verbal repertoires according to the types of learning.

 

What Does It Mean to Think Mathematically and How Can These Skills Be Developed?

MELINDA SOTA (University of Oregon)
Abstract:

Proficiency in mathematics entails much more than being fluent in math facts and procedures for solving equations. Proficiency involves thinking mathematically, and includes a number of component skills that span a variety of learning types. Designing instruction to help learners develop the full range of components that make up mathematical proficiency can be challenging. This presentation will discuss an analysis of mathematical proficiency based on the K-8 Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and the National Research Councils report Adding It Up. This analysis will be presented in terms of the learning type model developed by Tiemann and Markle (1990) and further refined by Layng (2005, 2007) and discussed with a focus on mathematical thinking as verbal behavior. Suggestions and considerations for the design of math instruction based on this analysis and incorporating what we know from research on learning and performancefor example, problem solving, stimulus equivalence, and the development and transfer of stimulus controlwill be presented.

 
 
Symposium #21
CE Offered: BACB
Refining Function-based Interventions for Practical Implementation
Saturday, May 24, 2014
1:00 PM–2:50 PM
W187c (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Eileen M. Roscoe (The New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University)
CE Instructor: Eileen Roscoe, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Function-based interventions, such as differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), are often found successful in treating problem behavior when implemented at full integrity. However, intervention effects may not maintain when treatment integrity is impaired. This symposium will include four papers on procedural refinements of function-based intervention components to enhance practical implementation. The author of the first paper will describe an evaluation comparing two differential reinforcement schedules and a fading procedure for treating automatically reinforced stereotypy. In the second paper, the author will present data on a multiple-schedule procedure for establishing stimulus control over stereotypy. The author of the third paper will describe an evaluation of demand fading without extinction, with and without DRA, for treating escape-maintained problem behavior. In the forth paper, the author will describe a comparison of different stimuli in the context of a multiple-schedule thinning procedure for attention-maintained problem behavior. Gregory Hanley, who will serve as discussant for this symposium, will comment on the symposiums topic area, integrate the speakers contributions, and offer feedback on the presented papers.

Keyword(s): autism, DRA, fading, problem behavior
 

An Evaluation of Differential Reinforcement Procedures for Treating Automatically Reinforced Stereotypy

CHELSEA HEDQUIST (The New England Center for Children), Eileen M. Roscoe (The New England Center for Children), Amanda Verriden (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract:

Children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often exhibit stereotypy that can be socially stigmatizing and interfere with learning objectives. Although differential reinforcement procedures have been found effective for treating stereotypy, they are often combined with multiple treatment components, making it difficult to determine their independent effects. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate two differential reinforcement interventions, differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), when they are implemented independently. Two individuals with an ASD diagnosis, who exhibited high levels of motor stereotypy, participated. In all conditions, task materials required for completing an educationally relevant task were present. No reinforcement baseline, DRA, and DRO conditions were evaluated using multielement and reversal designs. Results indicated DRA was more effective than DRO for decreasing motor stereotypy, increasing productivity, and increasing engagement for both participants. Systematic schedule fading was implemented for one participant. Interobserver agreement data were collected for over 33% of sessions and averaged at least 80%

 

Developing Stimulus Control over Stereotypic Behavior within a Multiple Schedule

BRITTANY CATHERINE PUTNAM (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee), Jeffrey H. Tiger (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Abstract:

Self-stimulatory play is problematic when it competes with acquisition of important learning activities; however such play will be non-problematic if it occurs during other times. In the current study, home care staff brought the self-stimulatory sock play of a 10-year-old boy with autism under stimulus control by arranging a multiple schedule. During continuous reinforcement periods, signaled by the presentation of a bracelet the subject wore, sock play would be allowed; during extinction periods, signaled by the removal of the bracelet, sock play was manually disrupted. The durations of these components were faded such that sessions consisted of 1 min of reinforcement and 10 min of extinction with low levels of attempted sock play during extinction periods.

 

Evaluation of Demand Fading without Extinction

Brittany Rothe (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Jennifer N. Fritz (University of Houston-Clear Lake), JELISA SCOTT (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Trena M. Rouse (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract:

Demand fading without extinction was evaluated for children with problem behavior maintained by social negative reinforcement. Initially, demands were eliminated and gradually reintroduced across sessions, and problem behavior continued to produce reinforcement in the form of a break from tasks. If demand fading without extinction was ineffective in suppressing problem behavior, differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) was added to treatment. Results suggest that extinction was not a necessary component of demand fading, and DRA plus demand fading without extinction was an effective alternative when demand fading alone did not suppress problem behavior.

 

Using Natural Stimuli as a Signal for Reinforcement during Functional Communication Training

AGUSTIN JIMENEZ (California State University, Los Angeles), Michele D. Wallace (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract:

Functional communication training (FCT) is a widely used and successful intervention for treating problem behavior. However, the intervention may be limited when implemented in natural contexts (e.g., family home) because high rates of communicative responding may occur, which can compromise treatment integrity. The current study extended previous work on the effects of a FCT intervention and schedule thinning procedure implemented in clients daily environments. Specifically, this study evaluated the effectiveness of using natural versus artificial stimuli associated with multiple-schedule components for thinning the schedule of reinforcement. Results demonstrated that both types of multiple schedules were effective for thinning schedules of reinforcement to clinically relevant levels. Artificial stimuli were found to be more effective than natural stimuli for reinforcement schedule thinning for one participant, whereas no discernible difference was observed with the second participant. Follow up phases demonstrated that results were upheld over brief periods of time (i.e., 3 weeks) without intervention.

 
 
Symposium #22
CE Offered: BACB
Mind Full or Mindful?: Exploring and Facilitating Mindfulness and Present Moment Processes
Saturday, May 24, 2014
1:00 PM–2:50 PM
W179b (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Emily Allen (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)
Discussant: Ann Rost (Missouri State University)
CE Instructor: Ann Rost, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Mindfulness is generally defined as the non-judgmental attentive awareness of the present moment. Practicing mindfulness results in significant improvements to both mental and physical well-being, even in small doses. Though mindfulness has its roots in ancient spiritual traditions, it has a number of empirically-supported applications in modern behavior therapy and everyday life. The development of assessment and intervention methodologies, however, remains in early stages. The papers in this symposium aim to contribute to the body of knowledge on mindfulness by exploring the shared perception of mindfulness, the effectiveness and feasibility of interventions on mindfulness, and the impact of mindfulness for effective communication. The first paper will explore the perception of mindfulness in the moment in untrained observers. The second paper will examine the effect of mindfulness training on stress in graduate students. The third paper will explore the effects of a mindfulness meditation intervention on attention in undergraduate students. Finally, the fourth paper will examine the impact of perceived mindfulness on public speaking behaviors. Implications for future research will be discussed.

Keyword(s): Meditation, Observing Mindfulness, Public Speaking, Stress Reduction
 
Picking up on Presence: Identifying Present Moment Behaviors
EMILY ALLEN (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Stephanie Caldas (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Nick Mollere (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)
Abstract: Research has indicated that engaging in the present moment in a nonjudgmental or accepting manner is important in valued living, perspective taking and fostering development of empathic responding. Yet, clear publically observable signs indicating that someone is present,have not yet been substantiated. This research aimed to identify if agreement exists among untrained raters in the identification of present moment behaviors of subjects in videos. Undergraduate students from the University of Louisiana at Lafayette watched videos and reported when they felt the subject was present, how present they felt while watching the videos, and how connected they felt to the subject of the video. It was hypothesized that there would be an overall agreement in participants’ answers, that participants’ level of self-rated presence would be positively correlated with their ratings of the subjects’ presence, and that the more present the participants self-rate and rate the subject, the more connected they will feel to the subject. Preliminary data suggests that untrained raters are quite capable of identifying behaviors as indicative of presence with a high degree of consistency between raters. Implications of present moment behaviors and future directions will be discussed.
 
The Effects of Mindfulness Training on Stress in Graduate Students
TESS GELDERLOOS (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Scott A. Herbst (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Fawna Stockwell (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Stress and issues relating to stress, such as burnout, have been studied in great detail in multiple areas of psychology. However, the topic of stress has been largely ignored by behavior analysis. This study examined the effect of mindfulness training on stress in graduate students. The research design was an alternating treatments design in which completion of a brief mindfulness audio training was alternated with an educational audio clip each session. After listening to the audio clip participants were then given puzzles to complete in three minutes. The data suggest that mindfulness training did not have a noticeable impact on heart rate or on self reported levels of stress. This research was not consistent with previous research showing an effect of mindfulness training; however, those studies involved longer training sessions of weeks or months of mindfulness training (e.g., Bond & Bunce 2000; Evans, Ferrando, Carr, & Halgin, 2011). Future research is suggested to investigate mindfulness, as well as other stress reduction techniques, at the individual level.
 
Surviving Undergrad: What Can Meditation Do?
MATTHEW WILLIAMS (University of Mississippi), Solomon Kurz (University of Mississippi), Kate Kellum (University of Mississippi), Kelly G. Wilson (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: The word is out; mindfulness meditation can help a wide variety of practitioners to ameliorate a wide variety of symptoms, ranging from coping with cancer to reducing substance abuse. One of the proposed benefits of mindfulness meditation is increased attention. To date, few studies have been designed to examine whether these expected increases in attention will indeed show up in attention-related performance tests. The few published studies that have examined this show mixed results and many had undesirable limitations such as low power and cross-sectional designs. In this paper, we present a 3-week mindfulness meditation intervention for college undergraduates during which participants performed computer performance tasks. Three conditions varied by how much in-session meditation participants performed. Computer task performance was within and between conditions across the three weeks. Longer-term effects on college GPA and mood are also presented.
 
Presenting with Presence: An Examination of Shared Presence and Effective Communication in the Context of Public Speaking
KRISTIAN LAGRANGE (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Stephanie Caldas (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Ashlyne Mullen (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)
Abstract: Public speaking is amongst the most terrifying and avoided experiences we humans encounter. Despite having full mastery of all the behaviors necessary to communicate effectively, many of us struggle to bring that repertoire to bear when faced with a public audience. The result is often avoidance. And when public speaking is requisite, that avoidance takes covert forms. There is, however, an alternative. Being present, or mindfully and openly aware, allows for increased sensitivity to audience feedback and overall better presenting. As a result, audiences may find themselves more engaged. The current study will examine how present moment processes contribute to effective communication in the context of public speaking. Audience and speaker ratings of presence will be compared, along with how convergence of perceptions of presence between speaker and audience predict aspects of communication effectiveness. In addition, speaker presence will be considered as a predictor of audience presence. Preliminary data suggests overall convergence of present moment ratings as well as shared presence predicts communication effectiveness in public speaking. Implications for intervention development and application to other kinds of communication will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #25
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
The Azrin-Foxx Self-Initiation Legacy: Toileting Practices and Social Validity
Saturday, May 24, 2014
1:00 PM–2:50 PM
W192a (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: CSE/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Amanda W. Doll (Hawthorne Foundation, Inc.)
Discussant: Peter J. Blechman (Hawthorne Foundation, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Frank R. Cicero, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The initial Azrin-Foxx self-initiation training protocol was both a gift and a challenge to the field of behavior analysis. It provided a robust, highly-effective, and easily replicated treatment package with broad applicability to other populations, as evidenced by results obtained in institutional, school, and community settings across the United States and in other countries. However, it also raised expectations about the range of learners who could learn to self-initiate and challenged us to create environments that accommodated these newly acquired skills. Our symposium will consider the evolution of self-initiation training protocols since their initial applications in terms of developments in the field which have required overcorrection procedures to be dropped and request procedures to be added. Data from the original Willowbrook Cohort will be contrasted against those from two present community agencies; and a data collection tool for coding these data will be presented, together with reliability and validity data. We will discuss implications for practice.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): outcomes assessment, overcorrection, self-initiation, toileting
Target Audience:

Psychologists, behavior analysts, graduate students and anyone interested in self-initiation.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants should be able to (1) Identify data-collection systems to track toileting progress across programs serving large numbers of participants; (2) Describe intensive, behaviorally based toilet training procedures that have shown empirical support in the literature; and (3) Describe the current state of toilet-training outcomes for people with autism being served in several ABA programs within New York State.
 

Willowbrook Cohort Data as an Historical Frame of Reference for Toileting Self-Initiation Training

ALBERT PFADT (Quality Improvement Consultant)
Abstract:

The Willowbrook Sate School was an institution for individuals with developmental disabilities located on Staten Island and run by New York State. Willowbrook was made infamous as a snake pit and an incompetent environment through the reporting efforts of Geraldo Rivera and litigation and legislation by Senator Robert Kennedy and others. One of the many stipulations of the Willowbrook Consent Decree was that individuals residing at Willowbrook were to receive comprehensive toilet training. This talk will describe what conditions were like at the time of the Willowbrook Consent Decree and immediately thereafter; the presenter's experience as a team member administering and training others to administer the original Azrin-Foxx toileting protocol as part of the original intervention team; and outcome data from these efforts.

 

Forget "Readiness." Start Teaching Toileting by Assessing Toileting Skills with a Toileting Skill Survey.

AMANDA W. DOLL (Hawthorne Foundation, Inc.)
Abstract:

Reasonable people, even or perhaps especially professionals, can and do disagree (often vigorously, and usually beyond the available data) about the number, order, and necessity of various prerequisite skills for teaching toileting. This presentation will provide participants with a simple 16-item toileting survey that may be used to obtain a cross-section of toileting-related skills for groups of learners of any age (e.g., classes of students in schools; groups of individuals in residences or habilitation programs). Each learner is assessed for Self-Initiation, Requesting, Scheduled Elimination, and Accident Rate using a 4-point scale which is descriptive in nature and written in plain language in order to be equally accessible to paraprofessionals, direct-care workers, or professionals. Administration instructions, anecdotes about administration, inter-observer agreement data, and construct validity data will be presented, along with implications for practice.

 
Self-Initiation Status of Students at the Eden School
FRANK R. CICERO (Eden II Programs)
Abstract: The self-initiation toilet training protocols as originally applied at Willowbrook included overcorrection and did not include request training. The punitive nature of overcorrection has made this component of the original treatment package increasingly unacceptable over time; meanwhile, the reality of most school environments is that requesting is preferred over self-initiation for reasons of school safety and classroom management. In this presentation, program-wide cross-sectional data on the present self-initiation status of the students at the Eden School will be discussed. The Eden School is a community agency location that presently utilizes a mostly uniform set of protocols with respect to teaching toileting within its programs. Data from the present-day Eden School will be compared to the original Willowbrook Cohort data set, and also to the data from the present-day Hawthorne Foundation data set. Implications for practice will be discussed.
 
Self-Initiation Status of Students at Hawthorne Country Day School
DAREN CERRONE (Hawthorne Country Day School), Kim Arruda (Hawthorne Country Day School)
Abstract: Both the Willowbrook Cohort data set and the Eden II data set are cross-sectional outcome data reflective of populations exposed to uniform or relatively uniform treatment packages. The Hawthorne Country Day School is a community agency; while the agency provides a behavior analytic approach to lifelong care and uses entirely data-based practices, in the area of teaching toileting, present practice at the school allows for selection of teaching protocols for toileting based on each individual student's assessed skills and needs. In this presentation, program-wide cross-sectional data on the present self-initiation status of the students at the Hawthorne Country Day School will be discussed. The Hawthorne Country Day School is a community agency location that presently utilizes many different data-based protocols with respect to teaching toileting within its programs. Data from the present-day Hawthorne Country Day School will be compared to the original Willowbrook Cohort data set, and also to the data from the present-day Eden II School data set. Implications for practice will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #26
CE Offered: BACB
Health, Sports, & Fitness SIG Symposium 2: Variables Affecting Children's Engagement in Physical Exercise and Play
Saturday, May 24, 2014
1:00 PM–2:50 PM
W181a (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: DEV/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Annabelle Winters (Garden Center Services, Inc.)
Discussant: Albert Malkin (ErinoakKids)
CE Instructor: Albert Malkin, M.A.
Abstract:

The importance of play and leisure skills has been documented in both the behavioral and non-behavioral literature. Children without sufficient repertoires of play and leisure skills are less likely to succeed in school and more likely to engage in atypical rates of inappropriate behavior. Physical play and exercise have been specifically noted in the literature to result in global benefits, improving health and wellbeing as well as interpersonal social skills. However, cultural changes in the United States have led to a decreased emphasis on physical play and exercise in children, resulting in deficits in these repertoires. In this symposium, variables affecting children's engagement in physical exercise and play will be discussed, specifically 1) teaching water tolerance as a prerequisite skill for swimming, 2) assessments of young children's engagement with specific environmental features on playgrounds and in natural play settings and interventions to increase the intensity, variety, and total amount of time spent in physical activity, 3) the utility of and effectiveness of peer tutoring models in physical education classes, and 4) the growing body of literature citing the positive benefits of exercise for school age children with ADHD or emotional and behavioral disorders.

Keyword(s): exercise, leisure skills, social skills
 

Behavioral Techniques for Teaching Pre-requisite Swim Skills to Water-Avoidant Young Children

NICOLE A. HILL (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles Campus)
Abstract:

Swimming is an important life safety skill that children should learn for drowning prevention. Statistics provided from the Centers for Disease Control reveal that more than one in five fatal drowning victims are children 14 and younger. Some children may have difficulty learning to swim, presenting as having a fear of water, or simply refusing to get their face wet. Problem behavior associated with the water may create multiple barriers to learning to swim. There are only two main strategies for dealing with children's water avoidance. A "gentle" method associated with classical conditioning and desensitization, and a "safety first" method, which is associated with flooding and extinction. This study evaluated the "gentle" method, and introduced a third strategy that uses differential reinforcement as an effective approach for water-avoidant children. The participants included three children who demonstrated problem behavior associated with having water on their faces. The dependent measure was the child's performance of successive approximations to the final target behavior which was defined as pouring a cup of water over his/her head three times without problem behavior. Treatment results showed the differential reinforcement condition was more effective than the gentle method alone for two out of three children.

 

The Potential Value of Classwide Peer Tutoring to Enhance Social Competence of Children in Physical Activity and Education Settings

SHIRI AYVAZO (David Yellin Academic College)
Abstract:

Social skills are foundation to any interaction among people, whether learning, playing, or working. Physical education, like a mirror of life, invites a myriad of social interactions children do not always know how to handle, and are only rarely formally taught to navigate. Peer tutoring is a pedagogy that can provide critical social learning opportunities, in addition to academic learning. Classwide peer tutoring (CWPT), a peer tutoring variation, is an evidence-based pedagogy initially designed for elementary students in core subjects such as reading, spelling and math, but has successfully generalized to the improvement of motor and physical activity performance in physical education settings. Despite its inherited social orientation, CWPT's contribution to students' social competence in these settings has not been fully explored to date. The purpose of this presentation is to illuminate the potential need and value of CWPT to enhance social competence in physical education. Examples of CWPT applications in physical education will be shared along with its effects on students' motor performance. Rationale for the need in a socially-based pedagogy in physical education will be discussed, and preliminary data examples of social performance gains will be shared.

 
Behavior Analytic Interventions to Increase Young Children's Physical Activity in Outdoor Play Settings
SHERRY L. SCHWEIGHARDT (Temple University), Michael Sachs (Temple University), Philip N. Hineline (Temple University - Emeritus)
Abstract: The prevalence of obesity among preschool children has markedly increased over the past two decades (Koplan, Liverman, & Krak, 2005); recent studies show that 3-5 year-old children typically fail to meet recommended daily physical activity guidelines, spending just 15 minutes engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity, compared to six sedentary hours each day (Dolinsky et al., 2011; Reilly, 2010). Unstructured play in outdoor settings with varied features potentially plays a significant role in increasing the amount of time preschoolers spend engaging in physical activity and decreasing sedentary time, an independent health risk factor. The procedures featured in this presentation are designed to assess young children's engagement with specific environmental features on playgrounds and in natural play settings and to test interventions to increase the intensity, variety, and total amount of time spent in physical activity. Considerations in implementing the procedures at a small Montessori preschool and a large urban community playground will be reviewed. The discussion will focus upon the ways in which the results of these procedures may be used by pediatricians, parents, educators, playground designers, community planners, and policy makers who focus on increasing preschool children's daily physical activity and decreasing childhood obesity.
 
Variables of Importance in Creating an Exercise Program for improving Behavior in ADHD and EBD Students
JEFFERY HART (Penn State)
Abstract: There is a small but growing body of research looking at the positive benefits of exercise for school age children with ADHD or emotional and behavioral disorders. This research is beginning to show that even one bout of exercise can have positive benefits on classroom behavior and academic performance. This meta-analysis included 7 single case design studies, with a total of 36 participants of school age children with emotional disturbances. There has been no consensus on a specific effect size for single case studies. Studies were analyzed using three independent effect sizes as a triangulation of metrics. The three metrics chose are percent exceeding the mean (PEM), standard mean difference (SMD) and improvement rate difference (IRD). 47 independent effect sizes were calculated in each of the three metrics. Results showed moderate to large effect sizes for outcomes measuring behavior and academic performance. Caution should be used in interpreting results due to the limited number of participants and limited number of high quality studies, but promising that all studies and effect sizes show a trend that exercise can improve classroom behavior and academic performance.
 
 
Symposium #27
CE Offered: BACB
Applications and Evaluations of Stimulus Equivalence-based Instruction with Advanced Learners
Saturday, May 24, 2014
1:00 PM–2:50 PM
W176b (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: EAB/TPC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jessica Day-Watkins (Caldwell College)
Discussant: Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
CE Instructor: Denise Kerth, Ph.D.
Abstract:

College-level learners need to master complex and voluminous material in an efficient and effective manner, and to express mastered material across a variety of modalities (e.g., multiple-choice, written short-answer, and oral responding). Research has evaluated the use of equivalence-base instruction (EBI) with advanced learners (e.g., college students) across a variety of academic content domains (e.g., Fields, Travis, Roy, Yadlovker, de Aguiar- Rocha, & Sturmey, 2009; Fienup et al., 2009; Fienup et al., 2010; Ninness et al., 2005; Walker, Rehfeldt, & Ninness, 2010). However, the technology of stimulus equivalence instruction requires further empirical refinement and broader-based dissemination (Fienup, Hamelin, Reyes-Giordano, & Falcomata, 2011). The first paper in this symposium evaluated the use of EBI to teach contingencies of reinforcement and punishment to graduate students. The second paper taught graduate students to form derived relations among representations of prominent behavior analysts. The third paper used EBI to teach the concept of statistical variability to college students. The final paper investigated the influence of mastery criterion on the number of college students who successfully formed equivalence classes consisting of neuroanatomy stimuli. Collectively, these studies suggest procedural refinements in EBI and additional support for the use of EBI to teach complex academic material to advanced learners.

 
Teaching Concepts of Behavior Analysis Using Stimulus Equivalence-Based Instruction
DENISE KERTH (Bancroft), Kenneth F. Reeve (Caldwell College), Daniel Mark Fienup (Queens College, City University of New York), Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell College), Patrick R. Progar (Caldwell College)
Abstract: Although behavior analytic concepts are relevant to a variety of higher educational disciplines (Morris et al., 2001), intervention strategies to teach them are few (Malott & Heward, 1995). The present study used a computer-based match-to-sample program to teach four, 4-member equivalence classes consisting of contingencies of operant behavior (i.e., positive and negative reinforcement and punishment) to 25 college students. A pretest-training-posttest design was used to assess participant performance on a written multiple-choice test (selection-based responding), a written short-answer test, and an oral test. All participants acquired the trained relations during computerized match-to-sample instruction. Participants were randomly assigned to training using either single- or multiple-exemplar training (SET; MET) involving descriptions of operant contingencies. Compared to pretests, scores improved on the written multiple-choice test for 24/25 participants following both SET and MET equivalence-based instruction (EBI) and 21 participants maintained higher scores two weeks after EBI. In addition, correct written and oral topography-based responses demonstrated response generalization by all participants following EBI, and at two-week follow-ups. Thus, EBI can be used to effectively teach concepts of behavior analysis and that a selection-based teaching protocol can promote the emergence of a number of novel topography based responses.
 

Teaching Graduate Students about Prominent Behavior Analysts Using Stimulus Equivalence-Based Instruction

JESSICA DAY-WATKINS (Caldwell College), Denise Kerth (Bancroft), Kenneth F. Reeve (Caldwell College), Carol McPheters (Caldwell College)
Abstract:

Bailey and Burch (2010) describe competence in identifying prominent behavior analysts among their essential skills and responsibilities for behavior analysts. The present study applied the stimulus equivalence paradigm to establish relations among the name, photograph, professional affiliation, and research interest of six prominent behavior analysts (3 men and 3 women). Participants were 15 graduate students in a Master of Arts applied behavior analysis program. A pretest-training-posttest design was used. First, three, 4-member equivalence classes (either men or women) were established using a match-to-sample software program. Selection-based responding was used during training and testing. Three relations were trained and nine additional relations emerged without additional training, thus demonstrating the emergence of equivalence classes. Participants also demonstrated response generalization by responding correctly during oral posttests. After learning the first set of behavior analyst classes (either men or women), the results were replicated within-subjects with another set of three, 4-member equivalence classes. The results were maintained in a two-week follow up. The present study extends the stimulus equivalence literature to a novel content area while also expanding research that is relevant to the field of behavior analysis (Walker & Rehfeldt, 2012).

 
Teaching College Students the Concept of Statistical Variability Using Stimulus Equivalence-Based Instruction
LEIF ALBRIGHT (Caldwell College), Kenneth F. Reeve (Caldwell College), Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell College), April N. Kisamore (Caldwell College)
Abstract: Although coursework in statistics is prevalent within an undergraduate psychology major, many students struggle to master the content. The present study evaluated the use of equivalence-based instruction to teach the statistical concept of variability to college age learners. Custom computer software controlled equivalence-based instruction was used to teach two, 4-member classes (representing high or low variability) to 6 undergraduate students. Stimuli in the classes consisted of a term (high or low variability), a definition, multiple number sets of high or low variability, and standard deviation values. A pretest-training-posttest-maintenance design was used. Participant performance was evaluated on both a computer-based test (pre and post) and a written multiple-choice test (pre and post). All participants acquired the trained relations during match-to-sample instruction. Testing scores improved on both the computer (not shown) and the written selection-based responding tests (see figure) for all participants following equivalence-based instruction. In addition, test performance maintained one week after instruction. Thus, equivalence-based instruction can effectively teach concepts of variability and that a selection-based teaching protocol can promote the emergence of responses to a novel selection-based testing protocol.
 

Effects of Mastery Criteria on Equivalence Class Formation

DANIEL MARK FIENUP (Queens College, City University of New York), Julia Brodsky (The Graduate Center, City University of New York)
Abstract:

The stimulus equivalence paradigm has been applied to teach numerous college-level academic topics, such as algebra (Ninness et al., 2006), statistics (Fields et al., 2009; Fienup & Critchfield, 2010, 2011), neuroanatomy (Fienup, Covey, & Critchfield, 2010), and disability categorization (Walker et al., 2011). A review by Fienup, Hamelin, Reyes-Giordano, and Falcomata (2011) identified several technological variations among protocols found in the research literature. This study examined the influence of mastery criterion on the number of learners who successfully formed equivalence classes. All participants learned neuroanatomy concepts using match-to-sample training and the simple-to-complex protocol (includes learning baseline relations and derived relations probes). Researchers randomly assigned participants to a particular mastery criterion that consisted of blocks of training (e.g., Fields et al., 2009), or either of two consecutive correct responses (6 or 12) (e.g., Fienup et al., 2011). All mastery criteria resulted in equivalence class formation; however, the 12 consecutive correct criteria was most successful. The block mastery and 6 consecutive correct criteria produced more failed derived relations probes and resulted in participants spending more time completing remedial training prior to the formation of academically relevant equivalence classes. Implications for developing an effective and efficiency technology of equivalence-based instruction will be discussed.

 
 
Symposium #28
CE Offered: BACB
Experimental Behavior Analysis of Auditory Discrimination in Humans with Neurodevelopment Disabilities and Related Animal Models
Saturday, May 24, 2014
1:00 PM–2:50 PM
W176a (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: EAB/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: John C. Neill (Long Island University)
Discussant: James S. MacDonall (Fordham University)
CE Instructor: John C. Neill, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Effective new techniques are needed to assess auditory discrimination in individuals with neurodevelopmental disabilities such as autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy and intellectual disability. This symposium will present effective behavioral methods for assessing a variety of auditory discriminations in humans and animal models. John C. Neill (Long Island University) will show how seizures early in life predispose mammals to long term and acute impairments in auditory location and quality discrimination, and how these impairments can be remediated using effective auditory discrimination procedures developed in basic research. Neill will also present a paper that shows significant dose-dependent deficits in auditory discrimination in rats exposed to cosmic rays, similar impairments in neonatal seizure models, and discuss the implications for the developing brain. Bertram Ploog (College of Staten Island, CUNY) will discuss studies using a computer game to assess stimulus control involved in receptive prosody of children with autism (including lower functioning children) also with potential for remediation. Richard Serna, (U. Mass. Lowell) will describe non-verbal methods used to assess pitch discrimination in individuals with neurodevelopmental disabilities. Data will be presented from an ongoing research project aimed at better understanding the auditory discrimination capabilities of children with ASDs and intellectual disabilities. Behavior analysts will learn some determinants of atypical behavior associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities and potentially effective remediation approaches to normalize auditory perception. A discussant, James MacDonall (Fordham University) will add insightful commentary.

Keyword(s): auditory discrimination, autism, intellectual disability, prosody
 
Seizures Impair Auditory Discrimination in Mammals
JOHN C. NEILL (Long Island University)
Abstract: One third of individuals with severe developmental disabilities have active seizure disorders which cause impaired learning and behavior. A higher proportion of developmentally disabled individuals probably had seizures early in development. This paper will present experimental analysis of several animal models of seizure-induced auditory behavioral impairments, using go-no go and go right-go left auditory discrimination methods and maze data. Mammals with seizures early in development are impaired in go - no go and go right - go left auditory discrimination. Normal animals and humans learn auditory discriminations rapidly when a novel sound is presented, and sound source location rapidly acquires stimulus control; severely disabled seizure animals and epileptic humans acquire sound localization poorly or not at all unless special procedures are used. Maze data show that seizure animals are less likely to explore the environment and their behavior is highly avoidance-based, particularly in response to novel sounds. Seizure animals acquire less reinforcers and thus become ontologically retarded compared to normal controls unless they receive early intensive behavioral intervention. Seizure rats acquire auditory discriminations at better than 90% accuracy using a simultaneous quality-location discrimination. Humans with severe epilepsy and intellectual disabilities acquire discriminations above 90% accuracy using analog discrimination procedures.
 
Assessing Pitch Discrimination in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities
RICHARD W. SERNA (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: Many children with neurodevelopmental disabilities, particularly those with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), show limited and impaired auditory learning skills. One reason for these impairments may be that spoken words contain many auditory features that distinguish them, including pitch, duration, rise and fall, rhythm, etc. Children with ASDs may show selective attention to only a single auditory feature of a word, the results of which could interfere with spoken-word learning. Though some research exists in this area, most of it has been conducted with “high functioning,” verbal children with ASDs. Almost no research in this area exists with children with ASDs who have more pronounced intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this paper is to describe non-verbal methods used to assess pitch discrimination in individuals with neurodevelopmental disabilities. Initial data also will be presented from an ongoing research project aimed at better understanding the auditory discrimination capabilities of children with both ASDs and intellectual disabilities. Preliminary results suggest a key finding could emerge: Children with ASDs who have intellectual disabilities tend to be better able to discriminate pitch than their counterparts who have intellectual disabilities, but no ASDs.
 

Using a Computer Game to Assess Auditory Stimulus Control in Children with Autism

BERTRAM O. PLOOG (City University of New York), Patricia Brooks (City University of New York)
Abstract:

The use of computer technology has been prevalent in autism research and treatment. However, many studies have not employed a systematic and rigorous behavior analytical approach, therefore proper assessment of treatment efficacy is often lacking. In this talk, I'd like to discuss the findings of three studies using a computer game to assess stimulus control involved in receptive prosody of children with autism (including lower functioning children who represent an understudied and underserved population in language research). I would also like to introduce a new game to assess stimulus control involved in emotion recognition of children with autism. This game also has the built-in potential to serve as a remedial tool for atypical attention possibly involved in emotion recognition.

 

Cosmic Rays are Neurotoxic

TERRESA AUBELE (Wabash College), Rachel Kristiansen (Sheridan College), Matthew Murphy (Tufts University), S. John Gatley (Northeastern University), John C. Neill (Long Island University)
Abstract:

We hypothesized that heavy ion irradiation causes severe impairments in auditory stimulus control and changes in the Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential (BAEP) in rats. Subject: 30 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into three groups: brains of rats were exposed to either 0, 120 or 240 cGy accelerated iron ions (56Fe) of 600 MeV per nucleon at the National Space Radiation Laboratory. Eight months later, rats were deprived to 80% of ad lib, given preliminary training on a VI 22 s schedule during silence in half hour sessions until lever presses occurred at steady rates. Two auditory cues (half S+, half S-) were then introduced to signal consequences using a discrete trial procedure. S+ and S- alternated semi-randomly on a silent ITI (inter-trial interval) of 22.5 s, (range: 5 - 45 s). Controls acquired the S+/S- discrimination significantly faster than irradiated rats in a dose-dependent function. There was a dose-dependent Increase in S- response rate in all conditions. BAEPS: Fe 56 irradiation caused a dose-dependent decrease in wave I-IV latencies. Performances were compared to animals exposed to seizures early in life and similar functions were obtained. Cosmic rays are neurotoxic, causing behavioral and neurological changes in humans.

 
 
Symposium #29
CE Offered: BACB
Operant Conditioning in Invertebrates
Saturday, May 24, 2014
1:00 PM–2:50 PM
W176c (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Chris Varnon (Oklahoma State University)
Discussant: Susan M. Schneider (University of the Pacific)
CE Instructor: Jacob H. Daar, M.S.
Abstract:

Although behaviorists often seek to generalize the principles of behavior to a diverse range of species, invertebrates seldom receive much attention in behavioral research. This is unfortunate as invertebrates are excellent candidates for research in behavior analysis for several reasons. First, invertebrate research is often less expensive and less restrictive in methods than research conducted with traditional vertebrate organisms. Second, invertebrates are practical subjects for classroom experiments and hands-on student exercises due to small size, low cost and low maintenance. Finally, many species, such as the honey bee, have significant roles in agriculture and the ecosystem. In this symposium, four presentations will discuss operant conditioning in invertebrates. The research will discuss the sensitivity of honey bees to delays of reinforcement, distinctions in drone and worker honey bee performance in avoidance and punishment tasks, spatial learning in lobsters and positive reinforcement in hissing cockroaches. The presentations will relate the findings to the behavioral ecology of the subject species, and compare and contrast the trends in invertebrate learning with what is commonly observed in traditional vertebrate organisms.

Keyword(s): Bee, Invertebrate, Lobster, Roach
 

The Impact of Reinforcement Delays on Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Operant Responding

DAVID CRAIG (Oklahoma State University), James W. Grice (Oklahoma State University), Chris Varnon (Oklahoma State University), Michel Sokolowski (Universite de Picardie - Jules Vernes), Charles I. Abramson (Oklahoma State University)
Abstract:

In two experiments, free-flying honey bees' (Apis mellifera L.) hole-entering responses in an artificial flower apparatus were exposed to two forms of reinforcement delays. The first experiment implemented a post-reinforcement delay by locking the bees within the apparatus and preventing them from returning to the hive after receiving sucrose reinforcement. The bees received either a 0s, 300s, or 600s delay following an A-B-C-A design. The delay produced distinct patterns of inter-session intervals but did not impact inter-response times. Generally, longer delays produced longer inter-session intervals and many bees exposed to post-reinforcement delays "dropped out" of the experiment. The second experiment implemented an inter-reinforcement delay via a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement of either 0s, 15s, 30s, 60s, or 120s. The FI schedules produced lower response rates compared to performance on continuous reinforcement schedules and also decreased inter-response-times for some subjects. However, no "scalloped" or "break-and-run" patterns of responding were observed, and no evidence of temporal control by honey bees was produced. As with the first experiment, honey bees exposed to longer delays (FI 60s and F1 120s) "dropped out" of the experiment.

 

Aversive Conditioning in Honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica): A Comparison of Drones and Workers

CHRISTOPHER DINGES (Oklahoma State University), Charles I. Abramson (Oklahoma State University), David Craig (Oklahoma State University), Zoe M. Austin (Oklahoma State University), Chris Varnon (Oklahoma State University), Fatima Nur Dal (Beekeeping Research Centre, Uludag University), Tugrul Giray (Beekeeping Research Centre, Uludag University), Harrington Wells (University of Tulsa)
Abstract:

Honey bees provide a model system to elucidate the relationship between sociality and complex behaviors within the same species, as females (workers) are highly social and males (drones) are more solitary. We report on aversive learning studies in drone and worker honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica) in escape, punishment and discriminative punishment situations. In the escape experiment, individuals could terminate an unavoidable shock triggered by a decrementing 30-second timer by crossing the shuttlebox centerline following shock activation. Across all groups, there was large individual response variation. When assessing group response frequency and latency, master subjects performed better than yoked subjects for both workers and drones. In the punishment experiment, individuals were shocked upon entering the shock portion of a bilaterally wired shuttlebox. The shock portion was spatially static and unsignalled. Only workers effectively avoided the shock. The discriminative punishment experiment repeated the punishment experiment but included a counterbalanced blue and yellow background signal and the side of shock was manipulated. Drones correctly responded less than workers when shock was paired with blue. However, when shock was paired with yellow there was no observable difference between drones and workers.

 

Positive Reinforcement and Extinction in the Madagascar Hissing Cockroach

Matthew L. Johnson (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Jacob H. Daar (Southern Illinois University), ASHLEY SHAYTER (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

While numerous demonstrations of behavioral principles have been observed in a variety of model organisms, few studies have attempted to replicate such phenomenon using the relatively cheaper and regulation free options available in invertebrate organisms. The following study sought to demonstrate positive reinforcement in the Madagascar Hissing Cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa) by exposing 5 subjects to an apparatus that provided highly preferred edible stimuli as a consequent of antennae waving on a FR1 schedule. In order to account for the presence of motivating operations, each subject was exposed to a 5min free-operant preference assessment including 4 edible stimuli prior to each session. After selection of a stimulus, the subjects were placed in the apparatus for 20min. If no stimulus was selected, the subject was returned to the colony enclosure. An ABAB design showed greater frequencies of antennae waving during FR1 (B) conditions than in baseline (A) conditions. Patterns suggesting delayed extinction bursts were observed during the return to baseline. Implications and limitations of these methodologies and in the use of hissing cockroaches as model organisms are discussed.

 

Spatial Learning in the Lobster

KELTI OWENS (Southern Illinois University), Anna Cronin (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Rachel Enoch (Southern Illinois University), Maggie Molony (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

The present study examined spatial learning patterns in juvenile Red-Clawed lobsters (Cherax Quadricarinatus). In the present study a group of 14 Red-Clawed lobsters were trained to run through a T-maze; the number of errors and latency to complete the maze was measured. The experimental group was exposed to daily trial blocks, which consisted of 3 sessions per day, whereas the control group was exposed to the task on day 1 and day 12. Results suggest that after repeated exposure to the task, the experimental group maintained an average of 100% maze completion during the last trial block, making no errors. The control group however had an average of 52% during the last trial block. After the responding pattern in the maze was reversed, the experimental group averaged 743.75s to complete the maze compared to the control group completing the maze in 273.5s. The results suggest that a stronger learning history effects adaptability in responding with the experimental group being less adaptable in their responding after repeated exposure to the maze task.

 
 
Symposium #31
CE Offered: BACB
Evaluating Treatment Integrity of Behavior Analytic Interventions
Saturday, May 24, 2014
1:00 PM–2:50 PM
W186 (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: PRA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Kerry A. Conde (Trumpet Behavioral Health)
Discussant: Claire C. St. Peter (West Virginia University)
CE Instructor: Kerry A. Conde, M.S.
Abstract:

Treatment integrity, also known as procedural fidelity, is the degree to which intervention steps are implemented with accuracy. Behavioral skills training (i.e., instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback) is an effective procedure used to train staff across a range of repertoires (e.g., implementing skill acquisition programs, verbal behavior programs). The purpose of this symposium is to highlight four studies evaluating training procedures to implement interventions with high levels of integrity. The first presentation will share findings following the training of three parents to implement variations of discrete-trial instruction (DTI) with their children with autism and parent preference for DTI variations. The second presentation will describe how the authors identified variables impacting special education teachers selection of academic interventions and discuss variables impacting integrity in classroom settings. The third presentation will describe the use of video modeling with voiceover instruction when training teachers to implement token economies with children with autism. Finally, the fourth presentation will describe the devleopment of a cost-effective pre-service training package to teach three animal shelter volunteers to implement a dog walking and enrichment protocol (DWEP) through a video training package.

Keyword(s): social validity, staff training, treatment integrity
 
Integrity and Social Validity of Parent-Implemented Discrete-Trial Training
KERRY A. CONDE (Trumpet Behavioral Health), Amanda Karsten (Western New England University)
Abstract: Parents have long been included in the treatment of their children with developmental disabilities to teach and to facilitate generalization of targeted skills (e.g., Laski, Charlop, & Schreibman, 1988; Schopler, 1971; Short, 1984). The degree to which parent involvement enhances child outcomes may depend on several factors (e.g., treatment integrity). Research is yet to elucidate environmental factors, such as treatment parameters in discrete-trial training (DTT), which may affect treatment integrity and social validity among parents as therapists. Three parent-child dyads participated in the current investigation. The purpose was (1) to assess parent treatment integrity across a range of treatment parameters in discrete-trial training (e.g., massed or interspersed trial arrangement, discontinuous or continuous system of data collection, developmentally appropriate or developmentally inappropriate tasks) (2) to assess parent preference between teaching parameters using a concurrent chain procedure, and (3) to describe and interpret the role of environmental variables (e.g., child correct performance, child problem behavior, and session duration) correlated with higher integrity and parent preference. Results were idiosyncratic across dyads. The functional relations between child correct performance, child problem behavior, and session duration on parent integrity remains unknown. Findings are discussed in terms of considerations practitioners may apply when designing parent-implemented interventions.
 

Examining Treatment Selection and Implementation in Special Education Classrooms

TOM CARIVEAU (University of Oregon), Tiffany Kodak (University of Oregon), Brittany LeBlanc (University of Oregon), Jake Mahon (University of Oregon), Regina A. Carroll (West Virginia University)
Abstract:

Special education teachers may select interventions for their students for a variety of reasons (e.g., familiarity with an intervention) that are not yet well understood. Once the teacher selects an intervention, it remains unclear whether the teacher and classroom staff are implementing the intervention as it is described in the literature. The purpose of the investigation was to identify variables impacting special education teachers selection of academic interventions and examine whether teachers implemented the intervention with integrity. We collected survey data and conducted observations of conditional discrimination training procedures in special education classrooms in Oregon. We examined the level of integrity that classroom staff implemented trial-based instruction, with most observations including instruction delivered by instructional assistants instead of special education teachers. Results indicated that educators implemented 50% of the components of trial-based instruction with integrity at or above 80%. Variables such as the mastery level of the task being presented impacted levels of integrity. We will further discuss variables impacting integrity in classroom settings and provide recommendations for future research and practice.

 

The Effects of Video Modeling with Voiceover Instruction to Train Staff to Implement a Token Economy

HEATHER PELTACK (Caldwell College), Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell College), Jason C. Vladescu (Caldwell College), Ruth M. DeBar (Caldwell College), Jessica L. Rothschild (Caldwell College)
Abstract:

The use of token economies is frequently recommended in early intervention manuals and is reported to be commonplace in clinical practice. However, limited research is available to help guide clinicians in how to best train staff to implement token economies. To help address this void, the present study evaluated video modeling with voiceover instruction to train four staff trainees to implement a token economy. Initially, we evaluated the staff trainees integrity with a simulated consumer (i.e., an adult acting as a child). Generalization was programmed for and assessed with an actual consumer (i.e., a child with autism). The results demonstrated that video modeling was an effective approach to training. Staff trainees also demonstrated high levels of integrity up to 2-months following the completion of training. Multiple measures of validity were also completed and provide evidence for the content validity of the training video and the social validity of the goals, procedures, and outcomes. Together, these results support the usefulness of video training and suggest that performance feedback may not be a necessary component of training. We will discuss these findings in light of previous research and provide suggestions for future research.

 

Effects of a Video-Based Pre-Service Training Package on Animal Shelter Volunteers' Integrity

VERONICA J. HOWARD (University of Alaska Anchorage), Florence D. DiGennaro Reed (The University of Kansas)
Abstract:

Volunteers are ubiquitous to non-profit service organizations, yet methods to efficiently and cost-effectively train volunteers are relatively underexplored in the literature. The current study aimed to develop a cost-effective pre-service training package to teach three animal shelter volunteers to implement a dog walking and enrichment protocol (DWEP). Following the shelter's traditional live training, volunteers implemented just over half of all DWEP steps correctly (M = 55.2%). DWEP integrity improved when participants completed a video-based self-training package (M = 75.3%), but did not reach the pre-established mastery criterion of 85% fidelity with zero safety errors. During coaching, which consisted of modeling and positive and corrective feedback, integrity improved (M = 90.6%), yet only two of three participants met criterion performance. High integrity performance was observed for two of three participants at 1- and 4-week follow-up observations. Though creation of the video-based training package used in the study required approximately 13.25 hours longer than preparation of live training, live training required between 30-50 minutes with a shelter staff member with wide variability and safety of content observed. When used in place of life training, the video training package could save money for the organization in as few as 13 volunteer training sessions.

 
 
Symposium #32
CE Offered: BACB
Behavior Analysis Around the World: Current Efforts in Bringing our Discipline to Everyone
Saturday, May 24, 2014
1:00 PM–2:50 PM
W193a (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: TBA/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Timothy C. Fuller (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Joseph E. Morrow (Applied Behavior Consultants, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Timothy C. Fuller, M.A.
Abstract:

The Symposium brings together a variety of international dissemination efforts. A goal of the symposium is to illustrate some of the ways Behavior Analysis is currently being offered in areas that have traditionally had little to no contact with the discipline. Furthermore, the event brings together speakers from varying backgrounds to share their perspectives on how behavior analysis can continue to bring its offerings to populations that have had limited contact with the discipline. Papers presented will concentrate the efforts currently being done in India, China, Taiwan, Russia, Belarus, and the Middle East region.

Keyword(s): Dissemination, International Development, Teaching BA, Training
 

CANCELED: Russia and Belarus Meet ABAI

ABIGAIL B. CALKIN (Calkin Consulting Center)
Abstract:

Presentations to 75 of the top Moscow psychologists included information on an introduction to behavior analysis, changing inner behavior, verbal behavior, quality assurance, employee satisfaction, and competition in industry. The presentations in Belarus also had the above areas plus a lecture on precision teaching’s standard celeration chart. The Belarus audience consisted of psychologists, teachers, and special education personnel. A part of our task was to present behavior analysis to people whose historic roots lie with Pavlov, but whose current philosophy and approach to treatment of all people lie more within the roots of mentalism. The two weeks of presentations, smaller meetings, and tours of schools were behavior analysis’s introduction to its principles and practices to this portion of the world. People from ABAI had previously spent time in St. Petersburg.

 

The Development of Behavior Analysis in a multicultural, multilingual and conventional India (2004- 2013)

SMITA AWASTHI (Association for Behavior Analysis of India)
Abstract:

Till as late as 2004, there was no knowledge of the science of ABA in India. A large country of one billion people and nearly a million children with autism. In 2013 we have 12 Behavior Analysts, various ABA based special needs centers, a BACB approved course sequence, and innumerable parents of children with autism asking for ABA. The 9 year journey in India has been full of challenges and made possible due to various strategic & bold decisions & campaigns. The impact on the development of ABA in India is irreversible.

 

The Development of Applied Behavior Analysis in China and Taiwan

SHU-HWEI KE (Seek Education, Inc. and University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

This paper discusses the development of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) in China and Taiwan. In 2000 and 2008, the first international ABA conference sponsored by SEEK Education, Inc. was held to disseminate behavior analysis in the area of education and treatment of children with autism in Taiwan and China, respectively. Following this, there has been an increasing number of parents of children with autism looking for effective treatment based on a behavioral approach. In addition, teachers and practitioners providing direct services to this population are finding ways to receive systematic training and education in behavior analysis. These developments have been fostered by additional support from the governments of China and Taiwan for the establishment of educational programs to serve the vast populations in these regions. This paper aims to discuss the progression and challenges of ABA development over the past decade. The development of ABA intensive intervention programs, systematic training sequences, BCaBA and BCBA course sequences, and the future development of behavior analysis in China and Taiwan will be discussed.

 

Behavior Analysis Training Efforts in the Middle East

TIMOTHY C. FULLER (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

This paper discusses the current training efforts occurring Saudi Arabia. The training efforts are predicated on the work that had been done in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Building and refining a program of behavior analytic instruction in coordination with service providers in the region will be presented as well as a hybrid supervision structure that is being employed. The paper discuses the scope and sequence of behavior analytic instruction along with how students contact ongoing supervision of clinical activities. A model of how this type of training can be replicated in other locations will be offered as well as lessons learned from attempting to bring behavior analytic training to a region that has had limited contact with the discipline. Particular considerations discussed include: cultural & language barriers and solutions, as well as distance based instructional methods and how they are being employed to solve limitations of previous attempts to bring a sustained model of behavior analytic training to the region.

 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #35
CE Offered: PSY/BACB

Behavioral Indicators of Welfare: A Balance-Based Approach

Saturday, May 24, 2014
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
W180 (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AAB; Domain: Applied Research
Instruction Level: Basic
CE Instructor: Jason Watters, Ph.D.
Chair: Lindsay Mehrkam (University of Florida)
JASON WATTERS (San Francisco Zoo)
Jason Watters received his Ph.D. in animal behavior from the University of California at Davis. His research interests have covered numerous topics in animal behavior. For example, he has studied mating systems, behavioral development, and the causes and consequences of behavioral syndromes' animal personalities. Dr. Watters' research program currently focuses on learning and behavioral indicators of welfare in zoo animals. His studies have investigated behavioral issues in numerous species including insects, fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals. In addition to his Ph.D. in animal behavior, he earned a certificate in exotic animal training and management and has held positions at zoos and aquariums. Currently, Dr. Watters oversees a program charged with measuring and ensuring animal wellness at the San Francisco Zoo and is also the executive editor of the journal Zoo Biology. [Photo by Jim Schultz, Chicago Zoological Society]
Abstract:

Individuals who manage the welfare of zoo animals seek practical approaches to caring for a diversity of species. In general, animal managers hope to understand animals' behavioral needs, how animals express their experiences of positive welfare, and how to ensure that positive experiences balance any negative ones. Research findings in several fields, including psychology, neuroscience, animal behavior, and zoo biology, indicate core behavioral needs. Combined, the evidence suggests that animals who can express these needs are psychologically and emotionally enriched. Here, Dr. Watters will describe the core behavioral needs of investigating, acquiring reward and exerting control. He will describe a developing "balance-based" approach designed to ascertain the frequency with which these needs are met and not met in an animal's life through behavioral observation. Various behaviors indicate the presence or absence of opportunities to meet the core needs and Dr. Watters will challenge the assumption that the behavioral repertoire of zoo animals should mirror that of animals in the wild. He will emphasize that animal welfare depends upon the balance individuals can obtain between meeting and not meeting their behavioral needs. Animals that are out of balance in the simple sense that they have few opportunities for positive experiences are in a state of welfare that can be improved.

Target Audience:

Behavior analysts who have an interest in zoo animal behavior and welfare

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants should be able to (1) Understand a new approach to assessing animal welfare--one that is focused on evaluating animals' core needs and develops a new behavioral analysis to do this; (2) Explain the basic principles of constructing animal welfare "balance sheets;" and (3) Understand the issues associated with the classification of behavior. Specifically, participants will be exposed to the problems associated with misclassifying behaviors associated with animal learning.  
Keyword(s): animal behavior, animal welfare
 
 
Panel #36
CE Offered: BACB
What Comprehensive Evaluation Can Contribute to Complex Behavioral Programs for the Treatment of Autism
Saturday, May 24, 2014
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
W184d (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Daniel E. Hursh, Ph.D.
Chair: Dana Cihelkova (West Virginia University)
DANIEL E. HURSH (West Virginia University)
SUSANNAH POE (West Virginia University)
VICCI TUCCI (Tucci Learning Solutions, Inc.)
Abstract: Complex behavioral programs for the treatment of autism have not been comprehensively evaluated for many reasons. One of the reasons is methodological difficulty, another methodological inflexibility, and yet another is methodological insufficiency. These reasons and others are barriers to notably and meaningfully advancing the field of ABA and the overall understanding of Autism. The panel members will briefly present a model for comprehensive evaluation and how it can contribute to two complex behavioral programs that have produced positive results for persons with autism. The audience will then be invited to contribute their suggestions and comments. The comprehensive evaluation model includes three dimensions: the specific symptoms manifested by persons with autism, the treatment components of the complex behavioral programs, and the outcomes produced by the programs. The person who developed the comprehensive evaluation model will discuss the model. The complex behavioral programs are Discrete Trials Training, represented by a professional with more than 20 years of Discrete Trials Training program implementation and management, AND the Competent Learner Model, represented by the developer of the Competent Learner Model with more than 30 years of development, implementation, and management of the model.
Keyword(s): Autism Treatments, Program Evaluation
 
 
Symposium #37
CE Offered: BACB
CANCELED: Factors Affecting Early Progress in EIBT Programs
Saturday, May 24, 2014
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
W183b (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Amanda N. Adams (Central California Autism Center)
CE Instructor: Amanda N. Adams, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Although a great deal of research has focused on factors that contribute to progress in early intensive behavior therapy (EIBT), few studies have refined this examination to those variables that most contribute to progress in the first six months of beginning a EIBT program. This symposium will feature three papers that examine this early progress. The first study will provide an analysis of the variable of team consistency and training of behavior therapists assigned to a case and it's correlation to child progress. The second paper examines the degree to which a child demonstrates attending skills across different stimuli arrangements. The final paper in this symposium will discuss types of stimuli classified by categories used to describe art, and measures the length of time each child spent looking at each kind of painting. These results were used to manipulate the type of stimuli used in programming and results on the effect of progress will be discussed. Several factors can effect initial progress in EIBT programs. These three papers will present findings that suggest some strategies to maximize progress in the very initial months of EIBT to shift a child's acquisition rate, which, in turn, can effect the overall developmental trajectory. A second point is that some mistakes that may be common in the early stages of behavior programs with children with autism, can be avoided if careful evaluation in consistently applied to specific factors.

Keyword(s): attending skills, early intervention
 

An Examination of Different Categories of Visual Stimuli/Art as a Factor in Children with Autism and Attending Skills.

KATY LEWIS (Fresno State), Eduardo Avalos (Fresno State), Amanda N. Adams (Central California Autism Center)
Abstract:

Children with autism can demonstrate preferences for particular kinds of stimuli. The visual characteristics of such stimuli have rarely been studied. One approach to classifying types of visual stimuli is to use categories used in the field of visual art. The purpose of this study was to determine if children diagnosed with Autism have a visual preference for certain types of art paintings from different categories of art. Another purpose of this study was to see how the introduction of art paintings in a controlled versus a free operant environment affected the rate of stereotypic behaviors. This paper will present two different experiments. In experiment one, art paintings varying in feature intensiveness were presented to participants in a controlled environment. Experiment one, required the use of a projector, which the art paintings were displayed through, and video cameras, which helped determine where participants were directing eye contact. In experiment two, art paintings, from seven different categories, were displayed in a free operant environment where the participants had free access to roam the room and orient to the paintings of their choice. The dependent variable for each experiment was the duration spent orienting towards different visual art categories, and the frequency of visual attendance towards each art painting. Stereotypic behavior was measured during the waiting period, or therapy session, and during each trial for experiment one and two. Preliminary data from experiment two, provides evidence that some participants preferred attending to their own image relative to all other categories.

 

Team Stability and the Effects on Inappropriate Behavior in Children with Autism

EDUARDO AVALOS (Fresno State), Shady Alvarez (California State University, Fresno), Amanda N. Adams (Central California Autism Center)
Abstract:

It is common that children with autism have trouble generalizing what they have learned from a specific person to other people. Having a team of therapists work with a child with autism is the primary method used to program for generalization across people during clinical intervention. Team variables impacting progress are often under analyzed and changes in team variables during the intervention are often not closely monitored to access immediate effects on the learning rate and measures of the child's inappropriate behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of team stability on the levels of inappropriate behavior in children with autism during EIBI treatment. Therapy sessions were sampled via video recording and coded for frequency and/or duration of a variety of inappropriate behaviors observed during treatment. Team Stability was gathered from center records. General trends were analyzed between dependent and independent variables to conclude general correlations. Preliminary results showed a negative relationship between team stability and level of inappropriate behavior during therapy, in most, but not all teams. Overall findings suggest significant positive clinical relevance to monitoring team variables throughout different stages in early intervention in children with autism, especially team stability.

 

Evaluating Levels of Attending with Various Degrees of Distraction in the Work Environments of Children with Autism: Implications for Intervening on Early Learning Issues.

JULAYNE JORGE (California State University, Fresno), Eduardo Avalos (Fresno State), Amanda N. Adams (Central California Autism Center)
Abstract:

Measuring attending levels during early intensive behavior intervention for children with autism can be difficult. The purpose of this study was to measure specific visual attending skills in children with autism. An analysis of the effects of environments with differentiating distraction levels on participants attending during discrete trial training (DTT) was conducted. Children with ASD were evaluated to see if they would habituate to the varying degree of distractors placed into their environment, and if it would later generalize to a typical environment. Trend lines of correct responding for each target item were compared during each stage of the study. The Wide Range Assessment of Memory & Learning Second Edition Assessment Tool was used to measure changes in clients attending level, as well as data collected of time spent gazing off-task, and measuring the number of correct responses during DTT.

 
 
Symposium #38
CE Offered: BACB
Teaching Children with Autism New Tricks: Complex Verbal Responses, Pretend Play, and Replacements for Repetitive Behavior
Saturday, May 24, 2014
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
W183c (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Nicole Luke (Surrey Place Centre)
CE Instructor: Nicole Luke, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Researchers and practitioners have been challenged to address three key areas of deficit identified with autism: language, play, and repetitive behavior. In this series of papers, each of these areas were investigated in unique ways, making a contribution to the applied research and aiding in our understanding of some of the features of autism. Each paper describes a particular tactic and its effects on the participants in the study, using a single case design research methodology. One paper taught divergent intraverbal responding through the use of convergent verbal prompts. One paper taught creative use of common objects for play through a combination of intraverbal responses and reinforcement for play actions. And, finally, one paper expanded the community of reinforcers through conditioning of new items and activities. These tactics contribute to the evidence-based practices available to teachers and staff who work with children with autism. And they reframe some applied research questions to engage the audience in a dialogue about how our assumptions might drive our research interests and findings.

 

Teaching Divergent Intraverbal Responding With Verbal Prompts Involving Convergent Multiple Control

WAN-CHI CHOU (National ChangHua University of Education), Gabrielle T. Lee (Teachers College, Columbia University), Hua Feng (National ChangHua University of Education)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to teach divergent intraverbal responding using verbal prompts involving convergent multiple control. The participant was a 7 year-old boy with autism. A multiple probe design across behaviors was employed. The behaviors involved categorical questions across 5 different colors (e.g., Name some things that are green). The verbal prompts used to teach divergent intraverbal responding consisted of verbal descriptions on feature, function, and class (FFC) of each target item. The objective was to increase the number of divergent intraverbal responses for each categorical question. The results showed that verbal prompts using convergent control with FFC were effective in increasing the number of divergent intraverbal responses to categorical questions. Generalization effects across people, settings, and spontaneous novel responses were also assessed.

 

Teaching Children with Autism Creative Use of Common Objects to Engage in Symbolic Pretend Play Activities

HUA FENG (National ChangHua University of Education), Sheng Xu (ChongQing Normal University), Gabrielle T. Lee (Teachers College, Columbia University), Wenchu Sun (National Changhua University of Education)
Abstract:

One of the major deficits for children with autism is a lack of creative symbolic pretend play skills. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a verbal prompting procedure can increase the number of intraverbal responses on pretend uses of common objects. The goal was to teach children with autism creative ideas of using common objects for symbolic pretend play activities, thereby expanding their pretend play repertoires. The training procedure involved (1) presenting a target object, (2) having the child tact name and function of this object (e.g., a ring for stacking), (3) intraverbal responding on pretend uses of the object (Q: What can you pretend with this bowl? A: a hat, a bath-tub.), (4) the child engaging in pretend play actions with the object. In the pilot experiment, a 6-year-old boy with autism served as a participant. An ABAB design was originally planned to assess the effectiveness of the proposed teaching procedure with two sets of target objects. However, after the completion of training on the first set of three target objects, the child's ability for creative uses of common objects emerged and generalized to the second set of untaught objects, not allowing the return to baseline. Despite a positive training effectbeing achieved for this child, the experimental control was not demonstrated in an AB design. In experiment II, the procedure was replicated with a multiple probe across behaviors design for two preschool children with autism. Data showed that the procedure effectively increased the number of pretend uses for target objects for both children in Experiment II. During generalization probe sessions, both children were able to provide intraverbal responses of pretend uses for untaught objects and engage in play actions, suggesting the possibility to teach children with autism creative use of common objects to expand their pretend play repertoires.

 

Just Because it Makes "Sense" Doesn't Mean it's Real: Untangling a Sensory Based Rationale for Treating Self-Injurious Behavior.

GRANT GAUTREAUX (Nicholls State University), Katie Jenkins (Nicholls State University)
Abstract:

Implementation of various sensory integration interventions have been observed across many types of school settings. Variations of these procedures have encompassed sensory diets which are based on the premise that individuals with autism and related disorders have an underlying deficit in sensory processing. The assumption is that this deficit results in high rates of stereotypy or self-injurious behavior due to the individual attempting to regulate its sensory input. Thus the deficit is ameliorated by providing ample opportunities for sensory-based activities. There appears to be an inverse correlation between excessive stereotypy and self-injurious behaviors and the number ofknown reinforcers for the individual. For most individuals, having a limited number of reinforcers will likely have an adverse impact on the rate of learning new skills and has social implications. By using a multiple baseline design across three participants, we tested the effects of conditioning items and activities on the selection ofsensory based items as preferred activities by the participants and the impact on the number of episodes of self-injurious behavior. Results are discussed in terms of the amount of time individuals engaged with non-sensory based stimuli in a free play setting.

 
 
Symposium #41
CE Offered: BACB
Precision Teaching: To Infinity and Beyond
Saturday, May 24, 2014
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
W187ab (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: DDA/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Megan Miller (The Ohio State University)
Discussant: Richard M. Kubina Jr. (Penn State)
CE Instructor: Megan Miller, M.S.
Abstract:

Precision teaching is an underused technology for measuring behavior and making data based decisions. While research indicates a wide array of applications for improving learner performance using precision teaching, behavior analysts and educators often do not make use of this research or limit the use of precision teaching to certain skills. When reviewing literature published in popular behavior analytic journals, very few include research using precision teaching technologies. Additionally, within the Journal of Precision Teaching, there is a lack of recent research related to a variety of populations or aspects of precision teaching. Most of the research focuses on typically developing children or learning disabilities and fails to include more significant disabilities or novel aspects of precision teaching such as endurance. In this symposium, the presenters will share their experiences with broad applications of precision teaching. The presentations will specifically focus on reading endurance for at risk children and improving fluent body movements for moderate to severe students to improve performance on daily living skills.

Keyword(s): endurance, fluency, precision teaching, preference
 

Potential Effects of Increasing Reaching Fluency for Students with Intensive Disabilities

MEGAN MILLER (The Ohio State University)
Abstract:

Precision teaching has a wide range of applications (Kubina & Yurich, 2012). Earlier researchers in the field of precision teaching such as Eric Haughton focused on teaching students with intensive disabilities to fluently perform compound motor movements. However, current research within the field focuses more on academic skills and learners with mild disabilities. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the need to focus on bringing component motor movements to fluency for students with intensive disabilities and the impact this can have on their ability to perform daily living skills, academic tasks, and/or indicating preferences. Students with intensive disabilities often have limited range of movement and long latencies to respond during instruction that requires motor movements. Based on the existing research regarding the Big 6 movements (Twarek, Cihon, & Eshleman, 2010) and increasing fluency on component skills for task analyses, the presenter will discuss the benefits of including more of a focus on motor movement fluency within this population.

 
Evaluating the Effects of Timed Practice on Reading Endurance
JOSHUA GARNER (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: An important component to competent reading may involve maintaining performance over long periods of time, especially when degradations in performance could otherwise negatively impact the outcome. If a student’s endurance is limited to a relatively brief duration, then he or she is unlikely to keep pace with the expectations, which place the student at a disadvantage (Johnson & Street, 2013). Previous research has indicated that reading fluency is positively correlated with reading comprehension (Hawkins, Hale, Sheeley, & Ling, 2011; Klauda & Guthrie, 2008). This suggests that if correct words per minute decreases over time, comprehension may also decline. Programming for endurance could therefore be a valuable component of reading instruction, in that it may promote comprehension when students read longer passages, or for longer periods of time.This study used a counterbalanced multiple probe design to compare the effects of two reading practices on reading endurance of six second grade general education students. The results indicated that the bounce during three, 1-min practice condition was larger compared to the bounce during one, 3-min practice condition. The implications of this finding for endurance are discussed along with limitations and suggestions for future research.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #43
CE Offered: PSY/BACB

Key Themes in School-Based Mental Health

Saturday, May 24, 2014
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
W196b (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Instruction Level: Basic
CE Instructor: Cynthia M. Anderson, Ph.D.
Chair: Cynthia M. Anderson (Appalachian State University)
MARK D. WEIST (University of South Carolina)
Mark D. Weist is a professor and director of the Clinical-Community Program in the Department of Psychology at the University of South Carolina. He received his Ph.D. in clinical psychology from Virginia Tech in 1991. For 19 years, he was on the faculty of the University of Maryland, where he helped to found and direct the Center for School Mental Health, one of two national centers providing leadership to the advancement of school mental health policies and programs in the United States. He is currently leading federally and university funded research grants on Quality in School Mental Health, Assisting High School Youth with Emotional Disabilities, and Developing and Testing Integrated Health-Mental Health Promotion for Youth in Schools. He helped found the International Alliance for Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Schools (INTERCAMHS). Dr. Weist has edited seven books and has two more in progress. He has published and presented widely in the school mental health field and in the areas of trauma, violence, and youth, evidence-based practice, and cognitive behavioral therapy. With colleagues from the Clifford Beers Foundation and the University of Maryland, he edits Advances in School Mental Health Promotion with new publisher Routledge of Taylor & Francis.
Abstract:

School mental health programs and services reflect a "shared agenda" involving schools, families, and other community systems working together to promote student health and wellness and reduce nonacademic barriers to learning. With its emphasis on research-proven intervention strategies and low-inference decision-making, behavior analysis (and behavioral psychology more generally) plays a key role in school mental health. A main focus of school mental health programs is to help schools adopt and sustain evidence-based practices with a focus on prevention and intervention. School mental health has received increased attention in recent years, because of wider recognition of difficulties students can face and policy changes reflecting renewed interest in social behavior interventions and data-based decision-making. In this presentation, key themes facing the school mental health movement will be described. In addition, strategies for assisting schools in the identification, adoption and high fidelity implementation of evidence-based interventions will be described. Dr. Weist will review prominent policy directions and describe the National Community of Practice and its initiatives and resources.

Target Audience:

Master's and doctoral level behavior analysts conducting research or practice supporting typically developing students in school settings.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants should be able to (1) Identify key themes in school mental health. (2) Describe evidence-based interventions appropriate for use in school settings. (3) Identify federal and state-level policies affecting service delivery in schools. (4) Describe a research agenda to forward behavior analysis and school-based mental health.        
Keyword(s): intervention, prevention, shared agenda
 
 
Invited Paper Session #44
CE Offered: PSY/BACB

Leadership Seminar: Creating the Organizations Needed to Evolve a More Caring Society

Saturday, May 24, 2014
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
W190a (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: OBM; Domain: Theory
Instruction Level: Basic
CE Instructor: Anthony Biglan, Ph.D.
Chair: Heather M. McGee (Western Michigan University)
ANTHONY BIGLAN (Oregon Research Institute)
Anthony Biglan, Ph.D., is a senior scientist at the Oregon Research Institute. He has been conducting research on the development and prevention of child and adolescent problem behavior for the past 30 years. He is a former president of the Society for Prevention Research. His work has included studies of the risk and protective factors associated with tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use; high-risk sexual behavior; and antisocial behavior. He has conducted numerous experimental evaluations of interventions to prevent tobacco use both through school-based programs and communitywide interventions. And, he has evaluated interventions to prevent high-risk sexual behavior, antisocial behavior, and reading failure. In recent years, his work has shifted to more comprehensive interventions that have the potential to prevent the entire range of child and adolescent problems. He was a member of the Institute of Medicine Committee on Prevention, which released its report in 2009 documenting numerous evidence-based preventive interventions that can prevent multiple problems. His recent review of preventive interventions concluded that diverse psychological, behavioral, and health problems can be prevented through the promotion of nurturing families, schools, and communities.
Abstract:

An emerging convergence in the human sciences can guide the evolution of more caring societies. Biological and behavioral research has produced an integrated understanding of the biological and social conditions needed to ensure the successful development of children and adolescents. A growing body of experimental evidence has identified family, school, and community interventions that are capable of nurturing development from the prenatal period through adolescence. Increasingly research is turning to how these interventions can be widely and effectively implemented. At the same time, research in economics, political science, and sociology has delineated key features of the larger social context, including especially the recent evolution of corporate capitalism, that are more distal, but nonetheless critical influences on the wellbeing of young people. This converging understanding provides a framework for intentional efforts to evolve societies that have fewer psychological and behavioral disorders, less crime, less academic failure and much higher levels of prosociality. This session will focus on how we can organize the educational, nonprofit, for-profit, and governmental organizations to evolve cultural practices that achieve a society that sees to everyone’s wellbeing.

Target Audience:

Psychologists, behavior analysts, graduate students, and anyone interested in

 

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the event, participants should be able to (1) Describe evidence-based programs, policies, and practices that can prevent most psychological and behavioral problems; (2) Describe a framework for bringing about significant cultural change relevant to human wellbeing; and (3) Describe a strategy for organizing a movement to change the practices that affect wellbeing.  
Keyword(s): Education
 
 
Invited Paper Session #46
CE Offered: PSY/BACB

Don Baer Invited Address: Outside the Box: Unique Applications of Applied Behavior Analysis

Saturday, May 24, 2014
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
W375e (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
Instruction Level: Intermediate
CE Instructor: Judith R. Mathews, Ph.D.
Chair: Mark D. Shriver (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
JUDITH R. MATHEWS (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Dr. Judith Mathews received her BS in special education from Syracuse University in 1971. Her original foundation in ABA came from looking for an effective way to teach deaf and blind children. In 1988, she received her Ph.D. in developmental and child psychology from the Department of Human Development and Family Living at the University of Kansas with Don Baer as her primary adviser. She worked clinically as a pediatric psychologist at the IWK Children’s Hospital in Halifax, Nova Scotia, for seven years and taught child clinical psychology at West Virginia University for three years. In 1994, she accepted a position in the Psychology Department at Munroe-Meyer Institute (MMI) at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, where she remained as a pediatric psychologist and associate professor of pediatrics until her retirement in October 2013. At MMI, her position combined clinical practice and research, and teaching graduate students, doctoral interns, and medical students. In 2009, she received her master’s degree in public health from the University of Nebraska, and in 2011 received a Fulbright Scholarship to teach psychology and ABA in Kenya and to conduct public health research with adolescent girls in Nairobi slums. In her retirement, she plans to continue to help establish child clinical training in Kenya.
Abstract:

Don Baer was a master at viewing applied behavior analysis as a philosophy of life. This was exemplified in his writings, in the manner in which he mentored students, and in his discussion of its application to varied topics, some of which were well outside the common behavioral realm of investigation. His model has guided Dr. Judith R. Mathews’ clinical practice and opened her to looking beyond the strictly behavioral literature to learn from other disciplines. This paper will discuss practical applications of applied behavior analysis in the field of pediatrics. It will present unusual clinical cases, including, problems of attachment and parenting skills, and unique challenges in medical adherence, habit reversal, pain management, and feeding disorders. More recently, this curiosity for the intersection between ABA and other disciplines has led Dr. Mathews to investigate the field of public health, in terms of social determinants of health, community-based participatory research and global public health. In this context, applications of ABA in the field of public health will then be discussed. The paper will conclude with discussion of the difficulties that practitioners and public health providers face in conducting practical research and finally will propose ways to disseminate unique ideas in need of empirical validation.

Target Audience:

ABA practitioners.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the event, participants should be able to: 1. Identify applications of applied behavior analysis to unusual clinical cases. 2. Identify applications of applied behavior analysis to public health issues. 3. Identify practical problems in clinical data collection and possible solutions. 4. Identify ways to disseminate unusual ideas in need of empirical validation.
 
 
Panel #47
CE Offered: BACB
Philosophy, Neuroscience, and Behavior Analysis: Is There a Converging Consensus?
Saturday, May 24, 2014
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
W175b (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: TPC/TBA; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: T. V. (Joe) Layng, Ph.D.
Chair: Patrick B. Marcotte (Mimio)
T. V. (JOE) LAYNG (Generategy, LLC)
PAUL THOMAS ANDRONIS (Northern Michigan University)
RUSSELL LAYNG (Tulane University)
Abstract: In the book the Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience, Bennett and Hacker (2003) take much of modern neuroscience to task for suggesting that there really are such "things" as images, representations, stored memories, or consciousness for that matter that are located in the brain, and for suggesting that the brain evaluates, decides, plans, or engages in “executive function.” Instead, they suggest that people do these things and that people are part of an environment that together define many of the phenomena often assigned exclusively to the brain. Though many behavior analysts may find Bennett and Hacker’s application of a Wittgensteinan analysis to neuroscience concepts to be compelling, they are are missing an essential component, that is the selective action of precedential and consequential contingencies. This panel will discuss the implications of the Bennett and Hacker (2003) and Bennett, Dennett, Hacker, Searle, and Robinson (2007) books for behavior analysis, and conversely, how their analysis may be better informed by a consequential contingency analysis.
Keyword(s): behavior, contingency, neuroscience, philosophy
 
 
Symposium #48
CE Offered: BACB
The Roles of Cultural Competency, Cultural Values, and Verbal Behavior in Behavior-Analytic Service Delivery
Saturday, May 24, 2014
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
W185d (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: VRB/PRA; Domain: Theory
Chair: Andrew W. Gardner (Northern Arizona University)
CE Instructor: Andrew W. Gardner, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Given the growing diversity of the individuals receiving behavior-analytic services in the United States and abroad, a behavior analysis of cultural competency is becoming increasingly important. In this presentation, we will discuss the role of cultural values and the influence they may have on language acquisition and the overall quality of behavior analytic services. The first presentation will describe the role of cultural values in applied behavior analysis. Then, we will expand upon this idea and discuss the verbal aspect of culture, with particular attention to rule-governed behavior and Skinners third level of selection. Then, based off a review of the last 10 years of language acquisition research, we will provide conceptual, research, and practical applications of, and describe the importance for, understanding the role of cultural and linguistic diversity in language acquisition research. Finally, we will end with a discussion about how an increased understanding of cultural variables that affect human behavior will allow behavior analysts to further enhance the quality of services they provide.

Keyword(s): culture, service delivery, values, verbal behavior
 
Culture Competence in Applied Behavior Analysis: The Role of Cultural Values
ANNA GARCIA (University of South Florida), Jessica Sykes (University of South Florida), Mario Hernandez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Behavior analysis seems to take cultural competence as an approach that is not a necessity in service delivery to affect positive change with clients of various backgrounds. This inattention to cultural differences may be due to the notion that behavioral principles are generally applicable to all humans. Although it may be true that behavioral principles can be generally applied, the ways in which they are applied may not be so. Ways in which knowledge of client's culture can aid behavior analytic services will be discussed. Special attention will be given to cultural values as rule-governed behavior.
 

The Verbal Aspect of Culture: Rules, Values, and Mores

ANNA GARCIA (University of South Florida), Timothy M. Weil (University of South Florida), Jessica Sykes (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

As Skinner indicated, the third level of selection occurs at the level of culture and includes the construction of repertoires of behavior via a verbal community. While progressive in looking to verbal behavior in the maintenance of cultural practices, we must continue the discussion to the level of understanding how those cultural practices my influence the behavior of individuals--especially those with whom we may be charged with influencing their behavior or the behavior of significant others. This paper will address how verbal behavior may affect delivery of services to those of other cultural backgrounds.

 
Cultural and Linguistic Diversity in Recent Language Acquisition Research: A Review and Implications for Research and Practice
MATTHEW T. BRODHEAD (Utah State University), Lillian Durán (Utah State University), Sarah E. Bloom (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Given the growing need for an understanding of the role of cultural and linguistic diversity (CLD) in language acquisition, a behavior-analytic understanding of CLD may be warranted. We searched recent editions of the Analysis of Verbal Behavior and the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis using EBSCOhost to determine the degree to which researchers report the CLD of individuals with disabilities who participate in behavioral language acquisition research. Our results indicate that researchers in these journals rarely report the culture and language background of their research participants. Given these results, we provide a conceptual analysis and describe implications for research and clinical practice. A furthered understanding of the role of CLD in language acquisition may aid in the development of better behavioral interventions and culturally sensitive treatments. Finally, research that explores the role of CLD in language acquisition may add to the generality of behavior-analytic research and clinical practice.
 
 
Symposium #49
CE Offered: BACB
Response Modalities in Early Mand Training and Prerequisites for Vocal Communication
Saturday, May 24, 2014
2:00 PM–3:50 PM
W185bc (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: VRB/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Anna I. Petursdottir (Texas Christian University)
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
CE Instructor: Anna I. Petursdottir, Ph.D.
Abstract:

In language interventions for children who have severe language delays due to autism or other developmental disabilities, clinicians must often make decisions regarding an appropriate verbal response modality (e.g., vocal speech, manual signing, or picture-based communication). Establishing vocal speech has obvious advantages, but may be complicated by limited prerequisite repertoires, such as low frequency of speech sound vocalizations and lack of echoic control over vocalizations. Thus, the benefits of vocal communication may, at least initially, be outweighed by a need for quickly establishing efficient mand repertoires for minimally verbal children. The first two studies in this symposium describe assessments developed to identify an optimal response modality for early mands on an individual basis. The third and the fourth study addressed prerequisites for vocal communication by comparing procedures for increasing free-operant speech sound production and establishing echoic control over vocalizations, respectively.

Keyword(s): communication, echoic, mand, vocalizations
 
Evaluation of Mand Modalities for Individuals with Limited Verbal Repertoires
CATHERINE BAKER (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Abstract: Individuals diagnosed with developmental disabilities (DD) often display limited communication, and new technologies are being adapted to accommodate this deficit, such as the iPad®. Additionally, many studies have evaluated assessments and various aspects of the teaching procedures, which play a role in the acquisition of effective verbal repertoires. However, there is a paucity of research that includes the use of new technologies in the aforementioned research. The purposes of the present studies were to a) evaluate the rate of mand modality acquisition, to b) evaluate the relative preference across modalities, and to c) extend the modality literature to the new iPad® technology. Subjects included individuals diagnosed with DD aged 3-21. In experiment 1, a multi-element design was used to compare rates of acquisition across modalities (vocal, sign, picture cards, and iPad®). Following the acquisition assessment, in experiment 2, a concurrent operant assessment was conducted in which subjects could select which modality to use, given the availability of multiple modalities. Results indicated that mands were acquired at different rates, depending on the communication mode, and these differential rates were idiosyncratic across subjects. Additionally, choice of modality varied across subjects, but generally favored the iPad® or picture cards.
 

Using a Pre-requisite Skills Assessment to Identify Optimal Modalities for Mand Training

AMBER VALENTINO (Trumpet Behavioral Health - Monterey Bay), Linda A. LeBlanc (Trumpet Behavioral Health), Paige Raetz (Trumpet Behavioral Health), Lauren A. Weaver (Vanderbilt Kennedy Center, Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders  )
Abstract:

Mands have been successfully taught to children with autism and intellectual disabilities using many response modalities. A few studies have compared the effectiveness of modalities such as the Picture Exchange Communication System and sign language. Some of these studies have found that the usefulness of either modality varied across students without a clear indication of the relevant child characteristics that might predict effectiveness. Thus, one modality is unlikely to prove optimal for all children. This study examined the utility of an assessment of prerequisite skills for three response modalities (i.e., vocal, sign language, exchange based communication) to determine if performance on the skills assessment predicts the rate of mand acquisition in each modality. The three pre-requisite assessments (motor imitation, vocal imitation, matching) each consisted of 20 trials. Subsequently, three equally preferred items were selected from a preference assessment and one item was assigned to each condition. The speed of acquisition during mand training was evaluated using a multi-element design. If one response modality was acquired more quickly than the others, the other two responses were trained in the successful modality. Four 2-year-old participants were included in the study and data illustrate typical response patterns and the assessments predictive value.

 
Effects of Response-Contingent Pairing, Response-Independent Pairing, and Differential Reinforcement on Vocalizations of Children with Autism
TRACY L. LEPPER (Texas Christian University), Anna I. Petursdottir (Texas Christian University)
Abstract: For Experiment 1, an adapted alternating treatment design was used to compare the effects of a response-contingent (RC) pairing and a response-independent (RI) pairing procedure on the vocalizations of 3nonverbal boys with autism. During RC pairing, adult-delivered sounds that were either paired with a preferred item (i.e., target sound) or not followed by a programmed consequence (nontarget sound), were presented contingent on the participant making a button-press response. During RI pairing, the timing of sound presentations (either target or nontarget) was determined by the interstimulus interval (ISI) being yoked to the resulting ISI in a preceding RC condition. Preliminary data for 2 participants show substantially higher levels of vocalizations in the RC than in the RI pairing condition. Experiment 2 used a multiple baseline across sounds design to evaluate the effects of differential reinforcement of target vocalizations while fading the number of presentations during RC pairing. During baseline, RC pairing was conducted as in Study 1. During differential reinforcement and fading of presentations, RC pairing continued to be conducted as in baseline, however, target vocalizations resulted in delivery of a preferred item and resetting of the 15-ISI. Preliminary data suggest that it may be possible to increase the rate of RC pairing-induced target vocalizations via direct reinforcement while fading the RC pairing procedure.
 

A Systematic Comparison of Commonly Used Echoic Teaching Procedures

CATIA CIVIDINI-MOTTA CIVIDINI (New England Center for Children), Nicole Scharrer (The New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (New England Center for Children)
Abstract:

There is limited investigation of procedures for establishing echoic responses. This study evaluated three commonly used teaching procedures for establishing an echoic repertoire with three students with autism or related disabilities. Preference assessments were conducted to identify highly preferred items, including edibles, tangibles and social stimuli. At least two sets of three target sounds were then selected for each participant. Stimulus-stimulus pairing, echoic training and a mand-model procedure were compared. Data were collected on the percentage of correct vocalizations during training sessions and on the frequency of target vocalizations during play sessions completed prior to and after training sessions. These data, in addition to the participants performance during probes assessing the function of their vocalizations were compared to assess the efficacy of each teaching procedure. Interobserver agreement data were collected on over 33% of all sessions above and have averaged above 90% agreement. The results of this study suggested that the most effective teaching procedure may differ across participants thus supporting the need for additional research focusing on the development of assessment tools to identify learning profiles instead of generally effective teaching methods.

 
 
Symposium #52
CE Offered: BACB
Family, School, and Sleep: Contending with Outside Factors when Trying to Provide the Most Effective ABA Therapy Possible.
Saturday, May 24, 2014
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
W184bc (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Bradley G. Frieswyk (BGF Performance Systems, LLC)
Discussant: John W. Eshleman (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
CE Instructor: John W. Eshleman, Ed.D.
Abstract:

When trying to provide the most effective ABA Therapy to children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), what happens outside of the session is often as important as what happens within. Sleep deprivation, school environment, and general home environment need to be considered and addressed by the BCBA to create the most conducive environment for behavior change. In this symposium, two case studies are presented in which the BCBA advocated for schedule changes that, in turn, produced significant behavioral benefits for their clients. The first presents a case of insomnia in a child with ASD. When a sleep study was conducted, the sleep experts claimed that nothing could be done. An ABA intervention provided relief for the parents and produced a normal sleep pattern in the child. The second case study presents a child with ASD who changed from a school with an Autism program plus twelve hours of outside ABA Therapy to home schooling with forty hours of ABA Therapy. This move produced a notable change within the first two weeks and other behavioral results that might not have been achieved had the child been kept in the former program.

Keyword(s): ABA Therapy, Autism, Precision Teaching, Sleep
 

Addressing Sleep Problems in a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

NICOLE ANN CISSELL (BGF Performance Systems, LLC), Colleen Sweeney (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Bradley G. Frieswyk (BGF Performance Systems, LLC)
Abstract:

Sleep deprivation can have a detrimental effect on a wide range of social and academic behaviors and can severely impede learning. Often, childrens sleep patterns impact entire families, making sleep problems that much more important to address. Delayed sleep onset, night awakenings, and early awakenings combined with other issues presented by ASD can be especially difficult for families to manage. Piazza and Fisher (1991) found a lack of methodologically rigorous solutions in the literature that addressed insomnia in children. They effectively approached sleep problems using a protocol of faded bedtime with a response cost. A case study will be presented which used a protocol partly based on Piazza and Fishers with a child with ASD. However, in the present protocol, no response cost was used. Over a four-month period, nightly sleep increased and the time of sleep onset was reduced. In addition to the development of the current protocol, various impediments to the protocol, including parent compliance and addressing sleep as a non-operant, will be discussed.

 

Arguing Against Limits on ABA: A Case Study of Moving from Twelve Hours of ABA to Forty

JACLYN GUTIERREZ (BGF Performance Systems, LLC), Shant Demirjian (The Chicago School Of Professional Psychology), Bradley G. Frieswyk (BGF Performance Systems, LLC)
Abstract:

Insurance companies often restrict the authorized number of hours of ABA Therapy based on the other activities in a childs schedule: school, other therapies, etc. Parents are also known to make such arguments. This and other arbitrary limiting of ABA Therapy seriously impede the progress that can be made with target behaviors not just in the short term, but perhaps at all. A case study will be presented of a child with ASD whose ABA Therapy had been restricted to twelve hours per week due to school and related activities for several years. The parents decided to home school the child so that ABA Therapy hours could be increased to forty. This increase in weekly ABA hours had a dramatic effect on targeted academic behaviors, articulation of speech, independent play skills, and the frequency and duration of tantrums in just a short period of time. It is questionable if the child would have ever reached the current level of responding if ABA Therapy hours had continued to be restricted. That the school environment might have also been hindering some of the target behaviors will also be discussed.

 
 
Symposium #53
CE Offered: BACB
CANCELED: Intervention Strategies for Supporting Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Saturday, May 24, 2014
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
W184a (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Rebecca Cox (The Gevirtz School, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Santa Barbara)
CE Instructor: Rebecca Cox, M.A.
Abstract:

Each study will touch on challenges relating to Autism and related interventions. Including training staff, improving intervention, and social skills for individuals with Autism and Aspergers childhood to Adulthood.

Keyword(s): Fidelity Implementation, Pivotal Response(PRT), self management, video feedback
 

Effects of Video Self-Monitoring Procedures on Interventionist Implementation of Pivotal Response Treatment

REBECCA COX (The Gevirtz School, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Santa Barbara)
Abstract:

There is an increasing need for therapists who can provide effective evidenced-based therapy for individuals with autism, who often have significant delays and require additional support. In order to improve therapist implementation of evidenced-based practices, effective training techniques are needed. One training method that is emerging is a system of self-monitoring. The literature suggests that allowing therapists to examine their own performance and provide self-initiated feedback may be an effective training method. The current study examines the effects of video self-monitoring procedures used to teach therapists to implement multi-element therapy with a high level of accuracy. Specifically, the intervention included self-monitoring forms used to self-assess therapists implementation of Pivotal Response Treatment. In addition, this study examines the use of performance-based feedback and in-vivo coaching to improve implementation of treatment. A multiple baseline across three participants was used to assess variables of interventionist performance. Results indicate that using a self-monitoring procedure within a training package yields dramatic and immediate results in helping the therapist meet fidelity of implementation that generalizes to other children and environments.

 

Targeting Question-Asking Initiations through Video-Feedback to Improve Social Conversation in College Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

WHITNEY J. DETAR SMITH (The Gevirtz School, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Santa Barbara)
Abstract:

ndividuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) display a marked impairment in social interaction and often exhibit difficulty in maintaining social conversations with peers. These deficiencies can manifest in low levels of question-asking initiations and inappropriate pragmatics in social conversation that persist throughout the developmental lifespan. The purpose of this study is to assess whether or not young adults with ASD can increase their use of question-asking initiations in social conversation and measure possible immediate collateral gains in targeting the pivotal area of initiations in young adults with ASD. Using a multiple-baseline across-participants research design, this study examines whether video feedback will be successful in teaching question-asking initiations in social conversation for each of 3 college student participants with ASD, measures generalization across peers and settings during social conversation, and assesses collateral gains. Data suggest that the video feedback intervention for question-asking initiations results in gains in appropriate question-asking initiations, ability to maintain fluid conversation, the participants interest/affect and perceived confidence in maintaining social conversation, overall pragmatic ratings, and a decrease in perseveration on restricted topics of interest.

 

Increasing Socialization in Adults with Asperger’s Syndrome

KRISTEN ASHBAUGH (Koegel Autism Center)
Abstract:

Difficulties engaging in social activities are considered to be a core symptom of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Both the literature and our clinical observations suggest that most individuals with ASD have a desire to engage in social activities, but social skill deficits make social interaction challenging, and in turn can lead to feelings of loneliness and isolation. Currently there are few resources to support adult students with ASD in forming friendships and involvement in the college community. Using a multiple baseline design over a 33 week period, this study evaluated the effectiveness of structured social planning for college students with ASD. Intervention included weekly sessions that included providing step-by-step social planning related to their interests, and feedback regarding their participation in social activities. In addition, training in specific organizational skills was implemented, such as determining activities, using a planner to ensure participation in the activities, inviting peers to activities, arranging for transportation, and so on. Results demonstrated that participants were not attending any social events throughout the baseline period. Following intervention, all participants increased the number of social events attended per week. Further, quality of life and satisfaction questionnaires all reported a higher satisfaction with their college experience and peer interactions following intervention. Finally, improvements were seen in other untargeted areas, including increases in non-structured social interactions, improvements in grade point averages, and employment. Results are discussed in regards to a creating a social support program for college students with ASD.

 
 
Symposium #56
CE Offered: BACB
Further Applications and Extensions of Functional Analysis Methodology
Saturday, May 24, 2014
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
W193b (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Lauren F. Troy (Bancroft)
Discussant: Frances A. Perrin (Rider University)
CE Instructor: Lauren F. Troy, M.A.
Abstract:

While the introduction of functional analysis (Iwata et al 1982/1994) forever changed the field of Applied Behavior Analysis, modifications to behavior analytic procedures are a necessity to have true utility in developing effective treatments for all individuals in all settings with a wide variety of problem behaviors. Individuals with disabilities may exhibit problem behaviors that are difficult to analyze using typical analogue assessments due to intensity or rate (Davis et al, 2012), or the problem behavior may be maintained by idiosyncratic variables that are observed in the natural setting but not during a standard functional analysis (Hanley, Iwata & McCord, 2003). Finally, undifferentiated results may require additional analysis to determine a function. Hagopian et al. (2013) reported that the percentage of functional analyses with differentiated results increased from 47% to 87% when modifications to standard analogue conditions were made. This symposium seeks to extend recent research on modifications to functional analysis methodology to result in more accurate identification of behavioral function. First, the utility of a mand assessment to clarify inconclusive functional analysis results is examined. Second, an assessment of idiosyncratic variables evoking problem behavior during transitions is described. The third presentation focuses on elopement, a behavior that is difficult to address via functional analysis. This study is a systematic replication of the Lehardy et al. (2013) single-room functional analysis of elopement. The final presentation presents data comparing functional analyses of single and multiple response topographies to identify behavioral function of multiple problematic behaviors.

Keyword(s): Functional Analysis, Problem Behaviors
 

An Assessment to Identify the Relation Between Repetitive Mands and Problem Behavior

SEAN SMITH (Bancroft), Tracy L. Kettering (Bancroft), Sonam G. Dubal (Bancroft), Katie Chamberlin (Bancroft), Frances A. Perrin (Rider University)
Abstract:

Mands often precede problem behavior and the responses may be related in several ways. Specifically, (a) mands may be one response in a response chain with problem behavior, (b) mands may be the first behavior in a response class hierarchy with problem behavior (Lalli, 1995), or (c) problem behavior may be a precurrent response increasing the probability that future mands will receive reinforcement (Fisher et al. 2001). In this study, functional analyses of problem behavior either failed to evoke problem behaviors or yielded undifferentiated results for four participants with autism. An assessment was then developed to empirically identify the relationship between repetitive mands and problem behaviors. Following a functional analysis to identify the specific reinforcer maintaining mand responses, the consequences for mands (e.g. specific reinforcement, extinction, verbal No, and nonspecific reinforcement) were experimentally manipulated (as potential antecedents to problem behavior), while problem behavior produced access to reinforcement for the mand. Across all participants, problem behavior reliably occurred in one or more of the test conditions relative to conditions during which mands produced specific reinforcement. Data suggest that the problem behaviors for these individuals served as a precurrent contingency for mands.

 

Identification of Idiosyncratic Variables Evoking Problem Behavior During Transitions

NICOLE KEYS (Bancroft), Tracy L. Kettering (Bancroft), Katie Chamberlin (Bancroft), Sean Smith (Bancroft)
Abstract:

Although problem behavior during transitions is a commonly described occurrence and various strategies to reduce these problem behaviors, a limited number of studies have analyzed the function of problem behaviors during transitions. Previous research has suggested that problem behavior during transitions may be reinforced by escape from an environment with demands or low attention (Kern and Vorndran, 2000), the unpredictability of the transitions (Flannery & Horner 1994), initiating or terminating an activity or changing locations (McCord et al. 2001). In the present study, a functional analysis was conducted for two participants, during which demands to transition to a room containing academic materials were provided. Problem behavior produced escape from the transition. Both participants exhibited problem behavior during the escape from transition condition relative to a control condition, resulting in no contact with the work in the room. After examining variables specific to the transition, data suggested that it was not the presence of academic materials evoking the problem behavior, but specific features of the environment that may have served as conditioned aversive stimuli (e.g., presence of people and, small spaces). Results will be discussed in terms of conditioned motivating operations, as well as implications for treatment.

 
Single-room Functional Analysis of Elopement
PATRICK GRUGAN (Bancroft), Lauren F. Troy (Bancroft), Jacqueline Milligan (Bancroft), Kristin Vespe (Bancroft), Jennifer Hackney (Rowan University), Kimberly Fenton (Rider University)
Abstract: There exists a paucity of research into the function and treatment of elopement. This is likely because it is a dangerous behavior and difficult to assess in a safe and controlled environment. To address this need, Lehardy et al. (2013) evaluated the effectiveness of a single room functional analysis of elopement. When compared to the traditional two-room analysis (Piazza et al. 1997), the results suggested that the single-room analysis was a viable alternative. The current study conducted a systematic replication of the Lehardy et al. (2013) research. The three participants resided on a campus-style residential facility and exhibited long histories of dangerous elopement. Single room functional analyses provided clearly differentiated results for all participants. To further strengthen the results of the single room analysis, additional assessments for each participant are included. For two participants, function based treatment sessions were evaluated. For the final participant, the single-room analysis results were compared to a two-room analysis. Results support the Lehardy et al. (2013) findings that the single room methodology is safe, practical, and effective in analyzing the function of elopement and thus developing effective treatments.
 

Comparison of Functional Analyses with Single and Multiple Topographies of Behavior

KIRSTEN SWENSON (Bancroft), Tracy L. Kettering (Bancroft), Nicole Keys (Bancroft), Sean Smith (Bancroft)
Abstract:

The functional reinforcers maintaining problematic behavior may vary across different response topographies. Several studies have recommended that clinicians graph functional analysis data for each topography separately when multiple responses are reinforced during the assessment (e.g., Derby et al. 2000) or conduct separate functional analyses for each topography (e.g. Mace et al. 1986). However, no studies have directly compared assessments reinforcing a single topography with assessments reinforcing multiple topographies of behavior. It is possible that conducting separate functional analyses may unintentionally obscure the results of functional analyses (e.g. by placing one response topography on extinction during the assessment). In the current study, we conducted functional analyses with 3 participants, each displaying at least 2 topographies of problem behaviors. In two separate assessments, either all topographies of problem behavior or a single topography of problem behavior produced reinforcement. Assessment order was counterbalanced across participants. Results indicated that the functions of separate topographies were identified in both the single and multiple topography functional analyses. In fact, data for all three participants showed that reinforcing only one topography of behavior in an assessment also provided a clear identification of function for a second behavior, not producing reinforcement.

 
 
Symposium #57
CE Offered: BACB
Using Mobile Technologies to Teach Students With Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities
Saturday, May 24, 2014
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
W186 (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: DDA/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Helen I. Cannella-Malone (The Ohio State University)
CE Instructor: Helen I. Cannella-Malone, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Video technologies have been used to teach students with intellectual and developmental disabilities a wide array of skills. In this symposium, two studies and an empirical review of the literature will be presented and the implications of this information discussed. Data will be presented in the two studies related to how to use technology within an instructional framework to prepare students with intellectual and developmental disabilities for community-based employment. The review of the literature will provide an update on the status of using video prompting to teach new skills to individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Each of these presentations will discuss implications and directions for future research in this area.

Keyword(s): autism, intellectual disabilities, mobile technology, video prompting
 
A Comparison of Mobile Devices to Teach Individuals with ASD and/or ID Vocational Skills Using Universally-Designed Prompting Systems
TONI R. VAN LAARHOVEN (Northern Illinois University), Wendy Bonneau (DeKalb High School), Adam Carreon (Northern Illinois University), Ashli Lagerhausen (Northern Illinois University)
Abstract: Improving independent completion of job-related tasks in vocational settings is critical for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID) to obtain and maintain employment. The purpose of this study was to (1) compare the effectiveness of universally-designed prompting systems presented on iPads and HP Slates to promote independent completion of vocational tasks with self-selection and self-fading of available instructional prompts (i.e., video, picture/auditory, and picture prompts); (2) compare the usability and instructional utility of two different mobile devices to support independent performance; and (3) determine if built-in decision prompts and branching could improve problem-solving behavior of participants. Four young adults with ASD or ID worked at a public high school and were responsible for preparing and cleaning the staff lounge. Participants were required to re-stock cutlery, re-fill salt and pepper shakers, and clean tables and chairs. Data were analyzed within the context of an alternating treatments design and results indicated that both devices resulted in immediate and substantial increases in independent responding for all participants. Three of the four participants performed better with their preferred device, and all participants self-faded reliance on instructional prompts as skill acquisition increased.
 

An Examination of the Effectiveness of Continuous Video Prompting

HELEN I. CANNELLA-MALONE (The Ohio State University), Linsey M. Sabielny (DePaul University), Eliseo D. Jimenez (The Ohio State University), Megan Miller (Navigation Behavioral Consulting), Olivia Miller (The Ohio State University), Hollie Byrum (The Ohio State University)
Abstract:

In this study, two students with intellectual and developmental disabilities were taught basic vocational and daily living skills using video prompting. In the first phase, continuous video prompting, in which a video of each step of the task was shown on a continuous loop until the student completed the step. A multiple baseline design across tasks was used to maintain experimental control. In the second phase of this study, we compared continuous video prompting to standard video prompting, in which the video of each step was shown only once. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to determine which method was more effective. Implications for practice and future research will be discussed.

 

Using Video Prompting for Skill Acquisition with Individuals with Moderate to Intensive Disabilities: Generalization and Maintenance Literature Review

ELISEO D. JIMENEZ (The Ohio State University), Helen I. Cannella-Malone (The Ohio State University)
Abstract:

Video prompting has been shown to be an effective prompting tool for teaching a variety of tasks to individuals with developmental disabilities (Banda, Dogoe, & Matuszny, 2011). Generalization programming and maintenance measurements in the video prompting literature are a limited topic of investigation when teaching tasks to individuals with moderate to severe disabilities. The following review explored 22 studies in the video prompting literature that incorporated generalization programming and/or maintenance measures. This review highlights concerning limitations such as the use of generalization techniques, inconsistent maintenance measures, and a limited range of target behaviors. Implications suggest a need for future research on the generalization and maintenance effects of video prompting.

 
 
Symposium #59
CE Offered: BACB
Learning in Invertebrate Subjects: New Avenues for Behavior Analysis
Saturday, May 24, 2014
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
W176c (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: EAB/TBA; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Jacob H. Daar (Southern Illinois University )
Discussant: Jeffrey N. Weatherly (University of North Dakota)
CE Instructor: Jacob H. Daar, M.A.
Abstract:

Animal research has long been a part of behavior analysis, however the vast majority of this research has been conducted with relatively few model organisms, i.e. rats and pigeons. While these organisms have helped to reveal behavioral principles and educate future behavior analysts, their use has become increasingly regulated and financially unfeasible. These obstacles however do not apply to arthropods, as research with invertebrate organisms is relatively unregulated and requires far less maintenance than research with warm-blooded organisms typical in behavioral studies. The current symposium will present two discussions on behavior analysis involving invertebrate subjects. The first will discuss aspects of invertebrate learning from a behavior analytic perspective and address issues in the literature that are the result of researchers having little or no behavior analytic training. The second presentation will discuss the logistical aspects of developing and managing an invertebrate learning lab with an emphasis on in house design of apparatuses, methods, and protocols. Further discussion will be provided on the implications of invertebrate research to the field of behavior analysis and behavioral sciences at large.

Keyword(s): Animal, Basic Research, Experimental Analysis, Invertebrate
 

Issues in the Study of Invertebrate Learning

CHARLES I. ABRAMSON (Oklahoma State University)
Abstract:

Over the past two decades the study of invertebrate learning has taken on greater importance as aspects of the nervous system have been revealed. Unfortunately, much of this research is conducted by neuroscientists with little or no training in the comparative analysis of behavior. As a result, several issues in the analysis of behavior have either been ignored and/or discounted by the present generation of scientists interested in invertebrate learning. This presentation outlines several of these issues including: 1) the extent of phyletic differences between vertebrate and invertebrate learning investigated, 2) inconsistencies in the definition of learning phenomena, 3) the use of taxonomies of learning, 4) the need to report individual data, and 5) restrictions on the use of cognitive terminology.

 

How to Bring Animal Labs Back into Behavior Analysis Training Programs: The Promise of Invertebrates

MARK R. DIXON (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

Over the past 30 years our field has seen a decline in the number of graduate training programs that offer animal laboratories. Rising costs, reductions in grant funding, and tighter animal welfare regulations all have resulted in once thriving animal research facilities to close their doors. Most if not all of these setbacks can be avoided by using invertebrates. This presentation will showcase how, after 35 years of closed animal facilities within SIU's Behavior Analysis Program, we were able to once again reinstate animal research using the invertebrate species of the African Hissing Cockroach and the Australian Red Claw Lobster. The process of laboratory creation and management from innovative apparatus building, experimental protocol development, and motivating the rising number of applied behavior analysts to find value in basic operant research will be discussed. The utility of training applied behavior analysts to become proficient in animal research will also be discussed.

 
 
Invited Panel #62
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Leadership Seminar: Educating Future Generations: Behavioral Education in the 21st Century
Saturday, May 24, 2014
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
W190a (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: OBM/EDC; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Heather M. McGee (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: Ramona Houmanfar, Ph.D.
Panelists: KEVIN GRIGSBY (Association of American Medical Colleges), KENT JOHNSON (Morningside Academy)
Abstract:

The quality of education is critical to producing knowledgeable citizens able to adapt to a changing world. Students’ education and cultural influences set the stage for their future professions, and as leaders or educators in an increasingly interconnected global community. By drawing upon their pioneering work in the area of education, panelists will provide comments regarding this theme of the Seminar on Leadership and Cultural Change. The seminar is designed to aid educational leaders to create new models of stewardship and open opportunities for innovation while adjusting to growing social upheaval, technological advances, and environmental concerns, as well as crises in the global economy, health, education, and environment. It will address how behavior analysis finds common ground with other sciences by investigating the behavior of leaders who influence organizations and society.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Psychologists, behavior analysts, graduate students, and anyone interested in creating new models of education through behavior analysis.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants should be able to (1) Describe the status of contemporary education practices and consider the impact behavior analysis has had on the education system; (2) Identify projects that depict effective instruction producing exemplary outcomes; (3) Describe pathways to follow that advance evidence-based instructional technologies and the contributions offered by behavior analysis; and (4) Identify themes in society and culture at large that influence leaders of behavior analysis to apply our science to education.  
KEVIN GRIGSBY (Association of American Medical Colleges)

R. Kevin Grigsby, MSW, DSW, is senior director of leadership and talent development at the Association of American Medical Colleges. He served as vice dean for faculty and administrative affairs from 2000–09 at Penn State College of Medicine in Hershey, PA, where he continues to hold an academic appointment as clinical professor of psychiatry. Dr. Grigsby’s clinical experience includes a history of program planning, implementation, and evaluation in the area of innovative home- and community-based health and mental health services. His clinical practice experience has been primarily in underserved rural and inner city areas and includes perinatal intervention with substance-abusing women, mental-health service delivery to children and adolescents in shelter care, provision of home-based services to parents and children with HIV-related illnesses, and the use of advanced telecommunications technology in health services delivery. During the past decade, the focus of Dr. Grigsby’s work shifted to organizational development in academic health centers including developing a future-oriented perspective in academic leaders and the alignment of resources with missions. Dr. Grigsby remains active in promoting effective interpersonal communication within academic health centers and in implementing alternative conflict resolution/management strategies at the department and institutional levels. The use of teams and other nontraditional organizational models in higher education settings is another area of scholarship. As an expert on the use of teams in academic health centers, Dr. Grigsby has presented at regional and national conferences and has consulted with a number of academic health centers and professional organizations. He and his colleagues published an account of the use of teams to unify the clinical, academic, and research enterprises in an academic health center. This approach was instrumental in breaking down barriers that typically separate academic departments and resulted in reducing traditional barriers between employees and management, promoting faculty and staff participation in decision-making processes, and solving organizational problems that seemed to be intractable in the past. At the AAMC, he and his team offer programs to improve organizational and leadership performance at medical schools and academic medical centers, address the needs of women and underrepresented minorities at academic medical centers, and link individual professional development to improved organizational performance.

 

KENT JOHNSON (Morningside Academy)
Dr. Kent Johnson founded Morningside Academy, in Seattle, WA, in 1980, and currently serves as its executive director. Morningside is a laboratory school for typical children and youth, investigates effective curricula and teaching methods, and has provided training and consulting to more than 125 schools throughout the world. Dr. Johnson’s many publications about research-based curriculum and teaching methods include The Morningside Model of Generative Instruction, and Response to Intervention and Precision Teaching with Dr. Elizabeth Street. More than 40,000 students and more than 1,000 teachers have implemented Morningside’s Generative Instruction. Dr. Johnson is also a co-founder of Headsprout, Inc., now Mimio, a company that develops web-based, interactive, cartoon-driven instructional programs, including Mimiosprout Early Reading and MimioReading Comprehension Suite. Dr. Johnson is recipient of the Award for Public Service in Behavior Analysis from the Society for the Advancement of Behavior Analysis, the Anderson Award for Exemplary Contributions to Behavioral Education from the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies, the Award for Excellence in Evidence-based Education from the Wing Institute, the Allyn and Bacon Exemplary Program Award from the Council for Exceptional Children, and the Lindsley Lifetime Achievement Award in Precision Teaching from the Standard Celeration Society.
Keyword(s): Leadership Seminar
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #63
CE Offered: BACB

Repetitive Behavior in Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Clinical and Translational Findings

Saturday, May 24, 2014
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
W375e (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: SCI; Domain: Basic Research
CE Instructor: Iser Guillermo DeLeon, Ph.D.
Chair: Iser Guillermo DeLeon (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
MARK HENRY LEWIS (University of Florida)
Dr. Lewis joined the Department of Psychiatry in the College of Medicine at the University of Florida in 1992 as an associate professor of psychiatry and neuroscience. He completed a bachelor’s degree in psychology graduating magna cum laude at Bowdoin College, a master’s degree in psychology at Western Michigan University, and a doctorate in psychology at Vanderbilt University. Dr. Lewis also completed postdoctoral training in neuropharmacology at the University of North Carolina. He is currently associate chair for research in the Department of Psychiatry, a professor of psychiatry, neuroscience, and psychology and the executive director of the Center for Autism and Related Disabilities (CARD) at UF. Dr. Lewis is a highly respected member of some of the most prestigious federal peer review groups including chair of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the Special Emphasis Panel on Chronic Aberrant Behavior and a member of the NICHD Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Centers, the NIMH ARRA Autism Review, and the Department of Defense Autism Research Program. He is also an ad hoc reviewer for the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Lewis is on the External Advisory Board for the Neurodevelopmental Disorders Research Center at the University of North Carolina and the editorial review boards for the American Journal on Mental Retardation and the Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities. Dr. Lewis is a highly respected teacher and faculty adviser mentoring many students in the field of research. He is the recipient of the Georgia Department of Human Resources Educational Stipend Award, the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Exceptional Merit Award, and the Frank Porter Graham Innovative Research Award.
Abstract:

Aberrant repetitive behaviors (e.g., stereotypies, compulsions, and rituals) are diagnostic for autism and frequently observed in related neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite this, relatively little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the development and expression of these repetitive behaviors. This lack of knowledge precludes effective early intervention and prevention strategies. Clinical studies have provided only very limited findings based on a small number of neuroimaging and genetic studies. Moreover, there is little evidence for the efficacy of pharmacotherapy for repetitive behaviors in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. Valid animal models can aid substantially in identifying pathophysiological factors mediating aberrant repetitive behavior and aid in treatment development.The talkwill review findings from animal models of repetitive behavior, highlighting environmental factors and the role of altered cortical-basal ganglia circuitry in the development and expression of these behaviors. Dr. Lewis also will review pharmacological studies that have identified novel potential therapeutic targets for clinical drug development.

Keyword(s): neurobiological mechanisms , neurodevelopmental disorders, pharmacotherapy, repetitive behaviors
 
 
Panel #64
CE Offered: BACB
When You're a Behavior Analyst, You Can Work Anywhere in the World!
Saturday, May 24, 2014
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
W193a (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: TBA/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Theodore A. Hoch, Ed.D.
Chair: Theodore A. Hoch (George Mason University)
ADAM DREYFUS (Sarah Dooly Center in Richmond Virginia)
DOROTHY XUAN ZHANG (George Mason University)
ALAN EL TAGI (Alternative Paths Training School)
Abstract:

Although the current world population is about 7 billion behaving human organisms, only very few of these are trained in behavior analysis, fewer practice behavior analysis, and most are located within the borders of the United States. Need exists all over the world. This panel will discuss efforts of a number of United States-based behavior analysts to equip others in areas outside of the United States to help fulfill this need. We will discuss issues pertaining to funding, training, credentialing, travel, cultural learning opportunities, translation, and other areas. We will also related experiences pertaining to each of these areas regarding our work in China, Russia, Belarus, and Middle Eastern countries.

Keyword(s): International Dissemination
 
 
Symposium #65
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Advances in Skill Acquisition Research with Children with Autism
Saturday, May 24, 2014
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
W183a (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Megan St. Clair (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD))
Discussant: Amanda N. Adams (Central California Autism Center)
CE Instructor: Angela M. Persicke, M.A.
Abstract:

This symposium includes four papers describing recent advances in skill acquisition research with children with autism. The first paper evaluated the effectiveness of a multiple exemplar training package to establish a generalized repertoire of predicting the cause of others' emotions. The second paper evaluated the use of self-monitoring in the reduction of multiple stereotypic motor behaviors using a multiple baseline across behaviors experimental design with two children. The third paper evaluated a multiple exemplar training package to teach children to respond to disguised mands. The fourth paper evaluated the use of a percentile schedule of reinforcement to teach appropriate waiting skills. The symposium will conclude with a discussion by Dr. Amanda Adams from California State University, Fresno.

Keyword(s): Skill Acquisition
 

Establishing a Generalized Repertoire of Predicting the Cause of Others' Emotions

ANGELA M. PERSICKE (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD)), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Autism Research Group, Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD)), Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD)), Megan St. Clair (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD))
Abstract:

Numerous studies on perspective taking have suggested that children with autism are distinctively deficit in understanding that others' perspectives are different from their own. These studies often suggest that children with autism may be unable to learn to take another's perspective, but current research in the field of applied behavior analysis suggests otherwise. The current study evaluated a behavioral teaching procedure in one area of perspective taking: inferring and predicting others' emotions based on met or unmet desires. The procedure included a multicomponent training package using multiple exemplar training across scenarios in which three children with autism were asked to predict how others may feel given a met or unmet desire or non-desire and why others may feel this way. Results were analyzed using a multiple baseline across participants design and suggest that the multiple exemplar training package was effective for teaching the prediction of others' desire-based emotions and generalization was observed across novel exemplars.

 

The Effectiveness of a Self-Monitoring Intervention on Reducing Stereotypic Behaviors in Children with Autism

Angela M. Persicke (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD)), Jennifer Ranick (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD)), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Autism Research Group, Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD)), MEGAN ST. CLAIR (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD))
Abstract:

This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a self-monitoring intervention on the reduction of stereotypic behaviors in children with autism. Research has shown that stereotypic behaviors are maladaptive and can have negative effects on social interactions. Previous research has indicated that self-monitoring may be an effective intervention for decreasing these behaviors but most previous research has used multiple treatment components (e.g., differential reinforcement, rules, etc.) and little is known about the efficacy of self-monitoring in the absence of other treatment components. The present study involved teaching self-monitoring techniques in a home setting to identify if self-monitoring alone would result in a reduction of stereotypic behaviors without other treatment components. The results of the study suggest that the self-monitoring component was effective in decreasing stereotypic behaviors. Implications and future directions are discussed.

 

Teaching Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders to Respond Appropriately to Disguised Mands

RYAN BERGSTROM (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD)), Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD)), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Autism Research Group, Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD)), Megan St. Clair (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD))
Abstract:

Skinner's concept of the "disguised mand" is a verbal response, wherein the speaker's mand does not directly describe its reinforcer. Children with autism often have difficulty with detecting and reinforcing disguised mands. Given that a high number of mands in every day interactions consist of disguised mands, it is important to teach children with ASD to detect these and respond appropriately. The purpose of this study was to determine if multiple exemplar training and the use of rules, role playing, and feedback could teach children with autism to detect and respond appropriately to disguised mands. The results indicated that the procedure effectively taught participants to detect and respond appropriately to disguised mands. Additionally, generalization was demonstrated to novel, untrained disguised mands and to other people who were not involved in training.

 

Using a Percentile Schedule to Shape Waiting in Young Children with Autism

AINSLEY B. LEWON (University of Nevada, Reno), Patrick M. Ghezzi (University of Nevada, Reno), Ashlie Senko (University of Nevada, Reno), Vanessa Willmoth (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

Despite the social importance of teaching young children with autism to withstand a delay to reinforcement, little research has been conducted to determine how to teach this skill in applied settings. As such, a procedure was developed to examine how a percentile schedule of reinforcement may be used to teach young children with autism to wait appropriately for preferred edible items. All participants experienced a contingency-only phase where the edible item was presented following a wait duration that met the reinforcement criteria as determined by the percentile schedule, a phase that introduced the use of corrective feedback for those wait durations that did not meet the reinforcement criteria, and, finally, the addition of social praise statements that accompanied the delivery of the edible reinforcer. Two types of generalization probes, one conducted by the participants' parents and the other using preferred leisure activities, and one-month maintenance probes were also conducted. Results and suggestions for future research will be discussed.

 
 
Symposium #66
CE Offered: BACB
Further Evaluations of the Efficiency of Teaching Procedures Used with Children with Autism
Saturday, May 24, 2014
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
W183c (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Alison M. Betz (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Edward J. Daly III (University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
CE Instructor: Alison M. Betz, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Evaluating the efficiency of procedures used to teach children with autism is a critical component of applied research. The studies presented in this symposium all focus on evaluating both the effectiveness and efficiency of various teaching strategies. The first study evaluated prompt dependence resulting from varying teaching procedures. The second study evaluated the emergence of reverse intraverbals. The third and fourth studies are comparison studies; one comparing computer-assisted and person-based tract training and one comparing teaching procedures with and without instructive feedback stimuli. All presenters will discuss their findings in terms of applied implications and future research.

Keyword(s): autism, efficiency, teaching procedures
 
Evaluation of Teaching Procedures Resulting in Prompt Dependence
KORY MADDEN (Western New England University and Crossroads School), Amanda Karsten (Western New England University), Emily White (Western New England University)
Abstract: Prompt-dependent responding is the failure to transfer stimulus control from a supplemental stimulus, or prompt, to the programmed discriminative stimulus. Teachers may use prompt dependence to explain poor performance. For example, “Johnny never gets dressed on his own because he is prompt dependent.” More likely, prompt-dependent responding is caused by ineffective teaching that results in an incomplete transfer of stimulus control (e.g., low-integrity differential reinforcement, low-integrity prompt fading, or some combination of these teaching errors). The current study manipulated teaching responses which may lead to prompt dependence – nondifferential reinforcement of prompted and unprompted student responses and unsystematic fading of the prompt delay. Interobserver agreement was assessed for 27% of sessions across each phase and condition of the investigation. Mean agreement was 91% (range, 67% to 100%). Two participants did not master skills in any condition associated with teaching errors; a third participant reached mastery across conditions but required the fewest training sessions with high-integrity differential reinforcement and low-integrity time delay. Results are discussed in terms of 1) teaching procedures that may delay or preclude independent performance and 2) directions for future research on preventing and remediating prompt dependent responding among people with developmental disabilities.
 
Evaluating the Emergence of Reverse Intraverbals in Children with Autism
ALICIA ALLAN (Caldwell College), Jason C. Vladescu (Caldwell College), Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell College), Tina Sidener (Caldwell College), April N. Kisamore (Caldwell College)
Abstract: Verbal behavior plays a fundamental role in the development of complex social and communication skills. Many children diagnosed with autism exhibit a core deficit in verbal behavior which can impede the ability to access information (e.g., Ingvarsson & Hollobaugh, 2010) and the development of social relationships (e.g., Charlop-Christy & Kelso, 2003). Given the broad range of stimuli that control intraverbal responding, identifying teaching procedures that may result in emergent verbal responses may be critical for individuals with autism for whom time is a precious commodity. Recent studies that investigated the effects of intraverbal training on the emergence of reverse intraverbals have produced mixed results (e.g., Perez-Gonzalez, Garcia-Asenjo, Williams, and Carnerero, 2007). In the current study, a multiple probe design was used to evaluate the effects of intraverbal training on the emergence of reverse intraverbals for four individuals with autism. Intraverbal training consisted of multiple exemplars, bidirectional stimulus-response teaching formats, general case analysis, reinforcement, and a constant prompt delay (CPD). Participants were trained on intraverbal targets and probes were conducted to assess emergence of untaught reverse intraverbals. Three participants demonstrated emergence of reverse intraverbals as a result of the intraverbal training procedures. The social validity of emergent intraverbal responding and maintenance of target responses and emergent reverse intraverbals were assessed. Results are discussed in light of previous research in which participants failed to demonstrate emergence of reverse intraverbals, and in terms of areas for future research.
 
A Comparison of Computer-assisted and Person-based Tact Training for Children Diagnosed with Autism
BRITTANY LEBLANC (University Of Oregon), Tiffany Kodak (University of Oregon), Vincent E. Campbell (University of Oregon), Tom Cariveau (University of Oregon), Sienna Schultz (University of Oregon), Annie Bailey (University of Oregon)
Abstract: The current study examined the efficiency of and preference for computer-assisted and person-based instruction for tact training for children with autism. First, we compared the number of sessions to mastery during computer-assisted (CAI) and person-based (1:1) instruction within an adapted alternating treatments design. We also measured participants attending during both instructional formats. Brenna’s results indicated that she mastered tacts in fewer sessions and displayed higher levels of attending during 1:1 instruction. Eric mastered tacts in the CAI condition only, although he had high levels of attending in both conditions. Dan also mastered tacts in fewer sessions in the 1:1 condition. Dan displayed high levels of attending in both conditions. In a second experiment, we evaluated the participant’s preference for a format of instruction, when given the option of selecting between 1:1, CAI, and distracter card (Brenna and Dan only). Brenna’s and Dan’s results showed that they selected an intervention that was ineffective for teaching the targeted skills. Dan’s results suggested that CAI was the most preferred form of instruction, and he master the target stimuli while maintaining high levels of attending during CAI. We will discuss the implications of our findings for clinical practice and suggest future areas of research.
 

The Evaluation of the Efficiency of Prompt Only and Prompt Plus Instructive Feedback Procedures in Teaching Children with Autism Categorical Relations

JUSTINE HENRY (Florida International University), Alison M. Betz (Florida Institute of Technology), Natasha Sturkie (Florida Institute of Technology), Katrina L. Bartell (Scott Center for Autism Treatment at Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract:

Using a modified alternating treatments design, the present study compared the effects of a prompt only condition and a prompt plus instructive feedback (IF) condition on the emergence of several untrained category relations in 3 pre-school aged boys diagnosed with autism or other related disorders. A progressive time delay procedure was used to teach receptive identification of object, while probes for three untrained categorical skills (i.e., expressive identification of object, receptive identification of category, and intraverbal of category) were conducted every 2-3 teaching sessions. Results showed that for all participants the inclusion of one IF stimulus per target response was more efficient than standard teaching procedures as it a) promoted the emergence of multiple untrained skills without direct teaching, and/or b) primed participants to learn untrained skills faster once introduced for direct teaching.

 
 
Symposium #67
CE Offered: BACB
Extending Preference Assessment Methodology and Applications
Saturday, May 24, 2014
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
W183b (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jacqueline N. Potter (Melmark New England and The New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Richard B. Graff (The New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Jacqueline N. Potter, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Behavior analysts continue to develop a rich technology of reinforcer identification, and the present symposium explores new areas of preference assessment research. Study 1 was designed to further evaluate the role of differential consequences on pictorial preference assessment outcomes, by comparing the results of a pictorial-without-access assessment to the results of a progressive-ratio reinforcer assessment. The pictorial-without-access assessment successfully identified reinforcers with only some participants. When access to the selected item was necessary, schedule thinning was used to establish conditioned reinforcement properties for pictorial stimuli. In Study 2, efficacy of and preference for different parameters of positive reinforcement was evaluated. Preliminary results showed that one participant exhibited similar rates of responding with constant versus varied reinforcer delivery, but preferred constant reinforcer delivery. In Study 3, preference for work activities was assessed using duration-based and response-restriction assessments. Results demonstrated that the response restriction format produced more reliable and differentiated results across participants. In the final study, preference for function-based treatments with contingent and noncontingent schedules of reinforcement with individuals whose problem behavior was maintained by social-negative reinforcement was evaluated. Two children preferred a differential negative reinforcement treatment over a noncontingent reinforcement treatment, while one preferred a multiple-schedule and chained-schedule treatments.

Keyword(s): negative reinforcement, pictorial modality, preference assessments, reinforcement parameters
 

Assessing the Efficacy of Pictorial Preference Assessments for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

MEGAN R. HEINICKE (California State University, Sacramento), James E. Carr (Behavior Analyst Certification Board), Sacha T. Pence (Auburn University)
Abstract:

Pictorial preference assessments are a potentially valuable tool because they allow clinicians to assess preferences for complex stimuli that cannot easily be presented on a tabletop. Past research has demonstrated that pictorial preference assessments are effective for individuals with developmental disabilities only when access to the stimulus is provided contingent on a pictorial selection. The purpose of this investigation was to extend this line of research by assessing the feasibility of the pictorial format with children on the autism spectrum. The role of contingent reinforcer access was assessed by comparing the results from the pictorial format without access to the results of a progressive-ratio reinforcer assessment. If access was found to be necessary, the effects of schedule thinning were evaluated to determine if a pictorial format could be made more practical for those participants. Second, matching and mand assessments were conducted to further evaluate the role of hypothesized prerequisite skills. In general, results indicated that the pictorial format without access was only successful with some participants. However, schedule thinning was found to be an effective method to establish conditioned reinforcement properties for pictorial stimuli to create a more practical preference assessment for a subset of participants.

 

Evaluating Efficacy and Preference of Parameters of Positive Reinforcement

LAURA ANN HANRATTY (Western New England University), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University)
Abstract:

Previous research has shown that immediacy, quality, and magnitude are parameters that influence the efficacy of reinforcement procedures. Variation, predictability, choice, and reliability are parameters that have not been thoroughly studied, but may prove to be relevant aspects of behavior change procedures. It is important to understand the efficacy and preference of these parameters to improve outcomes associated with skill acquisition and behavior reduction programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of and preference for these different parameters of positive reinforcement. There were four conditions: the constant reinforcer condition where the same stimuli were delivered for each response versus a condition where the stimuli delivered were varied, and the reliable reinforcer condition where a reinforcer was delivered for each responses versus an unreliable condition where a reinforcer was delivered for approximately 50% of responses. Preliminary results showed that one participant exhibited similar rates of responding for constant reinforcer and varied reinforcer delivery, but demonstrated a preference for constant reinforcer delivery. Additionally, responding in the reliable reinforcer condition was more efficacious, but a preference was observed for unreliable reinforcer delivery. Interobserver agreement was collected for 43% of sessions, and averaged 97%, with a range of 75%-100%.

 

A Comparison of Methods to Assess Preference for Work Activities with Adolescents Diagnosed with an Intellectual Disability

BRITTNEY LUCIBELLO (The New England Center for Children), Jacqueline N. Potter (The New England Center for Children), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University), Michele F. Klein (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to identify the most reliable and sensitive method for determining preferences for work activities, and to determine whether or not preference would shift when assessed under more naturalistic conditions. First, a reversal design was used to compare two assessments methods: a single presentation format where various work activities were available singly for a 5-min interval, and a response restriction format where all activities were simultaneously available and then restricted following a selection. Across conditions, item contact, functional engagement, and indices of happiness and unhappiness were measured to identify the most accurate measurement method. The response restriction format produced more reliable and differentiated results across participants. Functional engagement was determined to be the most sensitive method of measurement. The second part of the study assessed individuals' preference for work activities with and without the presence of reinforcement and prompting. A reversal design showed that relative preference among work and non-work activities was affected by the addition of prompting and reinforcement for working. Interobserver agreement data were collected in at least 20% of sessions and conditions for all participants; agreement was at or above 80%.

 

Evaluating Efficacy and Child Preference for Treatments for Problem Behavior Maintained by Negative Reinforcement

TODD M. OWEN (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Kevin C. Luczynski (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract:

Luczynski and Hanley (2009, 2010, & 2013) have shown that children prefer social-positive reinforcement arranged via contingent rather noncontingent schedules under dense and leaner schedule arrangements. The current study evaluated the generality of this preference outcome across function-based treatments with contingent and noncontingent schedules designed for children with autism whose problem behavior was maintained by social-negative reinforcement. The schedule comparisons involved time-based breaks from work (noncontingent escape; Vollmer, Marcus, & Ringdahl, 1995), differential reinforcement of requests for a break (DNRA; Vollmer & Iwata, 1992), and signaled periods of work and extinction for break requests that alternated with signaled periods with a continuous reinforcement schedule for break requests (multiple schedule and chained schedule). To date, two children preferred to experience a treatment with differential negative reinforcement of break requests over a treatment with noncontingent escape. For one child, we evaluated preference for more practical treatments, and he preferred to experience multiple-schedule and chained-schedule treatments over treatments with noncontingent escape with a yoked amount of reinforcement. These preliminary results support the generality of preference for treatments with contingent reinforcement.

 
 
Symposium #69
CE Offered: BACB
Extensions in the Assessment and Treatment of Automatically Maintained Behavior
Saturday, May 24, 2014
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
W185a (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Kenneth Shamlian (Nova Southeastern University)
Discussant: Michael E. Kelley (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment, Florida Institute of Technology)
CE Instructor: Kenneth Shamlian, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Reinforcement that is not socially mediated presents with unique properties for assessment and intervention. Often the reinforcer and the specific reinforcing consequences are not clear. In addition, the reinforcer in question either cannot be directly manipulated and the behavior and the reinforcing consequences cannot be separated (Piazza et al., 2 000). Due to individual idiosyncratic preferences that often emerge in the assessment of automatically maintained behavior, novel utility of these methods are required to effectively assess and treat the interfering behaviors. Also, while numerous studies have examined various assessments and treatments in relation to this topic, systematic extensions of these methods are still needed in pursuit of understanding: (a) the effects of duration and number of exposures to stimuli in assessment, (b) how competing stimuli are selected for treatment, (c) how to control for the effects of stimuli over time, and (d) the differential effectiveness of stimuli in treatment. This symposium presents four studies related to the assessment and/or treatment of behavior that is demonstrated to be maintained by non-socially mediated forms of reinforcement and interfere with daily functioning. Results from these studies suggest extension of methods for assessment and treatment for automatically maintained behavior can: (a) accurately identify auditory stimuli that effectively decrease levels of vocal stereotypy and are compatible for use with ongoing academic demands, functional analysis methodology can successfully identify the reinforcing properties of property destruction, competing item s identified via an MSWO procedure can be comparably effective to those identified using a competing stimulus assessment, and earlier competing stimulus assessment sessions with matched and unmatched stimuli provide differential results when compared to latter exposures.

 

Effects of Brief and Extended Access to Competing Auditory Stimuli on Vocal Stereotypy during Academic Demands

KIMBERLY SLOMAN (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Matthew L. Edelstein (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University  ), Katelyn Selver (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Rebecca Schulman (Rutgers University), Mariana Torres-Viso (Rutgers University ), Amy Paige Hansford (Rutgers University)
Abstract:

Previous research has shown that access to auditory stimuli has been effective in the treatment of vocal stereotypy (e.g., Lanovaz, Fletcher, & Rapp, 2009; Rapp, 2007; Taylor, Hoch, & Weissman, 2005). However, previous research has not evaluated the compatibility of auditory stimuli with academic demands. Furthermore, research has typically evaluated the stimuli during brief exposures (e.g., 5 minutes). Thus, the extended effects of access to auditory stimuli is unknown. This presentation includes three studies on the effects of competing auditory stimuli on vocal stereotypy. In Study 1, we evaluated the effects of various types of auditory stimuli on automatically reinforced vocal stereotypy in four students with autism. Preferred music resulted in decreased levels of vocal stereotypy for 3 out of 4 participants. The three participants for which auditory stimuli resulted in lower levels of vocal stereotypy participated in Study 2. In Study 2, we evaluated the compatibility of access to auditory stimuli with ongoing academic demands. Results showed for all participants that auditory stimuli resulted in decreased vocal stereotypy and was compatible with academic demands. In Study 3, we evaluated extended exposure (i.e., 90 minute sessions) to auditory stimuli for two participants to assess if habituation to the stimuli occurred over time. Results showed for both participants decreased effects of auditory stimuli over time.

 
Extension of Assessment Methods for Determining the Reinforcing Functions of Property Destruction
KRISTINA SAMOUR (Nova Southeastern University ), Kenneth Shamlian (Nova Southeastern University), Brenna Cavanaugh (Nova Southeastern University), F. Charles Mace (Nova Southeastern University)
Abstract: Property destruction may emerge in numerous forms and serve various functions. To date, many studies have conducted functional analyses (FA) and provided function based treatments for property destruction. However, to date, minimal research has been conducted to determine if there are particular sensory effects related to maintenance of certain topographies of property destruction and applications of competing stimulus assessments to determine item(s) that could effectively compete with the target response. In the current study, we conducted a functional analysis with a four-year-old male diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder to assess the function of paper-tearing and further determine the salient sensory consequences that contributed to its maintenance. Subsequently, we also conducted a competing stimulus assessment to further determine stimuli that would potentially effectively compete with the target response based on the FA results. The results from the analysis demonstrated that: (a) paper-tearing was primarily maintained by sensory effects of paper tearing, and (b) the competing stimulus assessment based on the FA results successfully informed what stimuli would be potentially more effective in subsequent treatment(s).
 
Comparison of the Effects of Preferred and Competing Stimuli on the Treatment of Destructive Behavior
BRENNA CAVANAUGH (Nova Southeastern University), Kenneth Shamlian (Nova Southeastern University), Kristina Samour (Nova Southeastern University ), F. Charles Mace (Nova Southeastern University)
Abstract: The treatment of automatically maintained problem behavior posits a unique challenge for conventional differential reinforcement interventions, since the effects of sensory reinforcement are often difficult to reproduce and compete with. Typically, clinicians will either use highly preferred stimuli, concluded from standard preference assessments, or highly competitive stimuli, concluded from standard competing stimulus assessments, to serve as alternative reinforcers during intervention. However, few studies have directly compared the efficacy of preferred and competitive stimuli in interventions for reducing problem behavior, and debate continues regarding the relative effectiveness of these two types of reinforcers. The current study sought to directly compare results from both a competing stimulus assessment (CSA) and a multiple stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessment in the treatment of automatically maintained destructive behavior in the form of paper tearing. Initial treatment consisted of environmental enrichment intervention across items identified via the MSWO and CSA with a subsequent analysis of added adjunct procedures of response blocking and environmental enrichment. Results suggest that the presence of a highly preferred item was initially more effective in reducing paper tearing in the context of a treatment using environmental enrichment. However, both stimuli over time demonstrated decrements in their ability to compete with the problem behavior without additional components of response blocking and re-presentation. Considerations for clinical practice based on these results are discussed.
 
Analysis of the Effects of an Extended Competing Stimulus Assessment
DANIELLE TARVER (Nova Southeastern University), Brenna Cavanaugh (Nova Southeastern University), Kenneth Shamlian (Nova Southeastern University), F. Charles Mace (Nova Southeastern University)
Abstract: Following functional analyses that conclude behavior is maintained by automatic reinforcement, additional assessments are commonly used to identify competing stimuli to formulate function based treatments (Groskreutz, Groskreutz, & Higbee, 2011). Competing stimulus assessments are often used to identify stimuli’s relative preference by measuring an individual’s allocation of time spent interacting with a particular stimulus or engaging in problem behavior when both responses are concurrently available. Subsequently, items found to be effective for reducing the proportion of time allocated to engaging in the problem behavior are selected for use in subsequent treatments. For behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement, the competing stimulus assessment often includes stimuli with potentially matched sensory consequences and stimuli identified through standard preference assessments or caregiver interviews (i.e. unmatched). The current study employed a competing stimulus assessment with various matched and unmatched items for a child with self-injurious behavior. Stimuli were presented for an extended amount of trials and demonstrated decreasing trends in SIB across all items and increasing trends in engagement with some items. Results suggest that extending the number of exposures to stimuli yields different results over time and the potential utility/necessity for reevaluating items’ ability to compete with problem behavior. In addition, the findings provide direction for potentially beneficial modifications for competing stimulus assessment methodology.
 
 
Invited Symposium #70
CE Offered: BACB
Autism in Infancy: Behavioral Systems Conceptualization and Practical Considerations
Saturday, May 24, 2014
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
W180 (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: DEV/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Erik A. Mayville (Connecticut Center for Child Development)
Discussant: Linda A. LeBlanc (Trumpet Behavioral Health)
CE Instructor: Erik A. Mayville, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Intervention based in applied behavior analysis is widely recognized as a standard approach for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Following from research findings that intervention effects are more robust with younger children, the current best practice position is to provide intervention as soon as an ASD diagnosis can be made, and perhaps even earlier at the first reliable signs of characteristic deficits and excesses. Given that emerging technologies are aimed at identification of the disorder in infancy, the behavior analyst working with children with autism is likely to be faced with requests to work with infant children, a population that most behavior analysts are likely unfamiliar with. This symposium will address the following primary questions facing the practitioner considering working with infants and their caregivers: What is the current status of the evidence supporting early identification ASD-related deficits? How should the behavior analyst view the process of infant development, a concept most commonly described within other fields? What behavior analytic interventions have been investigated for this population, and for which infant and caregiver behaviors? And finally, what are some key ethical issues facing the behavior analyst working with infants and caregivers?

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Autism, Development, Infant
Target Audience:

Behavior analysts working with young children, particularly those identified with or suspected of meeting criteria for autism spectrum disorder.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the event, participants should be able to (1) Discuss the evidence supporting early identification of ASD-related deficits, including the earliest age that a “medical diagnosis” can be given; (2) Describe at least two behavior analytic interventions which have been investigated for infants and caregiver behavior; and (3) Describe at least two ethical issues facing the behavior analyst working with infants and their caregivers.
 

An Overview of Established and Emerging Methods of Early Identification of Autism Spectrum Disorder

ERIK A. MAYVILLE (Connecticut Center for Child Development)
Abstract:

Behavioral intervention initiated early in childhood is associated with positive outcomes in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). As such, early identification of ASD-related behavioral deficits and excesses is viewed as central to achieving the best long-term intervention outcome, with the goal for treatment professionals being to intervene from the moment a diagnosis is confirmed. Current validated diagnostic procedures are based in observation of behavior and do not allow for diagnosis any earlier than 18 months of age. However, behavioral deficits indicative of high-risk status for ASD can be identified at 12 months of age, and technologies utilizing potential biomarkers in infants younger than 12 months are emerging. Therefore, ABA practitioners are likely to face demands to work with infant populations in the future. This presentation will provide a review of established and emerging technologies for identifying behavioral characteristics and biological associations of ASD, with a critical review of methods of identification for children younger than 12 months.

Erik Mayville is the clinical director of the Institute for Educational Planning, subsidiary agency of the Connecticut Center for Child Development. He has a B.A. in psychology from the University of Nevada; a M.A. in applied behavior analysis from the University of the Pacific; and a Ph.D. in clinical psychology with a developmental disabilities emphasis from Louisiana State University. He completed his predoctoral internship in applied behavior analysis and developmental disabilities at the Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore, MD. Dr. Mayville has co-authored more than 20 refereed articles and book chapters on various topics relevant to people with autism and developmental disabilities, including curriculum content in ABA, problematic behavior, social skills, psychiatric disorders, and psychotropic medication. He has served on the editorial boards of several peer-reviewed journals, including Behavior Analysis in Practice and Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, and he is co-editor of the book Behavioral Foundations of Effective Autism Treatment. He also has served as an adjunct professor in the Department of Behavior Analysis at the University of North Texas. Dr. Mayville’s practice focuses on psychological evaluation, intervention consultation, and educational program evaluation for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.
 

Infant Development as the Behavior Analyst Views It

GARY D. NOVAK (California State University Stanislaus)
Abstract:

Previously defined by DSM IV-R as a "developmental disorder," DSM 5 now categorizes autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as a "Neurodevelopmental Disorder." Although evidence of specific neurological dysfunction is lacking, the developmental basis for behavioral development in autism is not. Behavioral Systems Theory provides a framework for understanding the development, prevention, and treatment of the constellations of behaviors that characterize ASD and explains how multiple factors, including neurological, historical, and current environmental ones lead to the emergence of patterns seen in individuals. This paper will outline the basic principles of development ininfancy as viewed from a behavior analytical perspective. It will focus on processes that produce typical development as well as the acquisition of the behavioral excesses and deficits characteristic of ASD. Among the key developmental concepts involved in understanding typical and atypical are skills learning, "hidden" skills and deficits, and behavioral cusps. Some of the crucial early hidden skills and deficits in infant development will be identified and the implications for early intensive behavioral intervention discussed.

Gary Novak is professor emeritus of psychology and child development at California University, Stanislaus. He has a B.A. in psychology from Rutgers University, a M.A. in psychology from Temple University, and earned his Ph.D. in developmental psychology from the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Dr. Novak was founding dean of the College of Human and Health Sciences at CSU, Stanislaus, where he taught for more than 35 years. He was twice Psychology Department chair, founded the campus Child Development Center, and received the university’s Outstanding Professor Award. His publications include two books on a behavioral approach to child and adolescent development: Developmental Psychology: Dynamical Systems and Behavior Analysis (also published in Italian as Psicologia Dello Sviluppo: Sistemi Dinamici e  Analisi Comportamentale) and Child and Adolescent Development: A Behavioral Systems Approach. Retired and living in California wine country, Dr. Novak continues to publish and lecture on behavioral development. His most recent publications have focused on hidden skills in the development of autism.  
 

Intervention for Developmental Delays in Infancy

MARTHA PELAEZ (Florida International University)
Abstract:

In the U.S. alone, more than 1 million children are on record as having some form of autism or learning disability. This number continues to increase. Researchers have begun to recognize the enormous value of behavior analysis and early interventions in encouraging children to focus attention and shaping their early social behavior. Dr. Pelaez will present interventions with infants "at risk" of later developmental delays using specific forms of social reinforces like synchronized touch and cooing that increase infant's eye contact and gaze at mother's face. Infant massage provides the occasion for synchronized mother-infant interactions that include many of the social reinforcers outlined in this presentation. She will explain a procedure where a caregiver's vocal imitation and motherese speech increases infant vocalizations, smiles, and directs infant attention. In older infants, maternal social contingencies in the form of gestural expressions can work as signals (Sds) for the infant on when and how to respond toward an ambiguous object in the context of uncertainty--a phenomenon known as social referencing. In summary, these techniques developed for early interventions with infants have shown to be effective in improving their social behavior and explain early social learning phenomena as attachment, joint attention, and social referencing.

Martha Pelaez is the Frost Professor at Florida International University. Her research is in the areas of mother-infant interactions and infant social learning processes. She has developed intervention protocols for infants at risk of developmental delays published in her book with G. Novak, Child and Adolescent Development: A Behavioral Systems Approach, in a chapter in Rehfeldt & Barnes-Holmes (2009), and in Mayville & Mulick (2011, Eds.), on effective autism treatment. Her theoretical and experimental contributions include a recently revised taxonomy of rules and rule-governed behavior (Pelaez, in press European Journal of Behavior Analysis); a behavior-analytic approach to moral development (Pelaez & Gewirtz, 1995) and the relation between derived relational responding and intelligence (with D. O'Hora & D. Barnes-Holmes, 2005). Dr. Pelaez has published more than 80 refereed articles in mainstream journals including the American Psychologist, the Journal of Child Development, the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, and Infant Behavior and Development Journal. She has served as program chair for the American Psychological Association Division 25 and past program co-chair for the Association for Behavior Analysis International. She is the founding editor (1990) of the Behavior Development Bulletin and has served on editorial boards including The Behavior Analyst. She was awarded fellowship status by the American Psychological Association (APA) and is a trustee of the Cambridge Center for Behavior Studies. Dr. Pelaez also served as a member of the Florida Board of Governors.  
 

Ethical Issues in Autism Intervention with Infants

SUZANNE LETSO (Connecticut Center for Child Development)
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysis has been demonstrated to be the most effective intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Following recommendations for intervention for ASD as early as possible, means of identifying infants at risk for ASD are emerging. For example, researchers have determined that younger siblings of children with ASD are at a much higher risk of developing the disorder than the general population. Additionally, biologically based tests purported to identify infants at risk for developing ASD are becoming commercially available. As a result, behavior analysts working in the field of ASD education and treatment can anticipate an increase in requests for ABA interventions for infants. This presentation will outline some of the practical and ethical issues behavior analysts must address in providing services to at-risk infants and very young children. Topics include the competencies of the behavior analyst working with infants, working within the bounds of evidence-based practice, and the potentially multifaceted role the practitioner may need to serve for caregivers through the child's infancy and into early childhood.

Suzanne Letso is the co-founder and CEO of the Connecticut Center for Child Development. Mrs. Letso currently serves as treasurer and a member of the board of directors of the Behavior Analyst Certification Board, on the Scientific Advisory Council, a member for the Organization for Autism Research, Association for Professional Behavior Analysts’ advisory board, and is vice chair of the board of directors for Marrakech, Inc. She also has participated in the establishment of a number of other service organizations and autism-related initiatives. Mrs. Letso holds a B.A. in elementary education from Southern Connecticut State University, a M.A. in leadership from Duquesne University, and is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst. Before her work related to behavior analysis, Mrs. Letso worked as a marketing executive for international medical product manufacturers, where she was involved in new product, business, and venture capital start-up initiatives. In addition, she has been involved in organizational assessment and development of for-profit enterprises in other fields. Mrs. Letso is a registered lobbyist for the Connecticut General Assembly and has worked as an advocate on a number of legislative issues within the state of Connecticut including sustainment of funding for those served by the Department of Developmental Services, autism insurance legislation, continuation of public school funding for people with disabilities through their 21st school year, and recognition of Board Certified Behavior Analysts.
 
 
Symposium #71
CE Offered: BACB
Teaching Social, Academic, and Music Concepts with Stimulus Equivalence-based Instruction
Saturday, May 24, 2014
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
W176b (McCormick Place Convention Center)
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